HOME
The Info List - Christendom


--- Advertisement ---



Christendom[1][2][page needed] has several meanings. In one contemporary sense, as used in a secular or Protestant context, it may refer to the " Christian
Christian
world": worldwide community of Christians,[citation needed] the adherents of Christianity,[citation needed] the Christian-majority countries,[citation needed] the countries in which Christianity
Christianity
dominates[3] or prevails,[1] or, in the Catholic
Catholic
sense of the word, the nations in which Catholic Christianity
Christianity
is the established religion. Since the spread of Christianity
Christianity
from the Levant
Levant
to Europe
Europe
and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom
Christendom
has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West. Consequently, different versions of the Christian
Christian
religion arose with their own beliefs and practices, centred around the cities of Rome
Rome
(Western Christianity, whose community was called Western or Latin Christendom[4]) and Constantinople
Constantinople
(Eastern Christianity, whose community was called Eastern Christendom[5]). From the 11th to 13th centuries, Latin Christendom
Christendom
rose to the central role of the Western world.[6] In its historical sense, the term usually refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period
Early Modern period
during which the Christian
Christian
world represented a geopolitical power that was juxtaposed with both the pagan and especially the Muslim world. In the traditional Roman Catholic
Catholic
sense of the word, it refers to the sum total of nations in which the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the established religion of the state or to those with ecclesiastical concordats with the Holy See.

Contents

1 Terminology and usage

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Definitions 1.3 Related terms

2 History

2.1 Rise of Christendom 2.2 Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and Early Middle Ages 2.3 Later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance 2.4 Reformation
Reformation
and Early Modern era 2.5 End of Christendom

3 Classical culture

3.1 Art and literature

3.1.1 Writings and poetry 3.1.2 Supplemental arts 3.1.3 Illumination 3.1.4 Iconography 3.1.5 Architecture

3.2 Philosophy

4 Christian
Christian
civilization

4.1 Medieval
Medieval
conditions 4.2 Renaissance
Renaissance
innovations

5 Demographics

5.1 Geographic spread 5.2 Number of adherents 5.3 Notable Christian
Christian
organizations

6 Christianity
Christianity
law and ethics

6.1 Church and state framing

6.1.1 Democratic ideology

6.2 Women's roles

7 Major Christian
Christian
denominations

7.1 Sizes of denomination

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links

Terminology and usage[edit] Etymology[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Anglo-Saxon term cristendom appears to have been invented in the 9th century by a scribe somewhere in southern England, possibly at the court of king Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
of Wessex. The scribe was translating Paulus Orosius' book History Against the Pagans (c. 416) and in need for a term to express the concept of the universal culture focused on Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[7] It had the sense now taken by Christianity
Christianity
(as is still the case with the cognate Dutch christendom , where it denotes mostly the religion itself, just like the German Christentum).[citation needed] The current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity
Christianity
is the dominant religion"[3] emerged in Late Middle English
Late Middle English
(by c. 1400).[citation needed] This semantic development happened independently in the languages of late medieval Europe, which leads to the confusing semantics of English Christendom
Christendom
equalling German Christenheit, Dutch christenheid, French chrétienté vs. English Christianity
Christianity
equalling German Christentum, Dutch christendom, French christianisme.[citation needed] The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity
Christianity
at that time both theologically and politically. "Christendom" as a geopolitical term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages, and arguably during the European wars of religion
European wars of religion
and the Ottoman wars in Europe.[citation needed] Definitions[edit] Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall stated (1997) that "Christendom" [...] means literally the dominion or sovereignty of the Christian
Christian
religion."[3] Thomas John Curry, Roman Catholic
Catholic
auxiliary bishop of Los Angeles, defined (2001) Christendom
Christendom
as "the system dating from the fourth century by which governments upheld and promoted Christianity."[8] Curry states that the end of Christendom came about because modern governments refused to "uphold the teachings, customs, ethos, and practice of Christianity."[8] British church historian Diarmaid MacCulloch
Diarmaid MacCulloch
described (2010) Christendom
Christendom
as "the union between Christianity
Christianity
and secular power."[9] Related terms[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Further information: Ecumene
Ecumene
and Church militant and church triumphant The Christian
Christian
world is also collectively known as the Corpus Christianum, translated as the Christian
Christian
body, meaning the community of all Christians.[citation needed] The Christian
Christian
polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian
Christian
equivalent of the Muslim Ummah.[citation needed]

The word "Christendom" is also used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity.[clarification needed] A more secular meaning can denote the fact that the term Christendom
Christendom
refers to Christians
Christians
as a group, the "political Christian
Christian
world", as an informal[clarification needed] cultural hegemony that Christianity
Christianity
has traditionally enjoyed in the West.[citation needed] In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian-majority countries,[citation needed] which, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith. Unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom
Christendom
is more complex.[dubious – discuss] There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word that is much like the terms Western world, known world or Free World. When Thomas F. Connolly said, "There isn't enough power in all Christendom
Christendom
to make that airplane what we want!", he was simply using a figure of speech, although it is true that during the Cold War, just as the totalitarianism of the Communist Bloc presented a contrast to the liberty of the Free World, the state atheism of the Communist Bloc contrasted with the religious freedom and the powerful religious institutions in North America
North America
and Western Europe. The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity
Christianity
and Christendom"; many even attribute Christianity
Christianity
for being the link that created a unified European identity.[10] History[edit] See also: History of Christianity
Christianity
and History of Western civilization Rise of Christendom[edit] See also: Early Christianity
Christianity
and Hellenistic Judaism

This T-and-O map, which abstracts the then known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the center of the world.

In the beginning of Christendom,[citation needed] early Christianity was a religion spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect,[11] which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity. It may be divided into two distinct phases: the apostolic period, when the first apostles were alive and organizing the Church, and the post-apostolic period, when an early episcopal structure developed, whereby bishoprics were governed by bishops (overseers). The post-apostolic period concerns the time roughly after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations. The earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity (Greek Χριστιανισμός) and Catholic
Catholic
(Greek καθολικός), dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
c. 107.[12] Early Christendom
Christendom
would close at the end of imperial persecution of Christians
Christians
after the ascension of Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
in AD 313 and the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325.[citation needed] According to Malcolm Muggeridge
Malcolm Muggeridge
(1980), Christ
Christ
founded Christianity, but Constantine founded Christendom.[13] Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall dates the 'inauguration of Christendom' to the 4th century, with Constantine playing the primary role (so much so that he equates Christendom
Christendom
with "Constantinianism") and Theodosius I
Theodosius I
(Edict of Thessalonica, 380) and Justinian I[a] secondary roles.[15] See also: State church of the Roman Empire Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and Early Middle Ages[edit] Further information: First seven Ecumenical Councils Further information: Germanic Christianity

Icon
Icon
depicting the Emperor Constantine
Emperor Constantine
and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (AD 325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed
Creed
of 381.

Spread of Christianity
Christianity
by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity
Christianity
up to AD 325)

"Christendom" has referred to the medieval and renaissance notion of the Christian
Christian
world as a sociopolitical polity. In essence, the earliest vision of Christendom
Christendom
was a vision of a Christian
Christian
theocracy, a government founded upon and upholding Christian
Christian
values, whose institutions are spread through and over with Christian
Christian
doctrine. In this period, members of the Christian
Christian
clergy wield political authority. The specific relationship between the political leaders and the clergy varied but, in theory, the national and political divisions were at times subsumed under the leadership of the church as an institution. This model of church-state relations was accepted by various Church leaders and political leaders in European history.[16][full citation needed] The Church gradually became a defining institution of the Empire.[17] Emperor Constantine
Emperor Constantine
issued the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
in 313 proclaiming toleration for the Christian
Christian
religion, and convoked the First Council of Nicaea in 325 whose Nicene Creed
Creed
included belief in "one holy catholic and apostolic Church". Emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
made Nicene Christianity
Christianity
the state church of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380.[18] As the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
disintegrated into feudal kingdoms and principalities, the concept of Christendom
Christendom
changed as the western church became one of five patriarchal of the Pentarchy and the Christians
Christians
of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
developed. The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire was the last bastion of Christendom.[19] Christendom
Christendom
would take a turn with the rise of the Franks, a Germanic tribe who converted to the Christian
Christian
faith and entered into communion with Rome. On Christmas Day 800 AD, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne
Charlemagne
resulting in the creation of another Christian
Christian
king beside the Christian
Christian
emperor in the Byzantine
Byzantine
state.[20][unreliable source?] The Carolingian Empire created a definition of Christendom
Christendom
in juxtaposition with the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, that of a distributed versus centralized culture respectively.[21] The classical heritage flourished throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in both the Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek East and the Latin West. In the Greek philosopher Plato's ideal state there are three major classes, which was representative of the idea of the “tripartite soul”, which is expressive of three functions or capacities of the human soul: “reason”, “the spirited element”, and “appetites” (or “passions”). Will Durant
Will Durant
made a convincing case that certain prominent features of Plato's ideal community where discernible in the organization, dogma and effectiveness of "the" Medieval
Medieval
Church in Europe:[22]

... For a thousand years Europe
Europe
was ruled by an order of guardians considerably like that which was visioned by our philosopher. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it was customary to classify the population of Christendom
Christendom
into laboratores (workers), bellatores (soldiers), and oratores (clergy). The last group, though small in number, monopolized the instruments and opportunities of culture, and ruled with almost unlimited sway half of the most powerful continent on the globe. The clergy, like Plato's guardians, were placed in authority... by their talent as shown in ecclesiastical studies and administration, by their disposition to a life of meditation and simplicity, and ... by the influence of their relatives with the powers of state and church. In the latter half of the period in which they ruled [800 AD onwards], the clergy were as free from family cares as even Plato could desire [for such guardians]... [Clerical] Celibacy was part of the psychological structure of the power of the clergy; for on the one hand they were unimpeded by the narrowing egoism of the family, and on the other their apparent superiority to the call of the flesh added to the awe in which lay sinners held them....[22] In the latter half of the period in which they ruled, the clergy were as free from family cares as even Plato could desire.[22]

Later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance[edit] Main articles: High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Late Middle Ages Further information: East–West Schism, Western Schism, Crusades, and Reconquista Further information: Latin Empire, Frankokratia, Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, and Fall of Constantinople After the collapse of Charlemagne's empire, the southern remnants of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
became a collection of states loosely connected to the Holy See
Holy See
of Rome. Tensions between Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
and secular rulers ran high, as the pontiff exerted control over their temporal counterparts in the west and vice versa. The pontificate of Innocent III is considered the height of temporal power of the papacy. The Corpus Christianum described the then-current notion of the community of all Christians
Christians
united under the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church. The community was to be guided by Christian values in its politics, economics and social life.[23] Its legal basis was the corpus iuris canonica (body of canon law).[24][25][26][27] In the East, Christendom
Christendom
became more defined as the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire's gradual loss of territory to an expanding Islam
Islam
and the muslim conquest of Persia. This caused Christianity
Christianity
to become important to the Byzantine
Byzantine
identity. Before the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
which divided the Church religiously, there had been the notion of a universal Christendom
Christendom
that included the East and the West. After the East–West Schism, hopes of regaining religious unity with the West were ended by the Fourth Crusade, when Crusaders conquered the Byzantine
Byzantine
capital of Constantinople
Constantinople
and hastened the decline of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
on the path to its destruction.[28][29][30] With the breakup of the Byzantine Empire into individual nations with nationalist Orthodox Churches, the term Christendom
Christendom
described Western Europe, Catholicism, Orthodox Byzantines, and other Eastern rites of the Church.[31][32] The Catholic
Catholic
Church's peak of authority over all European Christians and their common endeavours of the Christian
Christian
community — for example, the Crusades, the fight against the Moors
Moors
in the Iberian Peninsula and against the Ottomans in the Balkans
Balkans
— helped to develop a sense of communal identity against the obstacle of Europe's deep political divisions. The popes, formally just the bishops of Rome, claimed to be the focus of all Christendom, which was largely recognised in Western Christendom
Christendom
from the 11th century until the Reformation, but not in Eastern Christendom.[33] Moreover, this authority was also sometimes abused, and fostered the Inquisition
Inquisition
and anti-Jewish pogroms, to root out divergent elements and create a religiously uniform community.[citation needed] Ultimately, the Inquisition
Inquisition
was done away with by order of Pope Innocent III.[34] Christendom
Christendom
ultimately was led into specific crisis in the late Middle Ages, when the kings of France managed to establish a French national church during the 14th century and the papacy became ever more aligned with the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the German Nation. Known as the Western Schism, western Christendom
Christendom
was a split between three men, who were driven by politics rather than any real theological disagreement for simultaneously claiming to be the true pope. The Avignon Papacy developed a reputation of corruption that estranged major parts of Western Christendom. The Avignon schism was ended by the Council of Constance.[35] Before the modern period, Christendom
Christendom
was in a general crisis at the time of the Renaissance
Renaissance
Popes because of the moral laxity of these pontiffs and their willingness to seek and rely on temporal power as secular rulers did.[citation needed] Many in the Catholic
Catholic
Church's hierarchy in the Renaissance
Renaissance
became increasingly entangled with insatiable greed for material wealth and temporal power, which led to many reform movements, some merely wanting a moral reformation of the Church's clergy, while others repudiated the Church and separated from it in order to form new sects.[citation needed] The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
produced ideas or institutions by which men living in society could be held together in harmony. In the early 16th century, Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
(The Book of the Courtier) laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady, while Machiavelli
Machiavelli
cast a jaundiced eye on "la verità effetuale delle cose" — the actual truth of things — in The Prince, composed, humanist style, chiefly of parallel ancient and modern examples of Virtù. Some Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or renaissance humanism (cf. Erasmus). The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
fell partly into general neglect under the Renaissance
Renaissance
Popes, whose inability to govern the Church by showing personal example of high moral standards set the climate for what would ultimately become the Protestant Reformation.[36] During the Renaissance
Renaissance
the papacy was mainly run by the wealthy families and also had strong secular interests. To safeguard Rome
Rome
and the connected Papal States the popes became necessarily involved in temporal matters, even leading armies, as the great patron of arts Pope Julius II did. It during these intermediate times popes strove to make Rome the capital of Christendom
Christendom
while projecting it, through art, architecture, and literature, as the center of a Golden Age of unity, order, and peace.[37] Professor Frederick J. McGinness described Rome
Rome
as essential in understanding the legacy the Church and its representatives encapsulated best by The Eternal City:

No other city in Europe
Europe
matches Rome
Rome
in its traditions, history, legacies, and influence in the Western world. Rome
Rome
in the Renaissance under the papacy not only acted as guardian and transmitter of these elements stemming from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
but also assumed the role as artificer and interpreter of its myths and meanings for the peoples of Europe
Europe
from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to modern times... Under the patronage of the popes, whose wealth and income were exceeded only by their ambitions, the city became a cultural center for master architects, sculptors, musicians, painters, and artisans of every kind...In its myth and message, Rome
Rome
had become the sacred city of the popes, the prime symbol of a triumphant Catholicism, the center of orthodox Christianity, a new Jerusalem.[38]

It is clearly noticeable that the popes of the Italian Renaissance have been subjected by many writers with an overly harsh tone. Pope Julius II for example was not only an effective secular leader in military affairs, a deviously effective politician but foremost one of the greatest patron of the Renaissance
Renaissance
period and person who also encouraged open criticism from noted humanists.[39] The blossoming of renaissance humanism was made very much possible due to the universality of the institutions of Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and represented by personalities such as Pope Pius II, Nicolaus Copernicus, Leon Battista Alberti, Desiderius Erasmus, sir Thomas More, Bartolomé de Las Casas, Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Teresa of Ávila. George Santayana
George Santayana
in his work The Life of Reason postulated the tenets of the all encompassing order the Church had brought and as the repository of the legacy of classical antiquity:[40]

The enterprise of individuals or of small aristocratic bodies has meantime sown the world which we call civilised with some seeds and nuclei of order. There are scattered about a variety of churches, industries, academies, and governments. But the universal order once dreamt of and nominally almost established, the empire of universal peace, all-permeating rational art, and philosophical worship, is mentioned no more. An unformulated conception, the prerational ethics of private privilege and national unity, fills the background of men's minds. It represents feudal traditions rather than the tendency really involved in contemporary industry, science, or philanthropy. Those dark ages, from which our political practice is derived, had a political theory which we should do well to study; for their theory about a universal empire and a catholic church was in turn the echo of a former age of reason, when a few men conscious of ruling the world had for a moment sought to survey it as a whole and to rule it justly.[40]

Reformation
Reformation
and Early Modern era[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Further information: Reformation, Counter-Reformation, History of Protestantism, and European wars of religion Further information: Ottoman wars in Europe, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, and History of the Serbian–Turkish wars Further information: Jesuit China missions
Jesuit China missions
and Spanish missions in the Americas Developments in western philosophy and European events brought change to the notion of the Corpus Christianum. The Hundred Years' War accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a centralized state. The rise of strong, centralized monarchies[41] denoted the European transition from feudalism to capitalism. By the end of the Hundred Years' War, both France and England were able to raise enough money through taxation to create independent standing armies. In the Wars of the Roses, Henry Tudor took the crown of England. His heir, the absolute king Henry VIII establishing the English church.[42] In modern history, the Reformation
Reformation
and rise of modernity in the early 16th century entailed a change in the Corpus Christianum. In the Holy Roman Empire, the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
of 1555 officially ended the idea among secular leaders that all Christians
Christians
must be united under one church. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio ("whose the region is, his religion") established the religious, political and geographic divisions of Christianity, and this was established with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which legally ended the concept of a single Christian
Christian
hegemony in the territories of the Holy Roman Empire, despite the Catholic
Catholic
Church's doctrine that it alone is the one true Church founded by Christ. Subsequently, each government determined the religion of their own state. Christians
Christians
living in states where their denomination was not the established one were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.[citation needed] The European wars of religion
European wars of religion
are usually taken to have ended with the Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
(1648),[43] or arguably, including the Nine Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in this period, with the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
of 1713.[citation needed] In the 18th century, the focus shifts away from religious conflicts, either between Christian
Christian
factions or against the external threat of Islamic factions.[citation needed] End of Christendom[edit] The European Miracle, the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
and the formation of the great colonial empires together with the beginning decline of the Ottoman Empire mark the end of the geopolitical "history of Christendom".[citation needed] Instead, the focus of Western history shifts to the development of the nation-state, accompanied by increasing atheism and secularism, culminating with the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
at the turn of the 19th century.[citation needed] Writing
Writing
in 1997, Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall argued that Christendom
Christendom
had either fallen already or was in its death throes; although its end was gradual and not as clear to pin down as its 4th-century establishment, the "transition to the post-Constantinian, or post-Christendom, situation (...) has already been in process for a century or two," beginning with the 18th-century rationalist Enlightenment and the French Revolution
French Revolution
(the first attempt to topple the Christian
Christian
establishment).[15] American Catholic
Catholic
bishop Thomas John Curry stated (2001) that the end of Christendom
Christendom
came about because modern governments refused to "uphold the teachings, customs, ethos, and practice of Christianity."[8] He argued the First Amendment to the United States Constitution (1791) and the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Freedom (1965) are two of the most important documents setting the stage for its end.[8] According to British historian Diarmaid MacCulloch
Diarmaid MacCulloch
(2010), Christendom
Christendom
was 'killed' by the First World War
First World War
(1914–18), which led to the fall of the three main Christian
Christian
empires (Russian, German and Austrian) of Europe, as well as the Ottoman Empire, rupturing the Eastern Christian
Christian
communities that had existed on its territory. The Christian
Christian
empires were replaced by secular, even anti-clerical republics seeking to definitively keep the churches out of politics. The only surviving monarchy with an established church, Britain, was severely damaged by the war, lost most of Ireland due to Catholic–Protestant infighting, and was starting to lose grip on its colonies.[9] Classical culture[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Christianity. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (January 2018)

Further information: Middle Ages, Renaissance, Theological aesthetics, Role of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Western civilization, and Christian culture Art and literature[edit] Writings and poetry[edit] Main articles: Christian literature
Christian literature
and Christian
Christian
poetry Christian literature
Christian literature
is writing that deals with Christian
Christian
themes and incorporates the Christian
Christian
world view. This constitutes a huge body of extremely varied writing. Christian poetry
Christian poetry
is any poetry that contains Christian
Christian
teachings, themes, or references. The influence of Christianity
Christianity
on poetry has been great in any area that Christianity has taken hold. Christian
Christian
poems often directly reference the Bible, while others provide allegory. Supplemental arts[edit] Main article: Christian
Christian
art Christian art
Christian art
is art produced in an attempt to illustrate, supplement and portray in tangible form the principles of Christianity. Virtually all Christian
Christian
groupings use or have used art to some extent. The prominence of art and the media, style, and representations change; however, the unifying theme is ultimately the representation of the life and times of Jesus
Jesus
and in some cases the Old Testament. Depictions of saints are also common, especially in Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. Illumination[edit] Main article: Illuminated manuscript

Picture of Christ in Majesty
Christ in Majesty
contained in an illuminated manuscript.

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period AD 400 to 600, primarily produced in Ireland, Constantinople
Constantinople
and Italy. The majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many illuminated manuscripts survive from the 15th century Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls; some isolated single sheets survive. A very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus. Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment (most commonly of calf, sheep, or goat skin), but most manuscripts important enough to illuminate were written on the best quality of parchment, called vellum, traditionally made of unsplit calfskin, though high quality parchment from other skins was also called parchment. Iconography[edit] Main articles: Iconoclasm, Religious image, Christian
Christian
icons, and Christian
Christian
symbolism

There are few old ceramic icons, such as this St. Theodor icon which dates to ca. 900 (from Preslav, Bulgaria).

Christian art
Christian art
began, about two centuries after Christ, by borrowing motifs from Roman Imperial imagery, classical Greek and Roman religion and popular art. Religious images
Religious images
are used to some extent by the Abrahamic Christian
Christian
faith, and often contain highly complex iconography, which reflects centuries of accumulated tradition. In the Late Antique
Late Antique
period iconography began to be standardised, and to relate more closely to Biblical
Biblical
texts, although many gaps in the canonical Gospel
Gospel
narratives were plugged with matter from the apocryphal gospels. Eventually the Church would succeed in weeding most of these out, but some remain, like the ox and ass in the Nativity of Christ. An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity. Christianity
Christianity
has used symbolism from its very beginnings.[44] In both East and West, numerous iconic types of Christ, Mary and saints and other subjects were developed; the number of named types of icons of Mary, with or without the infant Christ, was especially large in the East, whereas Christ
Christ
Pantocrator was much the commonest image of Christ. Christian symbolism
Christian symbolism
invests objects or actions with an inner meaning expressing Christian
Christian
ideas. Christianity
Christianity
has borrowed from the common stock of significant symbols known to most periods and to all regions of the world. Religious symbolism is effective when it appeals to both the intellect and the emotions. Especially important depictions of Mary include the Hodegetria
Hodegetria
and Panagia
Panagia
types. Traditional models evolved for narrative paintings, including large cycles covering the events of the Life of Christ, the Life of the Virgin, parts of the Old Testament, and, increasingly, the lives of popular saints. Especially in the West, a system of attributes developed for identifying individual figures of saints by a standard appearance and symbolic objects held by them; in the East they were more likely to identified by text labels. Each saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian
Christian
saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them. The study of these forms part of iconography in Art history. They were particularly See also: Saint
Saint
symbology and Iconography Architecture[edit] Main article: Church architecture

The structure of a typical Gothic cathedral.

Christian architecture
Christian architecture
encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Christianity
Christianity
to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Christian
Christian
culture. Buildings were at first adapted from those originally intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have often imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as concrete, as well as simpler styles has had its effect upon the design of churches and arguably the flow of influence has been reversed. From the birth of Christianity
Christianity
to the present, the most significant period of transformation for Christian architecture in the west was the Gothic cathedral. In the east, Byzantine
Byzantine
architecture was a continuation of Roman architecture. Philosophy[edit] Main articles: Christian
Christian
philosophy and Scholasticism Christian
Christian
philosophy is a term to describe the fusion of various fields of philosophy with the theological doctrines of Christianity. Scholasticism, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or school people) of medieval universities c. 1100–1500. Scholasticism
Scholasticism
originally started to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian
Christian
theology. Scholasticism
Scholasticism
is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning. Further information: Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
and History of science in the Middle Ages Christian
Christian
civilization[edit]

This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Christianity
Christianity
and science. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (January 2018)

Main article: Christianity
Christianity
and science

Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. Since these Christians believed God imbued the universe with regular geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.

Medieval
Medieval
conditions[edit] Main articles: Medieval
Medieval
science, Medieval
Medieval
technology, and List of Christian
Christian
thinkers in science The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, which was the most sophisticated culture during antiquity, suffered under Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
limiting its scientific prowess during the Medieval
Medieval
period. Christian
Christian
Western Europe
Europe
had suffered a catastrophic loss of knowledge following the fall of the Western Roman Empire. But thanks to the Church scholars such as Aquinas
Aquinas
and Buridan, the West carried on at least the spirit of scientific inquiry which would later lead to Europe's taking the lead in science during the Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
using translations of medieval works. Medieval
Medieval
technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian
Christian
rule. After the Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 12th century, medieval Europe
Europe
saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth.[45] The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption of gunpowder and the astrolabe, the invention of spectacles, and greatly improved water mills, building techniques, agriculture in general, clocks, and ships. The latter advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration. The development of water mills was impressive, and extended from agriculture to sawmills both for timber and stone, probably derived from Roman technology. By the time of the Domesday Book, most large villages in Britain had mills. They also were widely used in mining, as described by Georg Agricola in De Re Metallica
De Re Metallica
for raising ore from shafts, crushing ore, and even powering bellows. Significant in this respect were advances within the fields of navigation. The compass and astrolabe along with advances in shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans and thus domination of the worlds economic trade. Gutenberg’s printing press made possible a dissemination of knowledge to a wider population, that would not only lead to a gradually more egalitarian society, but one more able to dominate other cultures, drawing from a vast reserve of knowledge and experience. Renaissance
Renaissance
innovations[edit] Main articles: History of science in the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Renaissance technology During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, math, manufacturing, and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. Renaissance
Renaissance
technology is the set of artifacts and customs, spanning roughly the 14th through the 16th century. The era is marked by such profound technical advancements like the printing press, linear perspectivity, patent law, double shell domes or Bastion fortresses. Draw-books of the Renaissance
Renaissance
artist-engineers such as Taccola
Taccola
and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
give a deep insight into the mechanical technology then known and applied. Renaissance
Renaissance
science spawned the Scientific Revolution; science and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement. The Scientific Renaissance
Renaissance
was the early phase of the Scientific Revolution. In the two-phase model of early modern science: a Scientific Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 15th and 16th centuries, focused on the restoration of the natural knowledge of the ancients; and a Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
of the 17th century, when scientists shifted from recovery to innovation. Demographics[edit] Main article: Christianity
Christianity
by country See also: List of Christian
Christian
denominations by number of members and Christian
Christian
population growth Geographic spread[edit]

Relative geographic prevalence of Christianity
Christianity
versus Islam
Islam
versus lack of either religion (2006).

In 2009, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Christianity
Christianity
was the majority religion in Europe
Europe
(including Russia) with 80%, Latin America with 92%, North America
North America
with 81%, and Oceania
Oceania
with 79%.[46] There are also large Christian
Christian
communities in other parts of the world, such as China, India and Central Asia, where Christianity
Christianity
is the second-largest religion after Islam. The United States is home to the world's largest Christian
Christian
population, followed by Brazil
Brazil
and Mexico.[47] Main article: state religion Many Christians
Christians
not only live under, but also have an official status in, a state religion of the following nations: Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian Apostolic Church),[48] Costa Rica
Costa Rica
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church),[49] Denmark (Church of Denmark),[50] El Salvador
El Salvador
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church),[51] England (Church of England),[52] Georgia (Georgian Orthodox church), Greece (Church of Greece), Iceland
Iceland
(Church of Iceland),[53] Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church),[54] Malta
Malta
(Roman Catholic Church),[55] Monaco
Monaco
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church),[56] Romania
Romania
(Romanian Orthodox Church), Norway (Church of Norway),[57] Vatican City
Vatican City
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church),[58] Switzerland (Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, Swiss Reformed Church and Christian
Christian
Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of Switzerland). Number of adherents[edit] The estimated number of Christians
Christians
in the world ranges from 2.2 billion[59][60][61][62] to 2.4 billion people.[b] The faith represents approximately one-third of the world's population and is the largest religion in the world,[63] with the three largest groups of Christians being the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Protestantism, and the Eastern Orthodox Church.[64] The largest Christian denomination
Christian denomination
is the Catholic
Catholic
Church, with an estimated 1.2 billion adherents.[65]

Demographics of major traditions within Christianity
Christianity
(Pew Research Center, 2010 data)[66]

Tradition Followers % of the Christian
Christian
population % of the world population Follower dynamics Dynamics in- and outside Christianity

Catholic
Catholic
Church 1,094,610,000 50.1 15.9 Growing Declining

Protestantism 800,640,000 36.7 11.6 Growing Growing

Orthodoxy 260,380,000 11.9 3.8 Declining Declining

Other Christianity 28,430,000 1.3 0.4 Growing Growing

Christianity 2,184,060,000 100 31.7 Growing Stable

Notable Christian
Christian
organizations[edit] A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice. In contrast, the term Holy Orders
Holy Orders
is used by many Christian
Christian
churches to refer to ordination or to a group of individuals who are set apart for a special role or ministry. Historically, the word "order" designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordinatio meant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Religious orders are composed of initiates (laity) and, in some traditions, ordained clergies. Various organizations include:

In the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, religious institutes and secular institutes are the major forms of institutes of consecrated life, similar to which are societies of apostolic life. They are organisations of laity and/or clergy who live a common life under the guidance of a fixed rule and the leadership of a superior. (ed., see Category:Roman Catholic
Catholic
orders and societies for a particular listing.) Anglican religious orders are communities of laity and/or clergy in the Anglican churches who live under a common rule of life. (ed., see Category:Anglican organizations for a particular listing)

See also: Category: Christian
Christian
organizations Christianity
Christianity
law and ethics[edit] Church and state framing[edit] Main articles: Canon law
Canon law
and Christian
Christian
ethics Within the framework of Christianity, there are at least three possible definitions for Church law. One is the Torah/Mosaic Law (from what Christians
Christians
consider to be the Old Testament) also called Divine Law or Biblical
Biblical
law. Another is the instructions of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth in the Gospel
Gospel
(sometimes referred to as the Law of Christ
Christ
or the New Commandment or the New Covenant). A third is canon law which is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches, and the Anglican Communion of churches.[67] The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was initially a rule adopted by a council (From Greek kanon / κανών, Hebrew
Hebrew
kaneh / קנה, for rule, standard, or measure); these canons formed the foundation of canon law. Christian
Christian
ethics in general has tended to stress the need for grace, mercy, and forgiveness because of human weakness and developed while Early Christians
Christians
were subjects of the Roman Empire. From the time Nero blamed Christians
Christians
for setting Rome
Rome
ablaze (64 AD) until Galarius (311 AD), persecutions against Christians
Christians
erupted periodically. Consequently, Early Christian
Christian
ethics included discussions of how believers should relate to Roman authority and to the empire. Under the Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
(312-337), Christianity
Christianity
became a legal religion. While some scholars debate whether Constantine's conversion to Christianity
Christianity
was authentic or simply matter of political expediency, Constantine's decree made the empire safe for Christian practice and belief. Consequently, issues of Christian
Christian
doctrine, ethics and church practice were debated openly, see for example the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
and the First seven Ecumenical Councils. By the time of Theodosius I
Theodosius I
(379-395), Christianity
Christianity
had become the state religion of the empire. With Christianity
Christianity
in power, ethical concerns broaden and included discussions of the proper role of the state. Render unto Caesar…
Render unto Caesar…
is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels which reads in full, "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s". This phrase has become a widely quoted summary of the relationship between Christianity
Christianity
and secular authority. The gospels say that when Jesus
Jesus
gave his response, his interrogators "marvelled, and left him, and went their way." Time has not resolved an ambiguity in this phrase, and people continue to interpret this passage to support various positions that are poles apart. The traditional division, carefully determined, in Christian
Christian
thought is the state and church have separate spheres of influence. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
thoroughly discussed that human law is positive law which means that it is natural law applied by governments to societies. All human laws were to be judged by their conformity to the natural law. An unjust law was in a sense no law at all. At this point, the natural law was not only used to pass judgment on the moral worth of various laws, but also to determine what the law said in the first place. This could result in some tension.[68] Late ecclesiastical writers followed in his footsteps. See also: Doctrine of the two kingdoms
Doctrine of the two kingdoms
and Unam sanctam Democratic ideology[edit] Main article: Christian
Christian
democracy Christian
Christian
democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian
Christian
principles to public policy. It emerged in 19th-century Europe, largely under the influence of Catholic
Catholic
social teaching. In a number of countries, the democracy's Christian
Christian
ethos has been diluted by secularisation. In practice, Christian
Christian
democracy is often considered conservative on cultural, social and moral issues and progressive on fiscal and economic issues. In places, where their opponents have traditionally been secularist socialists and social democrats, Christian
Christian
democratic parties are moderately conservative, whereas in other cultural and political environments they can lean to the left. Women's roles[edit] Main article: Women in Christianity Attitudes and beliefs about the roles and responsibilities of women in Christianity
Christianity
vary considerably today as they have throughout the last two millennia — evolving along with or counter to the societies in which Christians
Christians
have lived. The Bible
Bible
and Christianity
Christianity
historically have been interpreted as excluding women from church leadership and placing them in submissive roles in marriage. Male leadership has been assumed in the church and within marriage, society and government.[69] Some contemporary writers describe the role of women in the life of the church as having been downplayed, overlooked, or denied throughout much of Christian
Christian
history. Paradigm shifts in gender roles in society and also many churches has inspired reevaluation by many Christians
Christians
of some long-held attitudes to the contrary. Christian
Christian
egalitarians have increasingly argued for equal roles for men and women in marriage, as well as for the ordination of women to the clergy. Contemporary conservatives meanwhile have reasserted what has been termed a "complementarian" position, promoting the traditional belief that the Bible
Bible
ordains different roles and responsibilities for women and men in the Church and family. Major Christian
Christian
denominations[edit]

This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this section by clarifying or removing superfluous information. If importance cannot be established, the section is likely to be moved to another article, pseudo-redirected, or removed. Find sources: "Christendom" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main articles: Christian
Christian
denominations and history of Christian theology

A schematic of Christian
Christian
denominational taxonomy. The different width of the lines (thickest for "Protestantism" and thinnest for "Oriental Orthodox" and "Nestorians") is without objective significance. Protestantism
Protestantism
in general, and not just Restorationism, claims a direct connection with Early Christianity. Both the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches would consider themselves in unbroken continuity with the "early Christianity" line.

Major branches and movements within Protestantism

A Christian denomination
Christian denomination
is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and doctrine within Christianity. Worldwide, Christians
Christians
are divided, often along ethnic and linguistic lines, into separate churches and traditions. Technically, divisions between one group and another are defined by church doctrine and church authority. Centering on language of professed Christianity
Christianity
and true Christianity, issues that separate one group of followers of Jesus
Jesus
from another include:

Apostolic succession, Biblical
Biblical
authority, Biblical
Biblical
criticism, Biblical
Biblical
inerrancy, Biblical
Biblical
infallibility, Biblical
Biblical
inspiration, Biblical
Biblical
interpretation, Papal primacy, and Views of Jesus
Jesus
(Christology).

Christianity
Christianity
is composed of, but not limited to, five major branches of Churches: Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, and Protestantism. Some listings include Anglicans among Protestants while others list the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and Oriental Orthodox together as one group, thus the number of distinct major branches can vary between three and five depending on the listing. The Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
(Nestorians) and the Old Catholic
Catholic
churches are also distinct Christian
Christian
bodies of historic importance, but much smaller in adherents and geographic scope. Each of the branches has important subdivisions. Because the Protestant subdivisions do not maintain a common theology or earthly leadership, they are far more distinct than the subdivisions of the other four groupings. Denomination typically refers to one of the many Christian
Christian
groupings including each of the multitude of Protestant subdivisions. See also: East–West Schism, History of the East–West Schism, History of the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, History of the Eastern Orthodox Church, History of Protestantism, History of the Anglican Communion, and History of Oriental Orthodoxy Sizes of denomination[edit] Catholicism is the largest denomination, comprising just over half of Christians
Christians
worldwide. In Christendom, the largest denominations are:

Roman Catholicism – 1.3 billion Protestantism – 540 million Eastern Orthodoxy – 300 million Anglicanism – 115 million Oriental Orthodoxy – 75 million Nontrinitarianism – 26 million Nestorianism – 1 million Old Catholicism - 0.4 million

See also: List of Christian
Christian
denominations and List of Christian denominations by number of members See also[edit]

Buddhism by country Caesaropapism Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Holy Roman Emperor) Christian
Christian
culture Christian
Christian
republic Churches Militant, Penitent, and Triumphant Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Constantinian shift Dominionism Ecumenism
Ecumenism
( Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ecumenism) Freedom of religion Hinduism by country Islam
Islam
by country Judaism
Judaism
by country Nation state Muslim world Papism Political Catholicism Res publica christiana Role of Christianity
Christianity
in civilization Secularism Separation of church and state The City of God Ummah Union of Christendom Western world

Notes[edit]

^ In 529, Justinian closed the Neoplatonic Academy of Athens, a last bulwark of pagan philosophy, made rigorous efforts to exterminate Arianism
Arianism
and Montanism, personally campaigned against Monophysitism, and made Chalcedonian Christianity
Christianity
the Byzantine
Byzantine
state religion.[14] ^ Current sources are in general agreement that Christians
Christians
make up about 33% of the world's population—slightly over 2.4 billion adherents in mid-2015.

References[edit]

^ a b See Merriam-Webster.com : dictionary, "Christendom" ^ Marty, Martin (2008). The Christian
Christian
World: A Global History. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-58836-684-9.  ^ a b c Hall, Douglas John (2002). The End of Christendom
Christendom
and the Future of Christianity. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. ix. ISBN 9781579109844. Retrieved 28 January 2018. "Christendom" [...] means literally the dominion or sovereignty of the Christian
Christian
religion.  ^ Chazan, Robert (2006). The Jews of Medieval
Medieval
Western Christendom: 1000-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press. p. xi. ISBN 9780521616645. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "christendom. §1.3 Scheidingen". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. ^ Chazan, p. 5. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2010). A History of Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years. London: Penguin Publishing Group. p. 572. ISBN 9781101189993. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  ^ a b c d Curry, Thomas John (2001). Farewell to Christendom: The Future of Church and State in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780190287061. Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ a b MacCulloch (2010), p. 1024–1030. ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836.  ^ Acts 3:1; Acts 5:27–42; Acts 21:18–26; Acts 24:5; Acts 24:14; Acts 28:22; Romans 1:16; Tacitus, Annales xv 44; Josephus Antiquities xviii 3; Mortimer Chambers, The Western Experience Volume II chapter 5; The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion page 158[not in citation given]. ^ Walter Bauer, Greek-English Lexicon; Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
Letter to the Magnesians 10, Letter to the Romans (Roberts-Donaldson tr., Lightfoot tr., Greek text). However, an edition presented on some websites, one that otherwise corresponds exactly with the Roberts-Donaldson translation, renders this passage to the interpolated inauthentic longer recension of Ignatius's letters, which does not contain the word "Christianity." ^ Robert Peel (18 February 1981). "Impish defense of Christianity; The End of Christendom, by Malcolm Muggeridge". The Christian
Christian
Science Monitor. Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Justinianus I". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. ^ a b Hall (2002), p. 1–9. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p. 700.  ^ The church in the Roman empire before A.D. 170, Part 170 By Sir William Mitchell Ramsay ^ Boyd, William Kenneth (1905). The ecclesiastical edicts of the Theodosian code, Columbia University
University
Press. ^ Challand, Gérard (1994). The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age. University
University
of California Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-520-07964-9.  ^ Willis Mason West (1904). The ancient world from the earliest times to 800 A.D. ... Allyn and Bacon. p. 551.  ^ Peter Brown; Peter Robert Lamont Brown (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity 200-1000 AD. Wiley. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-631-22138-8.  ^ a b c Durant, Will (2005). Story of Philosophy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-69500-2. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  ^ Shaping a global theological mind By Darren C. Marks. Page 45 ^ Somerville, R. (1998). Prefaces to Canon Law
Canon Law
books in Latin Christianity: Selected translations, 500-1245 ; commentary and translations. New Haven [u.a.: Yale Univ. Press ^ VanDeWiel, C. (1991). History of canon law. Leuven: Peeters Press. ^ Canon law
Canon law
and the Christian
Christian
community By Clarence Gallagher. Gregorian & Biblical
Biblical
BookShop, 1978. ^ Catholic
Catholic
Church., Canon Law
Canon Law
Society of America., Catholic
Catholic
Church., & Libreria editrice vaticana. (1998). Code of canon law, Latin-English edition: New English translation. Washington, DC: Canon Law Society of America. ^ Mango, C. (2002). The Oxford history of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University
University
Press. ^ Angold, M. (1997). The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, 1025-1204: A political history. New York: Longman. ^ Schevill, Ferdinand (1922). The History of the Balkan Peninsula: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Harcourt, Brace and Company. p. 124.  ^ Schaff, Philip (1878). The history of creeds. Harper.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Christendom". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ MacCulloch (2010), p. 625. ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Inquisition". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Stump, P. H. (1994). The reforms of the Council of Constance, 1414-1418. Leiden: E.J. Brill ^ The Cambridge Modern History. Vol 2: The Reformation
Reformation
(1903). ^ Norris, Michael (August 2007). "The Papacy during the Renaissance". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ McGinness, Frederick (26 August 2011). "Papal Rome". Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ Cheney, Liana (26 August 2011). "Background for Italian Renaissance". University
University
of Massachusetts Lowell. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ a b Santayana, George (1982). The Life of Reason. New York: Dover Publications. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  ^ This was presaging the modern nation-state ^ The Anglican Domain: Church History ^ Uwe Becker, Europese democratieën: vrijheid, gelijkheid, solidariteit en soevereiniteit in praktijk ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Symbolism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in his The Measure of Reality : Quantification in Western Europe, 1250–1600 and other major historians of technology have also noted it. ^ Britannica Book of the Year 2010. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 300. ISBN 9781615353668. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ http://www.pewforum.org/2011/12/19/global-christianity-exec/ ^ "Gov. Pataki Honors 1700th Anniversary of Armenia's Adoption of Christianity
Christianity
as a state religion". Aremnian National Committee of America. Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ "Costa Rica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Denmark". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "El Salvador". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Church and State in Britain: The Church of privilege". Centre for Citizenship. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Iceland". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Liechtenstein". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Malta". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Monaco". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Norway". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ "Vatican". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ 33.39% of ~7.2 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World". CIA world facts.  ^ " Christianity
Christianity
2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17.  ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents. Retrieved 2007-12-31.  ^ Hinnells, The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, p. 441. ^ "How many Roman Catholics are there in the world?". BBC News. March 14, 2013. Retrieved 2016-10-05.  ^ "Global Christianity
Christianity
– A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian
Christian
Population". 19 December 2011.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Canon law". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Burns, "Aquinas's Two Doctrines of Natural Law." ^ Blevins, Carolyn DeArmond, Women in Christian
Christian
History: A Bibliography. Macon, Georgia: Mercer Univ Press, 1995. ISBN 0-86554-493-X

Bibliography[edit]

20th century sources

The Return of Christendom. Macmillan. 1922.  Andrew Dickson White (1897). A History of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom. D. Appleton.  F. G. Cole (1908). Mother of All Churches: A Brief and Comprehensive Handbook of the Holy Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church. Skeffington. 

19th century sources

Hull, Moses. Encyclopedia of Biblical
Biblical
Spiritualism; Or, A Concordance to the Principal Passages of the Old and New Testament
New Testament
Scriptures Which Prove or Imply Spiritualism; Together with a Brief History of the Origin of Many of the Important Books of the Bible. Chicago: M. Hull, 1895. (ed., reprint version is available) Bosanquet, Bernard. The Civilization of Christendom, And Other Studies. London: S. Sonnenschein, 1893. The History of Teachings of the Early Church, as a Basis for the Re-union of Christendom: Lectures. E. & J. B. Young. 1893.  John Hodson Egar (1887). Christendom; ecclesiastical and political, from Constantine to the Reformation. J. Pott.  The Churches of Christendom. Macniven and Wallace. 1884.  Charles, Elizabeth (1880). Sketches of the women of Christendom, by the author of 'Chronicles of the Schönberg-Cotta family'.  Naville, Ernest (1880). The Christ: Seven lectures. T. & T. Clark.  George William Cox (1870). Latin and Teutonic Christendom: An Historical Sketch. Longmans, Green & Company.  Girdlestone, Charles (1870). Christendom, sketched from history in the light of holy Scripture. Published for the Author by Sampson Low, Son, & Marston.  John Radford Thomson (1867). Symbols of Christendom: an elementary text-book.  Thomas William Allies (1865). The formation of Christendom.  Stearns, George (1857). The mistake of Christendom; or, Jesus
Jesus
and His Gospel
Gospel
before Paul and Christianity. B. Marsh.  Johnson, Richard (1824). The Renowned History of the Seven Champions of Christendom: St. George of England, St. Denis of France, St. James of Spain, St. Anthony of Italy, St. Andrew of Scotland, St. Patrick of Ireland, and St. David of Wales, and Their Sons. W. Baynes. 

Further reading[edit]

Bainton, Roland H. (1966). Christendom: a Short History of Christianity
Christianity
and Its Impact on Western Civilization, in series, Harper Colophon Books. New York: Harper & Row. 2 vol., ill. Whalen, Brett Edward (2009). Dominion of God: Christendom
Christendom
and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

External links[edit]

Look up Christendom
Christendom
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Find more aboutChristendomat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Websites

 Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Union of Christendom". Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Apple

.