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The Bible
Bible
(from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books")[1] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; a number of Bible
Bible
canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents.[2] The Christian
Christian
Old Testament
Old Testament
overlaps with the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and the Greek Septuagint; the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is known in Judaism
Judaism
as the Tanakh. The New Testament
New Testament
is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish
Jewish
disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian
Christian
Greek writings consist of Gospels, letters, and apocalyptic writings. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible
Bible
also differ amongst Christian
Christian
groups. Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible
Bible
and sacred tradition, while Protestant
Protestant
churches focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone. This concept arose during the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible
Bible
as the only source of Christian
Christian
teaching. With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible
Bible
is widely considered to be the best-selling book of all time.[3][4] It sells approximately 100 million copies annually,[5][6] and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West, where the Gutenberg Bible
Gutenberg Bible
was the first book printed using movable type.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Textual history

2 Development 3 Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

3.1 Torah 3.2 Nevi'im

3.2.1 Former Prophets 3.2.2 Latter Prophets

3.3 Ketuvim

3.3.1 The poetic books 3.3.2 The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) 3.3.3 Other books 3.3.4 Order of the books 3.3.5 Canonization

3.4 Original languages

4 Septuagint

4.1 Incorporations from Theodotion 4.2 Final form

5 Christian
Christian
Bibles

5.1 Old Testament

5.1.1 Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books 5.1.2 Pseudepigraphal books

5.1.2.1 Book
Book
of Enoch 5.1.2.2 Denominational views of Pseudepigrapha

5.1.3 Role of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in Christian
Christian
theology

5.2 New Testament

5.2.1 Original language 5.2.2 Historic editions

5.3 Development of the Christian
Christian
canons

5.3.1 Ethiopian Orthodox canon

6 Divine inspiration 7 Versions and translations 8 Views

8.1 Other religions 8.2 Biblical studies 8.3 Higher criticism

9 Archaeological and historical research 10 Bible
Bible
Museum

10.1 Bible
Bible
Museums of the United States

11 Image gallery 12 Illustrations 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Works cited

16 Further reading

Etymology The English word Bible
Bible
is from the Latin
Latin
biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and Late Latin
Late Latin
and ultimately from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. ta biblia "the books" (singular βιβλίον, biblion).[7] Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin
Late Latin
is neuter plural (gen. bibliorum). It gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae) in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.[8] Latin
Latin
biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, "the holy books".[9] The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book". It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus", possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos
Byblos
(also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia (lit. "little papyrus books")[10] was "an expression Hellenistic Jews
Jews
used to describe their sacred books (the Septuagint).[11][12] Christian
Christian
use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE.[7] The biblical scholar F.F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom
Chrysostom
appears to be the first writer (in his Homilies on Matthew, delivered between 386 and 388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia ("the books") to describe both the Old and New Testaments together.[13]

Textual history By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish
Jewish
groups began calling the books of the Bible
Bible
the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew
Hebrew
כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ (Kitvei hakkodesh), and Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
"The Holy Bible" (in Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια, tà biblía tà ágia) or "the Holy Scriptures" (η Αγία Γραφή, e Agía Graphḗ).[14] The Bible
Bible
was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton
Stephen Langton
and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne[15] and is now usually cited by book, chapter, and verse. The division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible
Bible
is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, and it is known as the Codex Vaticanus. The oldest copy of the Tanakh
Tanakh
in Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic
Aramaic
dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin
Latin
(Vulgate) Bible
Bible
is the Codex Amiatinus, dating from the 8th century.[16] Development See also: Authorship of the Bible

The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book
Book
of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE.

Saint Paul Writing
Writing
His Epistles, 16th-century painting.

Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages",[17] and "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural, economic, and ecological – varied enormously".[18] Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and Second Temple Judaism
Judaism
at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament
Old Testament
is "a collection of authoritative texts of apparently divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."[19] He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew
Hebrew
canon (c. 3rd century BCE), only the Torah
Torah
first and then the Tanakh
Tanakh
began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint
Septuagint
or the Greek Old Testament.[20] In Christian
Christian
Bibles, the New Testament
New Testament
Gospels
Gospels
were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that:

Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging. The period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus
Jesus
and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral traditions to assume fixed form.[21]

The Bible
Bible
was later translated into Latin
Latin
and other languages. John Riches states that:

The translation of the Bible
Bible
into Latin
Latin
marks the beginning of a parting of the ways between Western Latin-speaking Christianity
Christianity
and Eastern Christianity, which spoke Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and other languages. The Bibles of the Eastern Churches vary considerably: the Ethiopic Orthodox canon includes 81 books and contains many apocalyptic texts, such as were found at Qumran and subsequently excluded from the Jewish
Jewish
canon. As a general rule, one can say that the Orthodox Churches generally follow the Septuagint
Septuagint
in including more books in their Old Testaments than are in the Jewish
Jewish
canon.[21]

Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

Tanakh

Torah  (Instruction)

Genesis Brʾeišyt

Exodus Šemot

Leviticus Wayiqra

Numbers Bəmidbar

Deuteronomy Devarim

Nevi'im  (Prophets)

Former

Joshua Yehoshua

Judges Shofetim

Samuel Shemuel

Kings Melakhim

Latter

Isaiah Yeshayahu

Jeremiah Yirmeyahu

Ezekiel Yekhezqel

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Ketuvim  (Writings)

Poetic

Psalms Təhillîm

Proverbs Mishlei

Job Iyov

Five Megillot
Five Megillot
(Scrolls)

Song of Songs Shir Hashirim

Ruth Rut

Lamentations Eikhah

Ecclesiastes Qoheleth

Esther Ester

Historical

Daniel Daniyyel

Ezra–Nehemiah Ezra

Chronicles Dibh're Hayyamim

v t e

Main articles: Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and Development of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
canon

The Nash Papyrus
Papyrus
(2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre- Masoretic
Masoretic
Text, specifically the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
and the Shema Yisrael prayer.

The Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
is the authoritative Hebrew
Hebrew
text of the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh. It defines the books of the Jewish
Jewish
canon, and also the precise letter-text of these biblical books, with their vocalization and accentuation. The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
date from approximately the 9th century CE,[22] and the Aleppo Codex
Aleppo Codex
(once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic
Masoretic
Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the 10th century. The name Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew: תנ"ך‬) reflects the threefold division of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures, Torah
Torah
("Teaching"), Nevi'im
Nevi'im
("Prophets") and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
("Writings"). Torah Main article: Torah See also: Oral Torah

A Torah
Torah
scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue
Glockengasse Synagogue
in Cologne.

The Torah
Torah
(תּוֹרָה) is also known as the "Five Books of Moses" or the Pentateuch, meaning "five scroll-cases".[23]

Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible
Bible
in nine lines of Hebrew
Hebrew
text, currently housed in the British Museum

The Hebrew
Hebrew
names of the books are derived from the first words in the respective texts. The Torah
Torah
consists of the following five books:

Genesis, Beresheeth (בראשית) Exodus, Shemot (שמות) Leviticus, Vayikra (ויקרא) Numbers, Bamidbar (במדבר) Deuteronomy, Devarim (דברים)

The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts of the creation (or ordering) of the world and the history of God's early relationship with humanity. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God's covenant with the Biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac
Isaac
and Jacob
Jacob
(also called Israel) and Jacob's children, the "Children of Israel", especially Joseph. It tells of how God commanded Abraham
Abraham
to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel
Children of Israel
later moved to Egypt. The remaining four books of the Torah
Torah
tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. He leads the Children of Israel
Children of Israel
from slavery in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai and their wanderings in the desert until a new generation was ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah
Torah
ends with the death of Moses.[24] The Torah
Torah
contains the commandments of God, revealed at Mount Sinai (although there is some debate among traditional scholars as to whether these were all written down at one time, or over a period of time during the 40 years of the wanderings in the desert, while several modern Jewish
Jewish
movements reject the idea of a literal revelation, and critical scholars believe that many of these laws developed later in Jewish
Jewish
history).[25][26][27][28] These commandments provide the basis for Jewish
Jewish
religious law. Tradition states that there are 613 commandments
613 commandments
(taryag mitzvot). Nevi'im Main article: Nevi'im

Books of Nevi'im

 

Former Prophets

Joshua Judges Samuel Kings

Latter Prophets
Latter Prophets
(major)

Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel

Latter Prophets
Latter Prophets
(Twelve minor)

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

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Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(Hebrew: נְבִיאִים‎, translit. Nəḇî'îm, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah
Torah
and Ketuvim. It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets ( Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Rishonim נביאים ראשונים‎, the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets
Latter Prophets
(Nevi'im Aharonim נביאים אחרונים‎, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew
Hebrew
monarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancient Israel and Judah, focusing on conflicts between the Israelites
Israelites
and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites, specifically, struggles between believers in "the LORD God"[29] and believers in foreign gods,[30][31] and the criticism of unethical and unjust behaviour of Israelite elites and rulers;[32][33][34] in which prophets played a crucial and leading role. It ends with the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians followed by the conquest of the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Former Prophets The Former Prophets
Former Prophets
are the books Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings. They contain narratives that begin immediately after the death of Moses
Moses
with the divine appointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads the people of Israel into the Promised Land, and end with the release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah. Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover:

Joshua's conquest of the land of Canaan
Canaan
(in the Book
Book
of Joshua), the struggle of the people to possess the land (in the Book
Book
of Judges), the people's request to God to give them a king so that they can occupy the land in the face of their enemies (in the Books of Samuel) the possession of the land under the divinely appointed kings of the House of David, ending in conquest and foreign exile (Books of Kings)

Latter Prophets The Latter Prophets
Latter Prophets
are divided into two groups, the "major" prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets, collected into a single book. The collection is broken up to form twelve individual books in the Christian
Christian
Old Testament, one for each of the prophets:

Hosea, Hoshea (הושע) Joel, Yoel (יואל) Amos, Amos (עמוס) Obadiah, Ovadyah (עבדיה) Jonah, Yonah (יונה) Micah, Mikhah (מיכה) Nahum, Nahum (נחום) Habakkuk, Havakuk (חבקוק) Zephaniah, Tsefanya (צפניה) Haggai, Khagay (חגי) Zechariah, Zekharyah (זכריה) Malachi, Malakhi (מלאכי)

Ketuvim Main article: Ketuvim

Books of the Ketuvim

 

Three poetic books

Psalms Proverbs Job

Five Megillot
Five Megillot
(Scrolls)

Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther

Other books

Daniel

Ezra–Nehemiah (Ezra Nehemiah)

Chronicles

Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

v t e

Ketuvim
Ketuvim
or Kəṯûḇîm (in Biblical Hebrew: כְּתוּבִים‎ "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh. The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level less authority than that of prophecy.[35] The poetic books

Hebrew
Hebrew
text of Psalm 1:1–2

In Masoretic
Masoretic
manuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallel stichs in the verses, which are a function of their poetry. Collectively, these three books are known as Sifrei Emet (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yields Emet אמ"ת, which is also the Hebrew
Hebrew
for "truth"). These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh
Tanakh
with a special system of cantillation notes that are designed to emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prose system. The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book
Book
of Ruth, the Book
Book
of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes
and Book
Book
of Esther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot (Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected and designated as "authoritative" in the Jewish
Jewish
canon even though they were not complete until the 2nd century CE.[36] Other books Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim
Ketuvim
are Daniel, Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra–Nehemiah
and Chronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish
Jewish
tradition, they nevertheless share a number of distinguishing characteristics:

Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events (i.e., the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
and the subsequent restoration of Zion). The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship to all of them. Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in the Tanakh
Tanakh
with significant portions in Aramaic.

Order of the books The following list presents the books of Ketuvim
Ketuvim
in the order they appear in most printed editions. It also divides them into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness of Sifrei Emet and Hamesh Megillot. The Three Poetic Books (Sifrei Emet)

Tehillim (Psalms) תְהִלִּים Mishlei ( Book
Book
of Proverbs) מִשְלֵי Iyyôbh ( Book
Book
of Job) אִיּוֹב

The Five Megillot
Five Megillot
(Hamesh Megillot)

Shīr Hashshīrīm (Song of Songs) or (Song of Solomon) שִׁיר הַשׁשִׁירִים (Passover) Rūth ( Book
Book
of Ruth) רוּת (Shābhû‘ôth) Eikhah (Lamentations) איכה (Ninth of Av) [Also called Kinnot in Hebrew.] Qōheleth (Ecclesiastes) קהלת (Sukkôth) Estēr ( Book
Book
of Esther) אֶסְתֵר (Pûrîm)

Other books

Dānî’ēl ( Book
Book
of Daniel) דָּנִיֵּאל ‘Ezrā ( Book
Book
of Ezra– Book
Book
of Nehemiah) עזרא Divrei ha-Yamim (Chronicles) דברי הימים

The Jewish
Jewish
textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
( Bava Batra 14b–15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles.[37] In Tiberian Masoretic
Masoretic
codices, including the Aleppo Codex
Aleppo Codex
and the Leningrad Codex, and often in old Spanish manuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra.[38] Canonization The Ketuvim
Ketuvim
is the last of the three portions of the Tanakh
Tanakh
to have been accepted as biblical canon. While the Torah
Torah
may have been considered canon by Israel as early as the 5th century BCE and the Former and Latter Prophets
Latter Prophets
were canonized by the 2nd century BCE, the Ketuvim
Ketuvim
was not a fixed canon until the 2nd century of the Common Era.[36] Evidence suggests, however, that the people of Israel were adding what would become the Ketuvim
Ketuvim
to their holy literature shortly after the canonization of the prophets. As early as 132 BCE references suggest that the Ketuvim
Ketuvim
was starting to take shape, although it lacked a formal title.[39] References in the four Gospels
Gospels
as well as other books of the New Testament
New Testament
indicate that many of these texts were both commonly known and counted as having some degree of religious authority early in the 1st century CE. Many scholars believe that the limits of the Ketuvim
Ketuvim
as canonized scripture were determined by the Council of Jamnia
Council of Jamnia
c. 90 CE. Against Apion, the writing of Josephus in 95 CE, treated the text of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
as a closed canon to which "... no one has ventured either to add, or to remove, or to alter a syllable..."[40] For a long time following this date the divine inspiration of Esther, the Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes
was often under scrutiny.[41] Original languages The Tanakh
Tanakh
was mainly written in biblical Hebrew, with some small portions (Ezra 4:8–6:18 and 7:12–26, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
10:11, Daniel 2:4–7:28) written in biblical Aramaic, a sister language which became the lingua franca for much of the Semitic world.[42] Septuagint Main article: Septuagint

Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
in the Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation.

The Septuagint, or the LXX, is a translation of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures and some related texts into Koine Greek, begun in the late 3rd century BCE and completed by 132 BCE,[43][44][45] initially in Alexandria, but in time it was completed elsewhere as well.[46] It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised.[47] As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Torah
Torah
always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon but the collection of prophetic writings, based on the Nevi'im, had various hagiographical works incorporated into it. In addition, some newer books were included in the Septuagint, among these are the Maccabees and the Wisdom of Sirach. However, the book of Sirach, is now known to have existed in a Hebrew
Hebrew
version, since ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
manuscripts of it were rediscovered in modern times. The Septuagint
Septuagint
version of some Biblical books, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Jewish
Jewish
canon.[48] Some of these deuterocanonical books (e.g. the Wisdom of Solomon, and the second book of Maccabees) were not translated, but composed directly in Greek.[citation needed] Since Late Antiquity, once attributed to a hypothetical late 1st-century Council of Jamnia, mainstream Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
rejected the Septuagint
Septuagint
as valid Jewish
Jewish
scriptural texts. Several reasons have been given for this. First, some mistranslations were claimed. Second, the Hebrew
Hebrew
source texts used for the Septuagint
Septuagint
differed from the Masoretic
Masoretic
tradition of Hebrew
Hebrew
texts, which was chosen as canonical by the Jewish
Jewish
rabbis.[49] Third, the rabbis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the newly emerging tradition of Christianity.[45][50] Finally, the rabbis claimed a divine authority for the Hebrew language, in contrast to Aramaic
Aramaic
or Greek – even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews
Jews
during this period (and Aramaic
Aramaic
would eventually be given a holy language status comparable to Hebrew).[51] The Septuagint
Septuagint
is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament.[52] The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Churches use most of the books of the Septuagint, while Protestant
Protestant
churches usually do not. After the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, many Protestant
Protestant
Bibles began to follow the Jewish
Jewish
canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called Biblical apocrypha. The Apocrypha
Apocrypha
are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible, the basis for the Revised Standard Version.[53] Incorporations from Theodotion In most ancient copies of the Bible
Bible
which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book
Book
of Daniel is not the original Septuagint
Septuagint
version, but instead is a copy of Theodotion's translation from the Hebrew, which more closely resembles the Masoretic Text.[citation needed] The Septuagint
Septuagint
version was discarded in favour of Theodotion's version in the 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, this happened near the end of the 2nd century, and in Latin-speaking areas (at least in North Africa), it occurred in the middle of the 3rd century. History does not record the reason for this, and St. Jerome
Jerome
reports, in the preface to the Vulgate
Vulgate
version of Daniel, "This thing 'just' happened."[54] One of two Old Greek texts of the Book
Book
of Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book.[55] The canonical Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra–Nehemiah
is known in the Septuagint
Septuagint
as "Esdras B", and 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
is "Esdras A". 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
is a very similar text to the books of Ezra–Nehemiah, and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derived from the same original text. It has been proposed, and is thought highly likely by scholars, that "Esdras B" – the canonical Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra–Nehemiah
– is Theodotion's version of this material, and "Esdras A" is the version which was previously in the Septuagint
Septuagint
on its own.[54] Final form Some texts are found in the Septuagint
Septuagint
but are not present in the Hebrew. These additional books are Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus
Jesus
son of Sirach, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
(which later became chapter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh, the Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon, and Psalm 151. Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
are grouped together. For example, the Books of Samuel
Books of Samuel
and the Books of Kings
Books of Kings
are in the LXX one book in four parts called Βασιλειῶν ("Of Reigns"). In LXX, the Books of Chronicles
Books of Chronicles
supplement Reigns and it is called Paralipomenon (Παραλειπομένων – things left out). The Septuagint
Septuagint
organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book
Book
of Twelve.[55]

The Orthodox Old Testament[46][56][a] Greek-based name Conventional English name

Law

Γένεσις Génesis Genesis

Ἔξοδος Éxodos Exodus

Λευϊτικόν Leuitikón Leviticus

Ἀριθμοί Arithmoí Numbers

Δευτερονόμιον Deuteronómion Deuteronomy

History

Ἰησοῦς Nαυῆ Iêsous Nauê Joshua

Κριταί Kritaí Judges

Ῥούθ Roúth Ruth

Βασιλειῶν Αʹ[b] I Reigns I Samuel

Βασιλειῶν Βʹ II Reigns II Samuel

Βασιλειῶν Γʹ III Reigns I Kings

Βασιλειῶν Δʹ IV Reigns II Kings

Παραλειπομένων Αʹ I Paralipomenon[c] I Chronicles

Παραλειπομένων Βʹ II Paralipomenon II Chronicles

Ἔσδρας Αʹ I Esdras 1 Esdras

Ἔσδρας Βʹ II Esdras Ezra–Nehemiah

Τωβίτ[d] Tobit Tobit or Tobias

Ἰουδίθ Ioudith Judith

Ἐσθήρ Esther Esther with additions

Μακκαβαίων Αʹ I Makkabaioi 1 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Βʹ II Makkabaioi 2 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Γʹ III Makkabaioi 3 Maccabees

Wisdom

Ψαλμοί Psalms Psalms

Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ Psalm 151 Psalm 151

Προσευχὴ Μανάσση Prayer of Manasseh Prayer of Manasseh

Ἰώβ Iōb Job

Παροιμίαι Proverbs Proverbs

Ἐκκλησιαστής Ekklesiastes Ecclesiastes

Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Song of Songs Song of Solomon or Canticles

Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom

Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Wisdom of Jesus
Jesus
the son of Seirach Sirach
Sirach
or Ecclesiasticus

Ψαλμοί Σαλoμῶντος Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon[57]

Prophets

Δώδεκα The Twelve Minor Prophets

Ὡσηέ Αʹ I. Osëe Hosea

Ἀμώς Βʹ II. Amōs Amos

Μιχαίας Γʹ III. Michaias Micah

Ἰωήλ Δʹ IV. Ioël Joel

Ὀβδίου Εʹ[e] V. Obdias Obadiah

Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ' VI. Ionas Jonah

Ναούμ Ζʹ VII. Naoum Nahum

Ἀμβακούμ Ηʹ VIII. Ambakum Habakkuk

Σοφονίας Θʹ IX. Sophonias Zephaniah

Ἀγγαῖος Ιʹ X. Angaios Haggai

Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹ XI. Zacharias Zachariah

Ἄγγελος ΙΒʹ XII. Messenger Malachi

Ἠσαΐας Hesaias Isaiah

Ἱερεμίας Hieremias Jeremiah

Βαρούχ Baruch Baruch

Θρῆνοι Lamentations Lamentations

Ἐπιστολή Ιερεμίου Epistle
Epistle
of Jeremiah Letter of Jeremiah

Ἰεζεκιήλ Iezekiêl Ezekiel

Δανιήλ Daniêl Daniel with additions

Appendix

Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα IV Makkabees 4 Maccabees[f]

Christian
Christian
Bibles

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Bible Foundations

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  Christianity
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v t e

Main articles: Christian biblical canons
Christian biblical canons
and List of English Bible translations

A page from the Gutenberg Bible

A Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
is a set of books that a Christian
Christian
denomination regards as divinely inspired and thus constituting scripture. Although the Early Church primarily used the Septuagint
Septuagint
or the Targums among Aramaic
Aramaic
speakers, the apostles did not leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead the canon of the New Testament
New Testament
developed over time. Groups within Christianity
Christianity
include differing books as part of their sacred writings, most prominent among which are the biblical apocrypha or deuterocanonical books. Significant versions of the English Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
include the Douay-Rheims Bible, the Authorized King James Version, the English Revised Version, the American Standard Version, the Revised Standard Version, the New American Standard Version, the New King James Version, the New International Version, and the English Standard Version. Old Testament Main article: Old Testament The books which make up the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
Old Testament
differ between the Catholic (see Catholic Bible), Orthodox, and Protestant
Protestant
(see Protestant
Protestant
Bible) churches, with the Protestant
Protestant
movement accepting only those books contained in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, while Catholics and Orthodox have wider canons. A few groups consider particular translations to be divinely inspired, notably the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
and the Aramaic
Aramaic
Peshitta.[citation needed] Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books In Eastern Christianity, translations based on the Septuagint
Septuagint
still prevail. The Septuagint
Septuagint
was generally abandoned in favour of the 10th-century Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
as the basis for translations of the Old Testament into Western languages.[citation needed] Some modern Western translations since the 14th century make use of the Septuagint
Septuagint
to clarify passages in the Masoretic
Masoretic
Text, where the Septuagint
Septuagint
may preserve a variant reading of the Hebrew
Hebrew
text.[citation needed] They also sometimes adopt variants that appear in other texts, e.g., those discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[58][59] A number of books which are part of the Peshitta
Peshitta
or the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
but are not found in the Hebrew
Hebrew
(Rabbinic) Bible
Bible
(i.e., among the protocanonical books) are often referred to as deuterocanonical books by Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
referring to a later secondary (i.e., deutero) canon, that canon as fixed definitively by the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
1545–1563.[60][61] It includes 46 books for the Old Testament
Old Testament
(45 if Jeremiah
Jeremiah
and Lamentations are counted as one) and 27 for the New.[62] Most Protestants term these books as apocrypha. Modern Protestant traditions do not accept the deuterocanonical books as canonical, although Protestant
Protestant
Bibles included them in Apocrypha
Apocrypha
sections until the 1820s. However, Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Churches include these books as part of their Old Testament. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church recognizes:[63]

Tobit Judith 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom Sirach
Sirach
(or Ecclesiasticus) Baruch The Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
(Baruch Chapter 6) Greek Additions to Esther
Additions to Esther
( Book
Book
of Esther, chapters 10:4–12:6) The Prayer of Azariah
The Prayer of Azariah
and Song of the Three Holy Children verses 1–68 ( Book
Book
of Daniel, chapter 3, verses 24–90) Susanna ( Book
Book
of Daniel, chapter 13) Bel and the Dragon
Bel and the Dragon
( Book
Book
of Daniel, chapter 14)

In addition to those, the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches recognize the following:[citation needed]

3 Maccabees 1 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151

Russian and Georgian Orthodox Churches include:[citation needed]

2 Esdras
2 Esdras
i.e., Latin
Latin
Esdras in the Russian and Georgian Bibles

There is also 4 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
which is only accepted as canonical in the Georgian Church, but was included by St. Jerome
Jerome
in an appendix to the Vulgate, and is an appendix to the Greek Orthodox Bible, and it is therefore sometimes included in collections of the Apocrypha.[citation needed] The Syriac Orthodox tradition includes:[citation needed]

Psalms
Psalms
151–155 The Apocalypse of Baruch The Letter of Baruch

The Ethiopian Biblical canon
Biblical canon
includes:[citation needed]

Jubilees Enoch 1–3 Meqabyan

and some other books. The Anglican Church
Anglican Church
uses some of the Apocryphal books liturgically. Therefore, editions of the Bible
Bible
intended for use in the Anglican Church include the Deuterocanonical books
Deuterocanonical books
accepted by the Catholic Church, plus 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
and the Prayer of Manasseh, which were in the Vulgate
Vulgate
appendix.[citation needed] Pseudepigraphal books Main article: Pseudepigrapha The term Pseudepigrapha commonly describes numerous works of Jewish religious literature written from about 300 BCE to 300 CE. Not all of these works are actually pseudepigraphical. It also refers to books of the New Testament
New Testament
canon whose authorship is misrepresented. The "Old Testament" Pseudepigraphal works include the following:[64]

3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Assumption of Moses Ethiopic Book
Book
of Enoch (1 Enoch) Slavonic Book
Book
of Enoch (2 Enoch) Hebrew
Hebrew
Book
Book
of Enoch (3 Enoch) (also known as "The Revelation
Revelation
of Metatron" or "The Book
Book
of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael the High Priest") Book
Book
of Jubilees Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch) Letter of Aristeas
Letter of Aristeas
(Letter to Philocrates regarding the translating of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures into Greek) Life of Adam and Eve Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon Sibylline Oracles Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (3 Baruch) Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Book
Book
of Enoch Notable pseudepigraphal works include the Books of Enoch (such as 1 Enoch, 2 Enoch, surviving only in Old Slavonic, and 3 Enoch, surviving in Hebrew, c. 5th to 6th century CE). These are ancient Jewish religious works, traditionally ascribed to the prophet Enoch, the great-grandfather of the patriarch Noah. They are not part of the biblical canon used by Jews, apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denominations and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch as having some historical or theological interest or significance. It has been observed that part of the Book
Book
of Enoch is quoted in the Epistle
Epistle
of Jude (part of the New Testament) but Christian
Christian
denominations generally regard the Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired.[65] However, the Enoch books are treated as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
Church. The older sections (mainly in the Book
Book
of the Watchers) are estimated to date from about 300 BCE, and the latest part ( Book
Book
of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BCE.[66] Denominational views of Pseudepigrapha There arose in some Protestant
Protestant
biblical scholarship an extended use of the term pseudepigrapha for works that appeared as though they ought to be part of the biblical canon, because of the authorship ascribed to them, but which stood outside both the biblical canons recognized by Protestants and Catholics. These works were also outside the particular set of books that Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
called deuterocanonical and to which Protestants had generally applied the term Apocryphal. Accordingly, the term pseudepigraphical, as now used often among both Protestants and Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
(allegedly for the clarity it brings to the discussion), may make it difficult to discuss questions of pseudepigraphical authorship of canonical books dispassionately with a lay audience. To confuse the matter even more, Eastern Orthodox Christians accept books as canonical that Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and most Protestant
Protestant
denominations consider pseudepigraphical or at best of much less authority. There exist also churches that reject some of the books that Roman Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants accept. The same is true of some Jewish
Jewish
sects. Many works that are "apocryphal" are otherwise considered genuine. Role of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in Christian
Christian
theology Further information: Sola scriptura
Sola scriptura
and Christian
Christian
theology The Old Testament
Old Testament
has always been central to the life of the Christian church. Bible
Bible
scholar N.T. Wright
N.T. Wright
says " Jesus
Jesus
himself was profoundly shaped by the scriptures."[67] He adds that the earliest Christians also searched those same Hebrew
Hebrew
scriptures in their effort to understand the earthly life of Jesus. They regarded the "holy writings" of the Israelites
Israelites
as necessary and instructive for the Christian, as seen from Paul's words to Timothy (2 Timothy 3:15), and as pointing to the Messiah, and as having reached a climactic fulfillment in Jesus
Jesus
himself, generating the "new covenant" prophesied by Jeremiah.[68] New Testament Main article: Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon The New Testament
New Testament
is the name given to the second and final portion of the Christian
Christian
Bible. Jesus
Jesus
is its central figure. The term "New Testament" came into use in the second century during a controversy among Christians over whether or not the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible should be included with the Christian
Christian
writings as sacred scripture. The New Testament
New Testament
presupposes the inspiration of the Old Testament.[69] Some other works which were widely read by early churches were excluded from the New Testament
New Testament
and relegated to the collections known as the Apostolic Fathers
Apostolic Fathers
(generally considered orthodox) and the New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha
Apocrypha
(including both orthodox and heretical works). The New Testament
New Testament
is a collection of 27 books[70] of 4 different genres of Christian
Christian
literature (Gospels, one account of the Acts of the Apostles, Epistles
Epistles
and an Apocalypse). These books can be grouped into:

The Gospels

Synoptic Gospels

Gospel
Gospel
According to Matthew Gospel
Gospel
According to Mark Gospel
Gospel
According to Luke

Gospel
Gospel
According to John

Narrative literature, account and history of the Apostolic age

Acts of the Apostles

Pauline Epistles

Epistle
Epistle
to the Romans First Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians Second Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians Epistle
Epistle
to the Galatians Epistle
Epistle
to the Ephesians Epistle
Epistle
to the Philippians Epistle
Epistle
to the Colossians First Epistle
Epistle
to the Thessalonians Second Epistle
Epistle
to the Thessalonians

Pastoral epistles

First Epistle
Epistle
to Timothy Second Epistle
Epistle
to Timothy Epistle
Epistle
to Titus Epistle
Epistle
to Philemon Epistle
Epistle
to the Hebrews

General epistles, also called catholic epistles

Epistle
Epistle
of James First Epistle
Epistle
of Peter Second Epistle
Epistle
of Peter First Epistle
Epistle
of John Second Epistle
Epistle
of John Third Epistle
Epistle
of John Epistle
Epistle
of Jude

Apocalyptic literature, also called Prophetical

Revelation, or the Apocalypse

The New Testament
New Testament
books are ordered differently in the Catholic/Orthodox/ Protestant
Protestant
tradition, the Slavonic tradition, the Syriac tradition and the Ethiopian tradition. Original language See also: Language of the New Testament The mainstream consensus is that the New Testament
New Testament
was written in a form of Koine Greek,[71][72] which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean[73][74][75][76] from the Conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323 BCE) until the evolution of Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
(c. 600). Historic editions See also: Biblical manuscript
Biblical manuscript
and Textual criticism

An early German translation by Martin Luther. His translation of the text into the vernacular was highly influential.

The original autographs, that is, the original Greek writings and manuscripts written by the original authors of the New Testament, have not survived.[77] But historically copies exist of those original autographs, transmitted and preserved in a number of manuscript traditions. There have been some minor variations, additions or omissions, in some of the texts. When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they sometimes wrote notes on the margins of the page (marginal glosses) to correct their text – especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line – and to comment about the text. When later scribes were copying the copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text. The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament
New Testament
are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type
Alexandrian text-type
(generally minimalist), the Byzantine text-type
Byzantine text-type
(generally maximalist), and the Western text-type (occasionally wild). Together they comprise most of the ancient manuscripts. Development of the Christian
Christian
canons Main articles: Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon and Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon

Jerome
Jerome
(pictured) produced a 4th-century Latin
Latin
edition of the Bible, known as the Vulgate, that became the Catholic Church's official translation.

The Old Testament
Old Testament
canon entered into Christian
Christian
use in the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
translations and original books, and their differing lists of texts. In addition to the Septuagint, Christianity[vague] subsequently added various writings that would become the New Testament. Somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity. In the 4th century a series of synods produced a list of texts equal to the 39, 46, 51, or 54-book canon of the Old Testament and to the 27-book canon of the New Testament
New Testament
that would be subsequently used to today, most notably the Synod
Synod
of Hippo in 393 CE. Also c. 400, Jerome
Jerome
produced a definitive Latin
Latin
edition of the Bible (see Vulgate), the canon of which, at the insistence of the Pope, was in accord with the earlier Synods. With the benefit of hindsight it can be said that this process effectively set the New Testament
New Testament
canon, although there are examples of other canonical lists in use after this time. The Protestant
Protestant
Old Testament
Old Testament
of today has a 39-book canon – the number of books (though not the content) varies from the Jewish
Jewish
Tanakh only because of a different method of division – while the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognizes 46 books (51 books with some books combined into 46 books) as the canonical Old Testament. The Eastern Orthodox Churches recognize 3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
and Psalm 151 in addition to the Catholic canon. Some include 2 Esdras. The Anglican Church
Anglican Church
also recognizes a longer canon.[citation needed] The term " Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures" is often used as being synonymous with the Protestant
Protestant
Old Testament, since the surviving scriptures in Hebrew include only those books, while Catholics and Orthodox include additional texts that have not survived in Hebrew. Both Catholics and Protestants (as well as Greek Orthodox) have the same 27-book New Testament Canon.[78] The New Testament
New Testament
writers assumed the inspiration of the Old Testament, probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy 3:16, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God".[10] Ethiopian Orthodox canon Main article: Ethiopian Biblical canon The Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
is wider than the canons used by most other Christian
Christian
churches. There are 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible.[79] The Ethiopian Old Testament
Old Testament
Canon includes the books found in the Septuagint
Septuagint
accepted by other Orthodox Christians, in addition to Enoch and Jubilees
Jubilees
which are ancient Jewish books that only survived in Ge'ez but are quoted in the New Testament,[citation needed] also Greek Ezra First and the Apocalypse of Ezra, 3 books of Meqabyan, and Psalm 151
Psalm 151
at the end of the Psalter. The three books of Meqabyan
Meqabyan
are not to be confused with the books of Maccabees. The order of the other books is somewhat different from other groups', as well. The Old Testament
Old Testament
follows the Septuagint
Septuagint
order for the Minor Prophets rather than the Jewish
Jewish
order.[citation needed] Divine inspiration Main articles: Biblical inspiration, Biblical literalism, Biblical infallibility, and Biblical inerrancy

A Bible
Bible
is placed centrally on a Lutheran
Lutheran
altar, highlighting its importance

The Second Epistle
Epistle
to Timothy says that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness". (2 Timothy 3:16)[80] Various related but distinguishable views on divine inspiration include:

the view of the Bible
Bible
as the inspired word of God: the belief that God, through the Holy Spirit, intervened and influenced the words, message, and collation of the Bible[81] the view that the Bible
Bible
is also infallible, and incapable of error in matters of faith and practice, but not necessarily in historic or scientific matters the view that the Bible
Bible
represents the inerrant word of God, without error in any aspect, spoken by God and written down in its perfect form by humans

Within these broad beliefs many schools of hermeneutics operate. " Bible
Bible
scholars claim that discussions about the Bible
Bible
must be put into its context within church history and then into the context of contemporary culture."[68] Fundamentalist Christians are associated[by whom?] with the doctrine of biblical literalism, where the Bible
Bible
is not only inerrant, but the meaning of the text is clear to the average reader.[82] Jewish
Jewish
antiquity attests to belief in sacred texts,[83][84] and a similar belief emerges in the earliest of Christian
Christian
writings. Various texts of the Bible
Bible
mention divine agency in relation to its writings.[85] In their book A General Introduction to the Bible, Norman Geisler and William Nix write: "The process of inspiration is a mystery of the providence of God, but the result of this process is a verbal, plenary, inerrant, and authoritative record."[86] Most evangelical biblical scholars[87][88][89] associate inspiration with only the original text; for example some American Protestants adhere to the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy which asserted that inspiration applied only to the autographic text of Scripture.[90] Among adherents of Biblical literalism, a minority, such as followers of the King-James-Only Movement, extend the claim of inerrancy only to a particular translation.[91] Versions and translations Further information: Bible translations
Bible translations
and List of Bible
Bible
translations by language

Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588. William Morgan (1545–1604)

The original texts of the Tanakh
Tanakh
were mainly in Hebrew, with some portions in Aramaic. In addition to the authoritative Masoretic
Masoretic
Text, Jews
Jews
still refer to the Septuagint, the translation of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
into Greek, and the Targum
Targum
Onkelos, an Aramaic
Aramaic
version of the Bible. There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh
Tanakh
in Hebrew, mostly differing by spelling, and the traditional Jewish version is based on the version known as Aleppo Codex. Even in this version there are words which are traditionally read differently from written, because the oral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one, and presumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over the generations.[citation needed] The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint. In addition, they translated the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
into several other languages. Translations were made into Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Latin, among other languages. The Latin
Latin
translations were historically the most important for the Church in the West, while the Greek-speaking East continued to use the Septuagint
Septuagint
translations of the Old Testament
Old Testament
and had no need to translate the New Testament. The earliest Latin
Latin
translation was the Old Latin
Latin
text, or Vetus Latina, which, from internal evidence, seems to have been made by several authors over a period of time. It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included books not in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. According to the Latin
Latin
Decretum Gelasianum (also known as the Gelasian Decree), thought to be of a 6th-century document[92][93] of uncertain authorship and of pseudepigraphal papal authority (variously ascribed to Pope Gelasius I, Pope Damasus I, or Pope Hormisdas)[94][95][96] but reflecting the views of the Roman Church by that period,[97] the Council of Rome in 382 AD under Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
(366–383) assembled a list of books of the Bible. Damasus commissioned Saint Jerome
Jerome
to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew
Hebrew
texts into Latin. This translation became known as the Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible, in the fourth century AD (although Jerome expressed in his prologues to most deuterocanonical books that they were non-canonical).[98][99] In 1546, at the Council of Trent, Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
translation was declared by the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church to be the only authentic and official Bible
Bible
in the Latin
Latin
Church. Since the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, Bible translations
Bible translations
for many languages have been made. The Bible
Bible
continues to be translated to new languages, largely by Christian
Christian
organizations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators, New Tribes Mission and Bible
Bible
societies.

Bible
Bible
translations, worldwide (as of October 2017)[100]

Number Statistic

7,099 Approximate number of languages spoken in the world today

2,584 Number of translations into new languages currently in progress

1,521 Number of languages with a translation of the New Testament

670 Number of languages with a translation of the Bible
Bible
( Protestant
Protestant
Canon)

Views John Riches, professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, provides the following view of the diverse historical influences of the Bible:

It has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature, and art; it has equally fuelled some of the worst excesses of human savagery, self-interest, and narrow-mindedness. It has inspired men and women to acts of great service and courage, to fight for liberation and human development; and it has provided the ideological fuel for societies which have enslaved their fellow human beings and reduced them to abject poverty. ... It has, perhaps above all, provided a source of religious and moral norms which have enabled communities to hold together, to care for, and to protect one another; yet precisely this strong sense of belonging has in turn fuelled ethnic, racial, and international tension and conflict.[101]

Other religions Main article: Islamic view of the Christian
Christian
Bible In Islam, the Bible
Bible
is held to reflect true unfolding revelation from God; but revelation which had been corrupted or distorted (in Arabic: tahrif); which necessitated the giving of the Qur'an
Qur'an
to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to correct this deviation. Members of other religions may also seek inspiration from the Bible. For example, Rastafaris view the Bible
Bible
as essential to their religion[102] and Unitarian Universalists view it as "one of many important religious texts".[103] Biblical studies Main articles: Biblical studies
Biblical studies
and Biblical criticism Biblical criticism
Biblical criticism
refers to the investigation of the Bible
Bible
as a text, and addresses questions such as authorship, dates of composition, and authorial intention. It is not the same as criticism of the Bible, which is an assertion against the Bible
Bible
being a source of information or ethical guidance, or observations that the Bible
Bible
may have translation errors.[104] Higher criticism Main articles: Higher criticism
Higher criticism
and Lower criticism In the 17th century Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
collected the current evidence to conclude outright that Moses
Moses
could not have written the bulk of the Torah. Shortly afterwards the philosopher Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
published a unified critical analysis, arguing that the problematic passages were not isolated cases that could be explained away one by one, but pervasive throughout the five books, concluding that it was "clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
was not written by Moses
Moses
. . ."[105] Archaeological and historical research Main articles: Biblical archaeology
Biblical archaeology
school and The Bible
Bible
and history Biblical archaeology
Biblical archaeology
is the archaeology that relates to and sheds light upon the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures and the Christian
Christian
Greek Scriptures (or the "New Testament"). It is used to help determine the lifestyle and practices of people living in biblical times. There are a wide range of interpretations in the field of biblical archaeology. One broad division includes biblical maximalism which generally takes the view that most of the Old Testament
Old Testament
or the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is based on history although it is presented through the religious viewpoint of its time. It is considered to be the opposite of biblical minimalism which considers the Bible
Bible
to be a purely post-exilic (5th century BCE and later) composition. Even among those scholars who adhere to biblical minimalism, the Bible
Bible
is a historical document containing first-hand information on the Hellenistic and Roman eras, and there is universal scholarly consensus that the events of the 6th century BCE Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
have a basis in history. The historicity of the biblical account of the history of ancient Israel and Judah of the 10th to 7th centuries BCE is disputed in scholarship. The biblical account of the 8th to 7th centuries BCE is widely, but not universally, accepted as historical, while the verdict on the earliest period of the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
(10th century BCE) and the historicity of David is unclear. Archaeological evidence providing information on this period, such as the Tel Dan Stele, can potentially be decisive. The biblical account of events of the Exodus from Egypt in the Torah, and the migration to the Promised Land
Promised Land
and the period of Judges are not considered historical in scholarship.[106][107] Bible
Bible
Museum Bible
Bible
Museums of the United States 1) On December 1, 2017, the Museum of the Bible
Museum of the Bible
opened in Washington D.C. The museum was said to be built for all guests to understand and appreciate the existence of the Bible.Furthermore, the museum seeks to disperse historical information regarding the Bible
Bible
as well as portray the significance of the Bible
Bible
in a neutral way.[108] 2) Durham Bible
Bible
Museum: The Durham Bible
Bible
Museum is located in Houston Texas and is known for the collection of rare Bibles around the world. Furthermore, the Durham Museum is known to have many different Bibles of various languages.[109] Image gallery

Bibles

Old Bible
Bible
from a Greek monastery

Imperial Bible, or Vienna Coronation Gospels
Gospels
from Wien (Austria), c 1500.

The Kennicott Bible, 1476

A Baroque
Baroque
Bible

The bible used by Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln for his oath of office during his first inauguration in 1861

A miniature Bible

1866 Victorian Bible

Shelves of the Bizzell Bible
Bible
Collection at Bizzell Memorial Library

Illustrations Most old Bibles were illuminated, they were manuscripts in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. Up to the twelfth century, most manuscripts were produced in monasteries in order to add to the library or after receiving a commission from a wealthy patron. Larger monasteries often contained separate areas for the monks who specialized in the production of manuscripts called a scriptorium, where "separate little rooms were assigned to book copying; they were situated in such a way that each scribe had to himself a window open to the cloister walk."[110] By the fourteenth century, the cloisters of monks writing in the scriptorium started to employ laybrothers from the urban scriptoria, especially in Paris, Rome and the Netherlands.[111] Demand for manuscripts grew to an extent that the Monastic libraries were unable to meet with the demand, and began employing secular scribes and illuminators.[112] These individuals often lived close to the monastery and, in certain instances, dressed as monks whenever they entered the monastery, but were allowed to leave at the end of the day.[113] The manuscript was "sent to the rubricator, who added (in red or other colours) the titles, headlines, the initials of chapters and sections, the notes and so on; and then – if the book was to be illustrated – it was sent to the illuminator."[110] In the case of manuscripts that were sold commercially, the writing would "undoubtedly have been discussed initially between the patron and the scribe (or the scribe's agent,) but by the time that the written gathering were sent off to the illuminator there was no longer any scope for innovation."[114]

Bible
Bible
illustrations

Bible
Bible
from 1150, from Scriptorium
Scriptorium
de Chartres, Christ with angels

Blanche of Castile and Louis IX of France Bible, 13th century

Maciejowski Bible, Leaf 37, the 3rd image, Abner
Abner
(in the center in green) sends Michal
Michal
back to David.

Jephthah's daughter laments – Maciejowski Bible
Bible
(France, ca. 1250)

Coloured version of the Whore of Babylon
Whore of Babylon
illustration from Martin Luther's 1534 translation of the Bible

An Armenian Bible, illuminated by Malnazar

Fleeing Sodom and Gomorrah, Foster Bible

Jonah being swallowed by the fish, Kennicott Bible, 1476

See also

Bible
Bible
portal Religion portal Spirituality portal

Bible
Bible
box Bible
Bible
case Bible
Bible
paper Biblical software Code of Hammurabi Family Bible
Bible
(book) List of major biblical figures List of nations mentioned in the Bible Outline of Bible-related topics Scriptorium Theodicy and the Bible Typology – incorporating approaches to Biblical symbolism

Notes

^ The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament
Old Testament
as used currently in Orthodoxy. ^ Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα (Basileia). ^ That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ. ^ Also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources. ^ Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias", which opens the book. ^ Originally placed after 3 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon

References

^ Miller & Huber, Stephen & Robert (2003). The Bible: the making and impact on the Bible
Bible
a history. England: Lion Hudson. p. 21. ISBN 0-7459-5176-7.  ^ Riches 2000, pp. 7–8. ^ "Best selling book of non-fiction". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  ^ Ryken, Leland. "How We Got the Best-Selling Book
Book
of All Time". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  ^ "The battle of the books". The Economist. 22 December 2007.  ^ Ash, Russell (2001). Top 10 of Everything 2002. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7894-8043-3.  ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "bible". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ "The Catholic Encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1907. Retrieved 2010-04-23.  ^ Biblion, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus. ^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament
New Testament
Theology. Nashville: Broadman, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7. ^ "From Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
to Christian
Christian
Bible" by Mark Hamilton on PBS's site From Jesus
Jesus
to Christ: The First Christians. ^ Dictionary.com etymology of the word "Bible". ^ Bruce 1988, p. 214. ^ Bible
Bible
Hub – The NT generally uses 1124 (graphḗ) for the Hebrew Scriptures (the OT) – but see also 2 Tim 3:16 and 2 Pet 3:16. 1124 (graphḗ) was used for the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures as early as Aristeas (about 130 bc; so MM) ^ "Where did the chapter and verse numbers of the Bible
Bible
originate?". CA. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012.  ^ Davies, Philip R. (2008). Memories of ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-664-23288-7. [dead link] ^ Riches 2000, p. 83. ^ Riches 2000, p. 9. ^ Lim, Timothy H. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 41.  ^ Riches 2000, p. 37. ^ a b Riches 2000, pp. 23, 37 ^ A 7th-century fragment containing the Song of the Sea (Exodus 13:19–16:1) is one of the few surviving texts from the "silent era" of Hebrew
Hebrew
biblical texts between the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
and the Aleppo Codex. See "Rare scroll fragment to be unveiled," Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2007. ^ [1] The Restored New Testament: A New Translation
Translation
with Commentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels
Gospels
Thomas, Mary, and Judas by Willis Barnstone – W. W. Norton & Company. p. 647 ^ [2] The Torah: Portion by Portion By Seymour Rossel
Seymour Rossel
Torah
Torah
Aura Productions, 2007, p. 355 ^ Mordecai Kaplan 1934 Judaism
Judaism
as a Civilization MacMillan Press ^ Elliot N. Dorff 1979 Conservative Judaism: Our Ancestors to Our Descendants. United Synagogue. p. 98–99 (114–15 in 1978 edition) Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Milton Steinberg 1947 Basic Judaism
Judaism
Harcourt Brace, pp. 27–28 ISBN 0-15-610698-1 Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gilbert Rosenthal 1973 Four paths to One God Bloch Publishing pp. 116–28, 180–92, 238–42 ^ 1Kings.18:24;1Kings.18:37–39 9 ^ George Savran "I and II Kings" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Each king is judged either good or bad in black-and-white terms, according to whether or not he "did right" or "did evil" in the sight of the Lord. This evaluation is not reflective of the well-being of the nation, of the king's success or failure in war, or of the moral climate of the times, but rather the state of cultic worship during his reign. Those kings who shun idolatry and enact religious reforms are singled out for praise, and those who encourage pagan practices are denounced." 146 ^ Yehezkel Kaufmann
Yehezkel Kaufmann
"Israel In Canaan" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish
Jewish
People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The fight against Baal was initiated by the prophets" 54 ^ Yehezkel Kaufmann
Yehezkel Kaufmann
"The Age of Prophecy" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish
Jewish
People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The immediate occasion of the rise of the new prophecy was the political and social ruin caused by the wars with Israel's northerly neighbor, Aram, which continued for more than a century. They raged intensely during the reign of Ahab, and did not end until the time of Jeroboam II (784–744). While the nation as a whole was impoverished, a few – apparently of the royal officialdom – grew wealthy as a result of the national calamity. Many of the people were compelled to sell their houses and lands, with the result that a sharp social cleavage arose: on the one hand a mass of propertyless indigents, on the other a small circle of the rich. A series of disasters struck the nation – drought, famine, plagues, death and captivity (Amos 4: 6–11), but the greatest disaster of all was the social disintegration due to the cleavage between the poor masses and the wealthy, dissolute upper class. The decay affected both Judah and Israel ... High minded men were appalled at this development. Was this the people whom YHWH had brought out of Egypt, to whom He had given the land and a law of justice and right? it seemed as if the land was about to be inherited by the rich, who would squander its substance in drunken revelry. it was this dissolution that brought the prophetic denunciations to white heat." 57–58 ^ Abraham
Abraham
Joshua Heschel 1955 The Prophets Harper and Row: "What manner of man is the prophet? A student of philosophy who runs from the discourses of the great metaphysicians to the orations of the prophets may feel as if he were going from the realm of the sublime to an area of trivialities. Instead of dealing with the timeless issues of being and becoming, of matter and form, of definitions and demonstrations, he is thrown into orations about widows and orphans, about the corruption of judges and affairs of the market place. Instead of showing us a way through the elegant mansions of the mind, the prophets take us to the slums. The world is a proud place, full of beauty, but the prophets are scandalized, and rave as if the whole world were a slum. They make much ado about paltry things, lavishing excessive language upon trifling subjects. What if somewhere in ancient Palestine poor people have not been treated properly by the rich? .... Indeed, the sorts of crimes and even the amount of delinquency that fill the prophets of Israel with dismay do not go beyond that which we regard as normal, as typical ingredients of social dynamics. To us a single act of injustice – cheating in business, exploitation of the poor – is slight; to the prophets, a disaster. To us an injustice is injurious to the welfare of the people; to the prophets it is a deathblow to existence; to us an episode; to them, a catastrophe, a threat to the world." 3–4 ^ Joel Rosenberg "I and II Samuel" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Samuel is thus a work of national self-criticism. It recognizes that Israel would not have survived, either politically or culturally, without the steadying presence of a dynastic royal house. But it makes both that house and its subjects answerable to firm standards of prophetic justice – not those of cult prophets or professional ecstatics, but of morally upright prophetic leaders in the tradition of Moses, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, and others ..." 141 ^ Neusner, Jacob, The Talmud
Talmud
Law, Theology, Narrative: A Sourcebook. University Press of America, 2005 ^ a b Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in its Context. Oxford University Press. 2009; p. 5 ^ [3] The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 7 of 9: Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate) translated by Michael L. Rodkinson, first published 1918 – published 2008 by Forgotten Books, p. 53 ^ [4] Ketuvim
Ketuvim
כְּתוּבִים 30 July 2008 ^ Henshaw 1963, pp. 16–17. ^ Lightfoot, Neil R. How We Got the Bible, 3rd edition, rev. and expanded. Baker Book
Book
House Company. 2003, pp. 154–55. ^ Henshaw 1963, p. 17. ^ Sir Godfrey Driver. "Introduction to the Old Testament
Old Testament
of the New English Bible." Web: 30 November 2009 ^ Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004), Anchor Bible
Bible
Reference Library, Alan F. Segal, p. 363 ^ Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p. 111 ^ a b "[...] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang [...] [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (.) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff ^ a b Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint. Paternoster Press. ISBN 1-84227-061-3.  ^ Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint ^ Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of the Septuagint", (Accessed 2006.9.5). ^ "The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew
Hebrew
usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah." " Bible
Bible
Translations – The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ "Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint
Septuagint
unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] [...] In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible
Bible
[...] It became part of the Bible
Bible
of the Christian
Christian
Church."" Bible
Bible
Translations – The Septuagint". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
Sotah (7:2–4 and 8:1), among many others, discusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaic
Aramaic
or Greek. This is comparable to the authority claimed for the original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching. As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah
Torah
into Koine Greek
Koine Greek
by early Jewish
Jewish
Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only. ^ Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 1995. ^ "NETS: Electronic Edition". Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ a b This article incorporates text from the 1903 Encyclopaedia Biblica article "Text and Versions", a publication now in the public domain. ^ a b Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004. ^ Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint
Septuagint
in New Testament
New Testament
Research ISBN 0-8028-6091-5. – The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX. ^ Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ ^ The Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
and the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
– biblicalarchaeology.org. Retrieved 26 December 2012. ^ "Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-06.  ^ Council of Trent: Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis "Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures", from the Council's fourth session, of 4 April 1546: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, The Fourth Session, Celebrated on the eighth day of the month of April, in the year 1546, English translation by James Waterworth (London 1848). ^ The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
confirmed the identical list/canon of sacred scriptures already anciently approved by the Synod
Synod
of Hippo ( Synod
Synod
of 393), Council of Carthage, 28 August 397, and Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel), Session 11, 4 February 1442  – [Bull of union with the Copts] seventh paragraph down. ^ "Paragraph 120". Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2014.  ^ Canon of Trent: List of the Canonical Scriptures.

But if anyone receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin
Latin
vulgate edition; and knowingly and deliberately contemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema. — Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis, Council of Trent, 8 April 1546

^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. ^ The Book
Book
of Enoch – The Reluctant Messenger. Retrieved 14 June 2014. ^ Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P–Sh p. 411, ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 (2004) ^ Wright 2005, p. 3. ^ a b Wright 2005 ^ [5] Inspiration and Inerrancy: A History and a Defense, Henry Preserved Smith – R. Clarke, 1893, p. 343 ^ [6] What the Bible
Bible
is All About Visual Edition by Henrietta C. Mears – Gospel
Gospel
Light Publications, 2007. pp. 438–39 ^ Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland The text of the New Testament: an introduction to the critical 1995 p. 52 "The New Testament
New Testament
was written in Koine Greek, the Greek of daily conversation. The fact that from the first all the New Testament
New Testament
writings were written in Greek is conclusively demonstrated by their citations from the Old Testament ..." ^ Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testament
New Testament
1972 p9 "How came the twenty-seven books of the New Testament
New Testament
to be gathered together and made authoritative Christian
Christian
scripture? 1. All the New Testament books were originally written in Greek. On the face of it this may surprise us." ^ Wenham The elements of New Testament
New Testament
Greek p. xxv Jeremy Duff, John William Wenham – 2005 "This is the language of the New Testament. By the time of Jesus
Jesus
the Romans had become the dominant military and political force, but the Greek language remained the 'common language' of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond, and Greek ..." ^ Daniel B. Wallace Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament
New Testament
1997 ^ Henry St. John Thackeray Grammar of New Testament
New Testament
Greek ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Blass, 1911 "By far the most predominant element in the language of the New Testament
New Testament
is the Greek of common speech which was disseminated in the East by the Macedonian conquest, in the form which it had gradually assumed under the wider development ..." ^ David E. Aune The Blackwell companion to the New Testament
New Testament
2009 p.61 Chapter 4 New Testament
New Testament
Greek Christophe Rico "In this short overview of the Greek language of the New Testament
New Testament
we will focus on those topics that are of greatest importance for the average reader, that is, those with important ..." ^ [7] Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament: An Introduction for English Readers by Keith Elliott, Ian Moir – Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000, p. 9 ^ [8] Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Frank K. Flinn, Infobase Publishing, Jan 1, 2007, p. 103 ^ "The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo
Orthodox Tewahedo
Church". Ethiopianorthodox.org. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 49–50.  ^ Rice, John R. – Our God-Breathed Book: The Bible
Bible
– ISBN 0-87398-628-8, Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1969, pp 68–88. ^ "Beyond Biblical Literalism and Inerrancy: Conservative Protestants and the Hermeneutic Interpretation of Scripture", John Bartkowski, Sociology of Religion, 57, 1996. ^ Philo of Alexandria, De vita Moysis 3.23. ^ Josephus, Contra Apion 1.8. ^ "Basis for belief of Inspiration Biblegateway". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2010-04-23.  ^ Norman L. Geisler, William E. Nix. A General Introduction to the Bible. Moody Publishers, 1986, p. 86. ISBN 0-8024-2916-5 ^ For example, see Leroy Zuck, Roy B. Zuck. Basic Bible Interpretation. Chariot Victor Pub, 1991, p. 68. ISBN 0-89693-819-0 ^ Roy B. Zuck, Donald Campbell. Basic Bible
Bible
Interpretation. Victor, 2002. ISBN 0-7814-3877-2 ^ Norman L. Geisler. Inerrancy. Zondervan, 1980, p. 294. ISBN 0-310-39281-0 ^ International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978). "The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy" (PDF). International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2008.  ^ "Ruckman's belief in advanced revelations in the KJV". Retrieved 27 February 2014.  ^ Clark, Francis (1987). The Pseudo-Gregorian dialogues. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 601–02. ISBN 978-9004077737. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ Bruce 1988, p. 234. ^ Frazier, Alison (2015). Essays in Renaissance Thought and Letters: In Honor of John Monfasani. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 465. ISBN 9004294473. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ Burkitt (1913). "The Decretum Geladianum". Journal of Theological Studies. 14: 469–71. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ Ellis, E. Earle (2003). The Old Testament
Old Testament
in early Christianity : canon and interpretation in the light of modern research. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock. p. 26. ISBN 978-1592442560. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ "The Christian
Christian
canon". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ Kelly, J. N. D. (1960). Early Christian
Christian
Doctrines. San Francisco: Harper. p. 55.  ^ Prologues of Saint Jerome, Latin
Latin
text ^ (Figures correct as of 2017.) ^ Riches 2000, p. 134. ^ Becoming Rasta: Origins of Rastafari
Rastafari
Identity in Jamaica. p. 171, Charles Price. 2009 ^ Unitarian Universalism. p. 42, Zondervan Publishing, 2009 ^ "Expondo Os Erros Da Sociedade Bíblica Internacional". Baptistlink.com. 2000. Retrieved 2012-01-13. [permanent dead link] ^ Ten More Amazing Discoveries By George Potter, Cedar Fort, 2005, p. 121 ^ * Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). "The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts". New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2338-1.  ^ Dever, William (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites
Israelites
and Where Did They Come from?. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-0975-8.  ^ " Museum of the Bible
Museum of the Bible
opens in Washington, D.C., with celebration amid cynicism".  ^ "Durham Bible
Bible
Museum".  ^ a b Putnam A.M., Geo. Haven. Books and Their Makers During The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. New York: Hillary House, 1962. Print. ^ De Hamel 1992, p. 45. ^ De Hamel 1992, p. 57. ^ De Hamel 1992, p. 65. ^ De Hamel 1992, p. 60.

Works cited

Bruce, Frederick (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic. p. 214. ISBN 083081258X.  De Hamel, Christopher (1992). Medieval Craftsmen: Scribes and Illuminations. Buffalo: University of Toronto.  Henshaw, T. (1963). The Writings: The Third Division of the Old Testament Canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd.  Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1.  Wright, N.T. (2005). The Last Word: Scripture and the Authority of God – Getting Beyond the Bible
Bible
Wars. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-087261-6. 

Further reading

Find more aboutBibleat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament. ISBN 0-13-948399-3. Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to the Bible. New York: Avenel Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-34582-X. Berlin, Adele, Marc Zvi Brettler and Michael Fishbane. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-529751-2. Bible, Authorized Version. The New Cambridge Paragraph Bible, with the Apocrypha, King James Version, ed. by David Norton. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 2005. N.B.: This is a critically reconstructed text of the Authorized "King James" Bible
Bible
with its entire contents (including all of its marginalia, fore-matter, the Apocrypha, etc.), as close to the original translators' intentions and wording as possible at the time of this edition, with spelling modernized according to current Commonwealth usage. ISBN 978-0-521-84386-7 Brown, Raymond E., Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, eds. (1990). The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-614934-0. Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (August 2002). "Review: "The Bible
Bible
Unearthed": A Rejoinder". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 327: 63–73. JSTOR 1357859.  Herzog, Ze'ev (29 October 1999). "Deconstructing the walls of Jericho". Ha'aretz. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008.  Dever, William G. (March–April 2007). "Losing Faith: Who Did and Who Didn't, How Scholarship Affects Scholars" (PDF). Biblical Archaeology Review. 33 (2): 54.  Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible
Bible
and Why New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-073817-0. Head, Tom. The Absolute Beginner's Guide to the Bible. Indianapolis: Que Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7897-3419-2 Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. New York University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8147-3690-4 Hotchkiss, Gregory K. The Middle Way: Reflections on Scripture and Tradition, in series, Reformed Episcopal Pamphlets, no. 3. Media, Penn.: Reformed Episcopal Publication Society, 1985. 27 p. N.B.: Place of publication also given as Philadelphia, Penn.; the approach to the issue is from an evangelical Anglican (Reformed Episcopal Church) orientation. Without ISBN Lienhard, Joseph T. The Bible, The Church, and Authority. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1995. Lindsell, Harold. The Battle for the Bible. Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. ISBN 0-310-27681-0 Masalha, Nur, The Bible
Bible
and Zionism: Invented Traditions, Archaeology and Post-Colonialism in Palestine-Israel. London, Zed Books, 2007. McDonald, Lee M. and Sanders, James A., eds. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers (1 January 2002). 662p. ISBN 1-56563-517-5 ISBN 978-1565635173 Miller, John W. The Origins of the Bible: Rethinking Canon History Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8091-3522-1. Roper, J.C., Bp., et al.. The Bible. Toronto: Musson Book
Book
Co., 1924. In series, "The Layman's Library of Practical Religion, Church of England in Canada", vol. 4. N.B.: Series statement given here in the more extended form of it on the book's front cover. Siku. The Manga Bible: From Genesis to Revelation. Galilee Trade (15 January 2008). 224p. ISBN 0-385-52431-5 ISBN 978-0385524315 Taylor, Hawley O. "Mathematics and Prophecy." Modern Science and Christian
Christian
Faith. Wheaton: Van Kampen, 1948, pp. 175–83. Wycliffe Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia, s.vv. " Book
Book
of Ezekiel", p. 580 and "prophecy", p. 1410. Chicago: Moody Bible
Bible
Press, 1986.

v t e

Books of the Bible

Principal divisions

Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible/ Old Testament
Old Testament
Protocanon

Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1–2 Samuel 1–2 Kings 1–2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Deuterocanon and Apocrypha

Catholic Orthodox

Tobit Judith Additions to Esther 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom Sirach Baruch / Letter of Jeremiah Additions to Daniel

Susanna Song of the Three Children Bel and the Dragon

Orthodox only

1 Esdras 2 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Odes

Tewahedo Orthodox

Enoch Jubilees 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan Paralipomena of Baruch Broader canon

Syriac

Letter of Baruch 2 Baruch Psalms
Psalms
152–155

New Testament

Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation

Subdivisions

Chapters and verses Pentateuch Wisdom Major prophets / Minor prophets Gospels

Synoptic

Epistles

Pauline Johannine Pastoral Catholic

Apocalyptic literature

Development

Old Testament
Old Testament
canon New Testament
New Testament
canon Antilegomena Jewish
Jewish
canon Christian
Christian
canon

Manuscripts

Dead Sea Scrolls Samaritan Pentateuch Septuagint Targum Diatessaron Muratorian fragment Peshitta Vetus Latina Masoretic
Masoretic
Text New Testament
New Testament
manuscript categories New Testament
New Testament
papyri New Testament
New Testament
uncials

See also

Biblical canon Luther's canon Authorship English Bible
Bible
translations Other books referenced in the Bible Pseudepigrapha

list

New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Studies Synod
Synod
of Hippo Textual criticism

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Foundations

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History and tradition

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Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

Western

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Eastern

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Assyrian Church of the East
("Nestorian") Eastern Catholic Churches

Nontrinitarian

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Oneness Pentecostalism

Related topics

Art Criticism Culture Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other religions Prayer Sermon Symbolism

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Jews
Jews
and Judaism

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history-related articles

History

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Literature

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In general

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Old Testament

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New Testament

Church Fathers Events in the Canonical Gospels Gospels Jesus

Names and titles of Jesus

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Latin
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Religious texts

Books

Aqdas
Aqdas
(Baha'i) Avesta
Avesta
(Zoroastrian) Bible
Bible
(Christian) Book
Book
of Shadows (Wiccan) Dianetics
Dianetics
(Scientologist) Geniocracy
Geniocracy
(Raelian) Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
(Sikh) Liber AL vel Legis
Liber AL vel Legis
(Thelemite) Ofudesaki
Ofudesaki
(Tenrikyo) Quran
Quran
(Muslim) The Satanic Bible
The Satanic Bible
(Satanist) Tao Te Ching
Tao Te Ching
(Taoist) Torah
Torah
(Jewish) Tripitaka
Tripitaka
(Buddhist) Vedas
Vedas
(Hindu)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 174429434 GND: 4006406-2 SUDOC: 028198654 BNF: cb12008248x (data) HDS: 46459 N

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