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A Christian
Christian
biblical canon is the set of books that a particular Christian
Christian
denomination or denominational family regards as being divinely inspired and thus constituting an authorised Christian
Christian
Bible. Such bibles are always divided into the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament. The Early Church primarily used the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
(or LXX) as its source for the Old Testament. Among Aramaic
Aramaic
speakers, the Targum
Targum
was also widely used. The apostles did not leave a defined set of scriptures; instead the canon of both the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament developed over time. The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
article on the New Testament
New Testament
describes the process of assembling the histories and letters circulated within the early Church until the canon was approved by a series of councils seeking to ensure legitimacy as inspired scripture:

The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history. The Canon of the New Testament, like that of the Old, is the result of a development, of a process at once stimulated by disputes with doubters, both within and without the Church, and retarded by certain obscurities and natural hesitations, and which did not reach its final term until the dogmatic definition of the Tridentine Council.[1]

Contents

1 Fifty Bibles of Constantine 2 The Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible 3 Augustine and the North African councils 4 A consensus emerges 5 Eastern canons

5.1 Peshitta 5.2 Armenian canon 5.3 East African canons

6 Reformation
Reformation
era

6.1 Martin Luther 6.2 Council of Trent 6.3 Protestant confessions 6.4 Synod of Jerusalem

7 Apocrypha 8 Modern Bibles 9 References 10 External links

Fifty Bibles of Constantine[edit] Main article: Fifty Bibles of Constantine In 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius
Eusebius
to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius[2] recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
and Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus
are examples of these Bibles. Those codices contain almost a full version of the Septuagint; Vaticanus is only lacking 1– 3 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
and Sinaiticus is lacking 2–3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah.[3] Together with the Peshitta
Peshitta
and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian
Christian
Bibles.[4] There is no evidence among the canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon, however, Jerome
Jerome
(347-420), in his Prologue to Judith, makes the claim that the Book
Book
of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures".[5] The Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible[edit] Main article: Vulgate Pope Damasus's commissioning of the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West.[6] This list, given below, was purportedly endorsed by Pope Damasus I:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kings, 2 books of Chronicles, Job, Psalter of David, 5 books of Solomon, 12 books of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Maccabees, and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John.

The two books of Esdras refer to the Book
Book
of Ezra and the Book
Book
of Nehemiah like what is appeared as one book (‘Ezrā) in the Hebrew Bible; Jerome, as the author of the Vulgate, in the preface of the Books of Samuel
Books of Samuel
and Kings explains the following: "To the third class belong the Hagiographa, of which the first book begins with Job, ... the eighth, Ezra, which itself is likewise divided amongst Greeks and Latins into two books; the ninth is Esther."[7] Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
is often considered to be the father of the Catholic canon. Purporting to date from a "Council of Rome" under Pope Damasus I in 382, the so-called "Damasian list" appended to the Decretum Gelasianum[8] gives a list identical to what would be the Canon of Trent,[9] and, though the text may in fact not be Damasian, it is at least a valuable sixth century compilation.[10][11] The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian
Christian
Church states that, "A council probably held at Rome in 382 under St. Damasus gave a complete list of the canonical books of both the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament
New Testament
(also known as the 'Gelasian Decree' because it was reproduced by Gelasius in 495), which is identical with the list given at Trent."[12] Augustine and the North African councils[edit] Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
declared without qualification that one is to "prefer those that are received by all Catholic Churches to those which some of them do not receive" (On Christian
Christian
Doctrines 2.12). By "Catholic Churches" Augustine meant those who concurred in this judgment, since many Eastern Churches rejected some of the books Augustine upheld as universally received. In the same passage, Augustine asserted that these dissenting churches should be outweighed by the opinions of "the more numerous and weightier churches", which would include Eastern Churches, the prestige of which Augustine stated moved him to include the Book
Book
of Hebrews among the canonical writings, though he had reservation about its authorship.[13] Augustine called three synods on canonicity: the Synod of Hippo in 393, the Council of Carthage (397), and the Council of Carthage (419). (M 237-8). Each of these reiterated the same Church law: "nothing shall be read in church under the name of the divine scriptures" except the Old Testament
Old Testament
(arguably including the books later called Deuterocanonicals) and the canonical books of the New Testament. These decrees also declared by fiat that Epistle to the Hebrews
Epistle to the Hebrews
was written by Paul, for a time ending all debate on the subject. Philip Schaff
Philip Schaff
says that "the council of Hippo in 393, and the third (according to another reckoning the sixth) council of Carthage in 397, under the influence of Augustine, who attended both, fixed the catholic canon of the Holy Scriptures, including the Apocrypha of the Old Testament, ... This decision of the transmarine church however, was subject to ratification; and the concurrence of the Roman see
Roman see
it received when Innocent I and Gelasius I (A.D. 414) repeated the same index of biblical books. This canon remained undisturbed till the sixteenth century, and was sanctioned by the council of Trent at its fourth session."[14] According to Lee Martin McDonald, the Revelation was added to the list in 419.[15] These councils were convened under the influence of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.[16][17][18] A consensus emerges[edit] See also: Defining scripture The division of opinion over the canon was not over the core, but over the "fringe",[19] and from the fourth century, there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament
New Testament
canon (as it is today),[20] and by the fifth century the East, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book
Book
of Revelation and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon, at least for the New Testament.[21] This period marks the beginning of a more widely recognized canon, although the inclusion of some books was still debated: Epistle
Epistle
to Hebrews, James, 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude and Revelation. Grounds for debate included the question of authorship of these books (note that the so-called Damasian "Council at Rome" had already rejected John the Apostle's authorship of 2 and 3 John, while retaining the books), their suitability for use (Revelation at that time was already being interpreted in a wide variety of heretical ways), and how widely they were actually being used (2 Peter being amongst the most weakly attested of all the books in the Christian
Christian
canon). Christian
Christian
scholars assert that when these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church".[16][22][23] Eastern canons[edit] See also: Orthodox Christianity The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making a sharp delineation with regard to the canon. They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted (e.g. the classification of Eusebius, see also Antilegomena) and were less often disposed to assert that the books which they rejected possessed no spiritual quality at all. For example, the Trullan Synod of 691–692, which was rejected by Pope Constantine
Pope Constantine
(see also Pentarchy), endorsed the following lists of canonical writings: the Apostolic Canons (c. 385), the Synod of Laodicea (c. 363), the Third Synod of Carthage (c. 397), and the 39th Festal Letter of Athanasius
Athanasius
(367). And yet, these lists do not agree. Similarly, the New Testament
New Testament
canons of the Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences.[24] The Revelation of John
Revelation of John
is one of the most uncertain books; it was not translated into Georgian until the 10th century, and it has never been included in the official lectionary of the Eastern Orthodox Church, whether in Byzantine or modern times. Peshitta[edit] Main article: Peshitta The Peshitta
Peshitta
is the standard version of the Bible
Bible
for churches in the Syriac tradition. Most of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament are found in the Syriac, and the Wisdom of Sirach
Wisdom of Sirach
is held to have been translated from the Hebrew
Hebrew
and not from the Septuagint.[25] This New Testament, originally excluding certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become a standard by the early 5th century. The five excluded books were added in the Harklean Version (616 AD) of Thomas of Harqel.[26] The standard United Bible
Bible
Societies 1905 edition of the New Testament of the Peshitta
Peshitta
was based on editions prepared by Syriacists Philip E. Pusey (d.1880), George Gwilliam (d.1914) and John Gwyn.[27] All twenty seven books of the common western canon of the New Testament
New Testament
are included in this British & Foreign Bible
Bible
Society's 1905 Peshitta edition. Armenian canon[edit] The Armenian Bible
Bible
introduces one addition: a third letter to the Corinthians, also found in the Acts of Paul, which became canonized in the Armenian Church, but is not part of the Armenian Bible
Bible
today. Revelation, however, was not accepted into the Armenian Bible
Bible
until c. 1200 AD. when Archbishop Nerses arranged an Armenian Synod at Constantinople to introduce the text.[28] Still, there were unsuccessful attempts even as late as 1290 AD to include in the Armenian canon several apocryphal books: Advice of the Mother of God to the Apostles, the Books of Criapos, and the ever-popular Epistle
Epistle
of Barnabas. The Armenian Apostolic
Armenian Apostolic
church at times has included the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs in its Old Testament
Old Testament
and the Third Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians, but does not always list it with the other 27 canonical New Testament
New Testament
books. East African canons[edit]

The New Testament
New Testament
of the Coptic Bible, adopted by the Egyptian Church, does not include the two Epistles of Clement.[28] The canon of the Tewahedo Churches is somewhat looser than for other traditional Christian
Christian
groups, and the order, naming, and chapter/verse division of some of the books is also slightly different. The Ethiopian "narrow" canon includes 81 books altogether: The 27 book New Testament; those Old Testament
Old Testament
books found in the Septuagint
Septuagint
and accepted by the Orthodox; as well as Enoch, Jubilees, 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Rest of the Words of Baruch
Rest of the Words of Baruch
and 3 books of Meqabyan
Meqabyan
(these three Ethiopian books of Maccabees are entirely different in content from the four Books of Maccabees known elsewhere). The "broader" Ethiopian New Testament
New Testament
canon includes four books of "Sinodos" (church practices), two "Books of Covenant", "Ethiopic Clement", and "Ethiopic Didascalia" (Apostolic Church-Ordinances). However, these books have never been printed or widely studied. This "broader" canon is also sometimes said to include, with the Old Testament, an eight-part history of the Jews based on the writings of Flavius Josephus, and known as "Pseudo-Josephus" or "Joseph ben Gurion" (Yosēf walda Koryon).[29][30]

Reformation
Reformation
era[edit] See also: Reformation

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Before the Protestant Reformation, there was the Council of Florence (1439–1443). During the life, and with the approval of this council, Eugenius IV
Eugenius IV
issued several Bulls, or decrees, with a view to restore the Oriental schismatic bodies to communion with Rome, and according to the common teaching of theologians these documents are infallible statements of doctrine. The "Decretum pro Jacobitis" contains a complete list of the books received by the Church as inspired, but omits, perhaps advisedly, the terms canon and canonical. The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pass on their canonicity.[31] It was not until the Protestant Reformers began to insist upon the supreme authority of Scripture alone (the doctrine of sola scriptura) that it became necessary to establish a dogmatic canon.[citation needed] Martin Luther[edit] Main article: Luther's canon Martin Luther
Martin Luther
was troubled by four New Testament
New Testament
books: Jude, James, Hebrews, and Revelation; and though he placed them in a secondary position relative to the rest, he did not exclude them. Martin Luther proposed removing these Antilegomena, the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon,[32][33] echoing the consensus of some Catholics such as Cardinal Cajetan and Erasmus, and partially because they were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola gratia and sola fide, but this was not generally accepted among his followers. However, these books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible
Bible
to this day.[34][35] Luther also removed the so-called "deuterocanonical" books from the Old Testament
Old Testament
of his translation of the Bible, placing them in the "Apocrypha, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read".[36] Council of Trent[edit] Main article: Canon of Trent In light of Martin Luther's demands, the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
on 8 April 1546 approved the present Catholic Bible
Bible
canon, which includes the Deuterocanonical
Deuterocanonical
Books, and the decision was confirmed by an anathema by vote (24 yea, 15 nay, 16 abstain).[37] The council confirming the same list as produced at the Council of Florence
Council of Florence
in 1442,[38] Augustine's 397-419 Councils of Carthage,[14] and probably Damasus' 382 Council of Rome.[9][12] The Old Testament
Old Testament
books that had been rejected by Luther were later termed deuterocanonical, not indicating a lesser degree of inspiration, but a later time of final approval. Beyond these books, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate
Vulgate
contained in the Appendix several books considered as apocryphal by the council: Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras.[39] Protestant confessions[edit] See also: Protestant Bible Several Protestant confessions of faith identify the 27 books of the New Testament
New Testament
canon by name, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession
Belgic Confession
(1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647). The Thirty-Nine Articles, issued by the Church of England in 1563, names the books of the Old Testament, but not the New Testament. The Belgic Confession[40] and Westminster Confession named the 39 books in the Old Testament
Old Testament
and, apart from the aforementioned New Testament
New Testament
books, expressly rejected the canonicity of any others.[41] None of the confessional statements issued by any Lutheran church includes an explicit list of canonical books.[citation needed] Luther himself did not accept the canonicity of the Apocrypha although he believed that its books were "Not Held Equal to the Scriptures, but Are Useful and Good to Read".[42] Synod of Jerusalem[edit] See also: Development of the Old Testament canon
Development of the Old Testament canon
§ Eastern Orthodox Canon The Synod of Jerusalem[43] in 1672 decreed the Greek Orthodox Canon which is similar to the one decided by the Council of Trent. The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
generally consider the Septuagint
Septuagint
is the received version of Old Testament
Old Testament
scripture, considered itself inspired in agreement with some of the Fathers, such as St Augustine, followed by all other modern translations.[44] They use the word Anagignoskomena (Ἀναγιγνωσκόμενα "readable, worthy to be read") to describe the books of the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
that are not present in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Tanakh. The Eastern Orthodox books of the Old Testament include the Roman Catholic deuterocanonical books, plus 3 Maccabees and 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
(also included in the Clementine Vulgate), while Baruch is divided from the Epistle
Epistle
of Jeremiah, making a total of 49 Old Testament
Old Testament
books in contrast with the Protestant 39-book canon.[45] Other texts printed in Orthodox Bibles are considered of some value (like the additional Psalm 151, and the Prayer of Manasseh) or are included as an appendix (like the Greek 4 Maccabees, and the Slavonic 2 Esdras).[45] Apocrypha[edit] Main articles: Biblical apocrypha
Biblical apocrypha
and New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Most of the Old Testament
Old Testament
books of the Protestant Apocrypha are called deuterocanonical by Catholics per the Council of Trent, and all of them are called anagignoskomena by the Eastern Orthodox per the Synod of Jerusalem. The Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
accepts "the Apocrypha for instruction in life and manners, but not for the establishment of doctrine",[46] and many "lectionary readings in The Book
Book
of Common Prayer are taken from the Apocrypha", with these lessons being "read in the same ways as those from the Old Testament".[47] The Protestant Apocrypha contains three books (3 Esdras, 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) that are accepted by many Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches as canonical, but are regarded as non-canonical by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and are therefore not included in modern Catholic Bibles.[48] Various books that were never canonized by any church, but are known to have existed in antiquity, are similar to the New Testament
New Testament
and often claim apostolic authorship, are known as the New Testament apocrypha. Some of these writings have been cited as scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament
New Testament
to the 27 books of the modern canon.[49][50] Thus Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches generally do not view these New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha as part of the Bible.[50] Modern Bibles[edit] Today, most biblical compilations comply with either the standards set forth by the British and Foreign Bible
Bible
Society in 1825 which corresponds to the Protestant Bible, or with one that includes the deuterocanonical books prescribed for Catholic Bibles and the anagignoskomena for Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bibles. Other common variations include the pocket-sized Gideons International versions that include the New Testament, Psalms, and Proverbs although the selection of books for inclusion does not comprise a canon. References[edit]

^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Canon of the New Testament". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Apol. Const. 4 ^ Martin Hengel (2004), Septuagint
Septuagint
As Christian
Christian
Scripture, A&C Black, p. 57, ISBN 9780567082879  ^ The Canon Debate, pages 414-415, for the entire paragraph ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Book
Book
of Judith". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. : Canonicity: "..."the Synod of Nicaea is said to have accounted it as Sacred Scripture" (Praef. in Lib.). It is true that no such declaration is to be found in the Canons of Nicaea, and it is uncertain whether St. Jerome
Jerome
is referring to the use made of the book in the discussions of the council, or whether he was misled by some spurious canons attributed to that council" ^ Bruce, F. F. (1988). The Canon of Scripture. InterVarsity Press. p. 225.  ^ Jerome: The Principal Works of St. Jerome, CCEL  ^ Decretum Gelasianum ^ a b Lindberg (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. p. 15.  ^ Bruce, F. F. (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press. p. 234.  ^ The "Damasian Canon" was published by C. H. Turner in JTS, vol. 1, 1900, pp. 554–560. ^ a b F.L. Cross, E.A. Livingstone, ed. (1983), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian
Christian
Church (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 232  ^ Corey Keating, The Criteria Used for Developing the New Testament Canon. ^ a b Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX. Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy", History of the Christian Church, CCEL  ^ McDonald & Sanders' The Canon Debate, Appendix D-2, note 19: "Revelation was added later in 419 at the subsequent synod of Carthage." ^ a b Ferguson, Everett. "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament
New Testament
Canon", in The Canon Debate, eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320 ^ F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 230 ^ cf. Augustine, De Civitate Dei 22.8. ^ Lee M. MacDonald, The Formation of the Christian
Christian
Biblical Canon, 1995, p 132 ^ F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 215 ^ P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans, eds. (1970). The Cambridge History of the Bible
Bible
(volume 1). Cambridge University Press. p. 305. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Metzger, Bruce (1987). The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origins, Development, and Significance. Oxford: Clarendon. pp. 237–238.  ^ Bruce, F. F. (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press. p. 97.  ^ Metzger, Bruce M. (1987). The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ Syriac Versions of the Bible
Bible
by Thomas Nicol ^ Geoffrey W. Bromiley The International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia: Q-Z 1995– Page 976 "Printed editions of the Peshitta
Peshitta
frequently contain these books in order to fill the gaps. D. Harklean Version. The Harklean version is connected with the labors of Thomas of Harqel. When thousands were fleeing Khosrou's invading armies, ..." ^ Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium: Subsidia Catholic University of America, 1987 "37 ff. The project was founded by Philip E. Pusey who started the collation work in 1872. However, he could not see it to completion since he died in 1880. Gwilliam, ^ a b "Reliability". Theological Perspectives. Archived from the original on 2009-06-15.  ^ Ethiopian Canon, Islamic Awareness. ^ "Fathers". Christian
Christian
Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL).  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Canon of the Old Testament". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  section titled "The Council of Florence
Council of Florence
1442" ^ "Martin Luther". Archived from the original on 2008-03-22.  ^ "Luther's Treatment of the 'Disputed Books' of the New Testament".  ^ "Gedruckte Ausgaben der Lutherbibel von 1545". Archived from the original on 2001-05-14.  note order: …Hebräer, Jakobus, Judas, Offenbarung ^ "German Bible
Bible
Versions".  ^ Fallows, Samuel; et al., eds. (1910) [1901]. The Popular and Critical Bible
Bible
Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Fully Defining and Explaining All Religious Terms, Including Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Archæological and Doctrinal Themes. The Howard-Severance co. p. 521.  ^ Metzger, Bruce M. (March 13, 1997). The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance. Oxford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 0-19-826954-4. Finally on 8 April 1546, by a vote of 24 to 15, with 16 abstensions, the Council issued a decree (De Canonicis Scripturis) in which, for the first time in the history of the Church, the question of the contents of the Bible
Bible
was made an absolute article of faith and confirmed by an anathema.  ^ "Council of Basel 1431-45 A". Papalencyclicals.net. Retrieved 7 January 2015.  ^ Praefatio, Biblia Sacra Vulgata, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1983, p. XX. ISBN 3-438-05303-9 ^ Belgic Confession
Belgic Confession
4. Canonical Books of the Holy Scripture ^ The Westminster Confession rejected the canonicity of the Apocrypha stating that "The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon of the Scripture, and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings." Westminster Confession of Faith, 1646 ^ Brecht, Martin. Martin Luther. Volume 3, p. 98 James L. Schaaf, trans. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985–1993. ISBN 0-8006-2813-6 ^ Schaff's Creeds ^ "The Orthodox Study Bible" 2008, Thomas Nelson Inc. p. XI ^ a b S. T. Kimbrough (2005). Orthodox And Wesleyan Scriptual Understanding And Practice. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-88141-301-4.  ^ Ewert, David (11 May 2010). A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations. Zondervan. p. 104. ISBN 9780310872436.  ^ Thomas, Owen C.; Wondra, Ellen K. (1 July 2002). Introduction to Theology, 3rd Edition. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 56. ISBN 9780819218971.  ^ Henze, Matthias; Boccaccini, Gabriele (20 November 2013). Fourth Ezra and Second Baruch: Reconstruction after the Fall. Brill. p. 383. ISBN 9789004258815.  ^ Van Liere, Frans (2014). An Introduction to the Medieval Bible. Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–69.  ^ a b Ehrman, Bart D. (2003). Lost Christianities: Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. pp. 230–231. 

External links[edit]

Michael Barber, Loose Canons: The Development of the Old Testament (Part 1), The Sacred Page  Dale B. Martin, Introduction to New Testament
New Testament
History and Literature" course materials, Open Yale course, Yale University  Pamphili, Eusebius, Schaff, Philip, ed., Ecclesiastical History, Christian
Christian
Classics Ethereal Library . The Development of the Canon of the New Testament
New Testament
– includes very detailed charts and direct links to ancient witnesses

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Background Gospels Acts Pauline epistles General epistles Revelation

Ante-Nicene Period

Judaism split Justin Martyr Ignatius Persecution Fathers Irenaeus Marcionism Canon Tertullian Montanism Origen

Late ancient

Constantine Monasticism Councils: Nicaea I Creed Athanasius Arianism Jerome Augustine Constantinople I Ephesus I Chalcedon

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Orthodoxy Church of the East Oriental Orthodoxy Chrysostom Nestorianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Fall of Constantinople Armenia Georgia Greece Egypt Syria Ethiopia Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Russia America

Middle Ages

Pelagianism Gregory I Celtic Germanic Scandinavian Kievan Rus' Investiture Anselm Abelard Bernard of Clairvaux Bogomils Cathars Crusades Waldensians Inquisition Scholasticism Dominic Francis Bonaventure Aquinas Wycliffe Avignon Papal Schism Bohemian Reformation Hus Conciliarism

Catholicism

Primacy development Papacy Timeline Lateran IV Trent Counter-Reformation Thomas More Leo X Guadalupe Jesuits Jansenists Xavier Monastery dissolution Wars Teresa Vatican I and II Modernism

Reformation

Protestantism

Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist–Arminian debate Arminianism Dort Wars

Lutheranism

Martin Luther 95 Theses Diet of Worms Melanchthon Orthodoxy Eucharist Book
Book
of Concord

Calvinism

Zwingli Calvin Presbyterianism Scotland Knox TULIP Dort Three Forms of Unity Westminster

Anglicanism

Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War

Anabaptism

Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth

1640–1789

Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans

1789–present

Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian
Christian
right Christian
Christian
left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protest

.