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CHRISTENDOM has several meanings. In a contemporary sense it may refer to the worldwide community of Christians , adherents of Christianity
Christianity
; or the collectivity of Christian
Christian
majority countries , or countries in which Christianity
Christianity
dominates, or nations in which Christianity
Christianity
is the established religion. It is also used as synonymous with the Western World .

In its historical sense, the term usually refers to the medieval and early modern periods , during which the Christian
Christian
world represented a geopolitical power that was juxtaposed with both the pagan and especially the Muslim world . In the traditional Roman Catholic
Catholic
sense of the word, it refers to the sum total of nations in which the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the established religion of the state, or to nations which have ecclesiastical concordats with the Holy See
Holy See
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology and usage

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early Christendom
Christendom
* 2.2 Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.3 Later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance
Renaissance
* 2.4 Reformation and Early Modern era

* 3 Classical culture

* 3.1 Art and literature

* 3.1.1 Writings and poetry * 3.1.2 Supplemental arts * 3.1.3 Illumination * 3.1.4 Iconography
Iconography
* 3.1.5 Architecture

* 3.2 Philosophy
Philosophy

* 4 Christian
Christian
civilization

* 4.1 Medieval
Medieval
conditions * 4.2 Renaissance
Renaissance
innovations

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Geographic spread * 5.2 Number of adherents * 5.3 Notable Christian
Christian
organizations

* 6 Christianity
Christianity
law and ethics

* 6.1 Church and state framing

* 6.1.1 Democratic ideology

* 6.2 Women\'s roles

* 7 Major Christian
Christian
denominations

* 7.1 Sizes of denomination

* 8 Christendom
Christendom
and other beliefs

* 8.1 Judaism
Judaism
* 8.2 Islam
Islam
* 8.3 Buddhism * 8.4 Hinduism * 8.5 Secularism

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

TERMINOLOGY AND USAGE

Further information: Ecumene , Church militant and church triumphant , and Sociological classifications of religious movements

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The term _cristendom_ existed in Old English , but it had the sense now taken by _ Christianity
Christianity
_ (as is still the case with the cognate Dutch _christendom_ , where it denotes mostly the religion itself, just like the German _Christentum_). The current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity
Christianity
is the dominant religion" emerged in Late Middle English (by c. 1400). This semantic development happened independently in the languages of late medieval Europe, which leads to the confusing semantics of English _Christendom_ equalling German _Christenheit_, French _chrétienté_ vs. English _Christianity_ equalling German _Christentum_, French _christianisme_. The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity
Christianity
at that time both theologically and politically. "Christendom" as a geopolitical term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and arguably during the European wars of religion and the Ottoman wars in Europe .

The _ Christian
Christian
world_ is also collectively known as the _CORPUS CHRISTIANUM_, translated as _the Christian
Christian
body_, meaning the community of all Christians. The Christian
Christian
polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: _Corpus Christianum_. The _Corpus Christianum_ can be seen as a Christian
Christian
equivalent of the Muslim _ Ummah _.

The word "Christendom" is also used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity
Christianity
. A more secular meaning can denote the fact that the term _Christendom_ refers to Christians as a group, the "POLITICAL CHRISTIAN WORLD", as an informal cultural hegemony that Christianity
Christianity
has traditionally enjoyed in the West . In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian
Christian
majority countries, which, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith. Unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom
Christendom
is more complex. It may be a cultural notion, but it has very little weight in international discourse; very few political observers really discuss Christendom, while the Muslim World tends to comprise a civilization in itself. For example, the Americas and Europe
Europe
are considered a part of Christendom, but this region is further subdivided into the West (representing the North Atlantic) and Latin America
Latin America
. It is also less geographically cohesive than the Muslim world, which stretches almost continuously from North Africa
North Africa
to South Asia
South Asia
.

There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word that is much like the terms _ Western world _, _known world _ or _ Free World _. When Thomas F. Connolly said, "There isn\'t enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want! ", he was simply using a figure of speech , although it is true that during the Cold War , just as the totalitarianism of the Communist Bloc presented a contrast to the liberty of the Free World , the state atheism of the Communist Bloc contrasted with the religious freedom and the powerful religious institutions in North America
North America
and Western Europe
Europe
. The notion of "Europe" and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity
Christianity
and Christendom"; many even attribute Christianity
Christianity
for being the link that created a unified European identity .

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Christianity
Christianity
and History of Western civilization

EARLY CHRISTENDOM

Main articles: Early Christianity
Christianity
and Hellenistic Judaism This T-and-O map , which abstracts the then known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the center of the world.

In the beginning of Christendom, early Christianity
Christianity
was a religion spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity
Christianity
. It may be divided into two distinct phases: the apostolic period , when the first apostles were alive and organizing the Church, and the post-apostolic period , when an early episcopal structure developed, whereby bishoprics were governed by bishops (overseers).

The post-apostolic period concerns the time roughly after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations. The earliest recorded use of the terms _ Christianity
Christianity
_ (Greek Χριστιανισμός) and _ Catholic
Catholic
_ (Greek καθολικός), dates to this period, the 2nd century , attributed to Ignatius of Antioch _c._ 107. Early Christendom
Christendom
would close at the end of imperial persecution of Christians after the ascension of Constantine the Great and the Edict of Milan in AD 313 and the First Council of Nicaea in 325. See also: State church of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

LATE ANTIQUITY AND EARLY MIDDLE AGES

Further information: First seven Ecumenical Councils
First seven Ecumenical Councils
Further information: Germanic Christianity
Christianity
Icon
Icon
depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (AD 325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 . Spread of Christianity
Christianity
by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity
Christianity
up to AD 325)

"Christendom" has referred to the medieval and renaissance notion of the _ Christian
Christian
world_ as a sociopolitical polity . In essence, the earliest vision of Christendom
Christendom
was a vision of a Christian
Christian
theocracy , a government founded upon and upholding Christian
Christian
values , whose institutions are spread through and over with Christian
Christian
doctrine . In this period, members of the Christian
Christian
clergy wield political authority . The specific relationship between the political leaders and the clergy varied but, in theory, the national and political divisions were at times subsumed under the leadership of the church as an institution . This model of church-state relations was accepted by various Church leaders and political leaders in European history.

The Church gradually became a defining institution of the Empire. Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 proclaiming toleration for the Christian
Christian
religion, and convoked the First Council of Nicaea in 325 whose Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
included belief in "one holy catholic and apostolic Church". Emperor Theodosius I made Nicene Christianity
Christianity
the state church of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380.

As the Western Roman Empire disintegrated into feudal kingdoms and principalities , the concept of Christendom
Christendom
changed as the western church became one of five patriarchal of the Pentarchy and the Christians of the Eastern Roman Empire developed. The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire was the last bastion of Christendom. Christendom
Christendom
would take a turn with the rise of the Franks
Franks
, a Germanic tribe who converted to the Christian
Christian
faith and entered into communion with Rome
Rome
.

On Christmas Day 800 AD, Pope Leo III
Pope Leo III
crowned Charlemagne
Charlemagne
resulting in the creation of another Christian
Christian
king beside the Christian
Christian
emperor in the Byzantine
Byzantine
state. The Carolingian Empire created a definition of _Christendom_ in juxtaposition with the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, that of a distributed versus centralized culture respectively.

The classical heritage flourished throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in both the Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek East and the Latin West. In the Greek philosopher Plato's ideal state there are three major classes, which was representative of the idea of the “tripartite soul”, which is expressive of three functions or capacities of the human soul: “reason”, “the spirited element”, and “appetites” (or “passions”). Will Durant
Will Durant
made a convincing case that certain prominent features of Plato's ideal community where discernible in the organization, dogma and effectiveness of "the" Medieval
Medieval
Church in Europe:

... For a thousand years Europe
Europe
was ruled by an order of guardians considerably like that which was visioned by our philosopher. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it was customary to classify the population of Christendom
Christendom
into laboratores (workers), bellatores (soldiers), and oratores (clergy). The last group, though small in number, monopolized the instruments and opportunities of culture, and ruled with almost unlimited sway half of the most powerful continent on the globe. The clergy, like Plato's guardians, were placed in authority... by their talent as shown in ecclesiastical studies and administration, by their disposition to a life of meditation and simplicity, and ... by the influence of their relatives with the powers of state and church. In the latter half of the period in which they ruled , the clergy were as free from family cares as even Plato could desire ... Celibacy was part of the psychological structure of the power of the clergy; for on the one hand they were unimpeded by the narrowing egoism of the family, and on the other their apparent superiority to the call of the flesh added to the awe in which lay sinners held them...._ _ In the latter half of the period in which they ruled, the clergy were as free from family cares as even Plato could desire.

LATER MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE

Main articles: High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Further information: East–West Schism , Western Schism , Crusades
Crusades
, and Reconquista
Reconquista
Further information: Latin Empire , Frankokratia , Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty , Byzantine–Ottoman Wars , and Fall of Constantinople

After the collapse of Charlemagne\'s empire , the southern remnants of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
became a collection of states loosely connected to the Holy See
Holy See
of Rome
Rome
. Tensions between Pope Innocent III and secular rulers ran high, as the pontiff exerted control over their temporal counterparts in the west and vice versa. The pontificate of Innocent III is considered the height of temporal power of the papacy. The _Corpus Christianum_ described the then current notion of the community of all Christians united under the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. The community was to be guided by Christian
Christian
values in its politics, economics and social life. Its legal basis was the _corpus iuris canonica _ (body of canon law).

In the East, Christendom
Christendom
became more defined as the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire 's gradual loss of territory to an expanding Islam
Islam
and the muslim conquest of Persia . This caused Christianity
Christianity
to become important to the Byzantine
Byzantine
identity. Before the East–West Schism which divided the Church religiously, there had been the notion of a _universal Christendom_ that included the East and the West. After the East–West Schism, hopes of regaining religious unity with the West were ended by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
, when Crusaders conquered the Byzantine
Byzantine
capital of Constantinople
Constantinople
and hastened the decline of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
on the path to its destruction . With the breakup of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
into individual nations with nationalist Orthodox Churches, the term Christendom
Christendom
described Western Europe, Catholicism, Orthodox Byzantines, and other Eastern rites of the Church.

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
's peak of authority over all European Christians and their common endeavours of the Christian
Christian
community — for example, the Crusades
Crusades
, the fight against the Moors
Moors
in the Iberian Peninsula and against the Ottomans
Ottomans
in the Balkans — helped to develop a sense of communal identity against the obstacle of Europe's deep political divisions. But this authority was also sometimes abused, and fostered the Inquisition and anti-Jewish pogroms , to root out divergent elements and create a religiously uniform community. Ultimately, the Inquisition was done away with by order of Pope Innocent III.

Christendom
Christendom
ultimately was led into specific crisis in the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when the kings of France managed to establish a French national church during the 14th century and the papacy became ever more aligned with the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . Known as the Western Schism , western Christendom
Christendom
was a split between three men, who were driven by politics rather than any real theological disagreement for simultaneously claiming to be the true pope. The Avignon Papacy developed a reputation of corruption that estranged major parts of Western Christendom. The Avignon schism was ended by the Council of Constance .

Before the modern period, Christendom
Christendom
was in a general crisis at the time of the Renaissance
Renaissance
Popes because of the moral laxity of these pontiffs and their willingness to seek and rely on temporal power as secular rulers did. Many in the Catholic
Catholic
Church's hierarchy in the Renaissance
Renaissance
became increasingly entangled with insatiable greed for material wealth and temporal power, which led to many reform movements, some merely wanting a moral reformation of the Church's clergy, while others repudiated the Church and separated from it in order to form new sects. The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
produced ideas or institutions by which men living in society could be held together in harmony. In the early 16th century, Baldassare Castiglione (The Book of the Courtier ) laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady, while Machiavelli
Machiavelli
cast a jaundiced eye on "la verità effetuale delle cose" — the actual truth of things — in _ The Prince
The Prince
_, composed, humanist style, chiefly of parallel ancient and modern examples of Virtù . Some Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or renaissance humanism (cf. Erasmus ). The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
fell partly into general neglect under the Renaissance
Renaissance
Popes, whose inability to govern the Church by showing personal example of high moral standards set the climate for what would ultimately become the Protestant Reformation. During the Renaissance
Renaissance
the papacy was mainly run by the wealthy families and also had strong secular interests. To safeguard Rome
Rome
and the connected Papal States the popes became necessarily involved in temporal matters, even leading armies, as the great patron of arts Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II
did. It during these intermediate times popes strove to make Rome
Rome
the capital of Christendom
Christendom
while projecting it, through art, architecture, and literature, as the center of a Golden Age of unity, order, and peace.

Professor Frederick J. McGinness described Rome
Rome
as essential in understanding the legacy the Church and its representatives encapsulated best by The Eternal City :

No other city in Europe
Europe
matches Rome
Rome
in its traditions, history, legacies, and influence in the Western world. Rome
Rome
in the Renaissance under the papacy not only acted as guardian and transmitter of these elements stemming from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
but also assumed the role as artificer and interpreter of its myths and meanings for the peoples of Europe
Europe
from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to modern times... Under the patronage of the popes, whose wealth and income were exceeded only by their ambitions, the city became a cultural center for master architects, sculptors, musicians, painters, and artisans of every kind...In its myth and message, Rome
Rome
had become the sacred city of the popes, the prime symbol of a triumphant Catholicism, the center of orthodox Christianity, a new Jerusalem.

It is clearly noticeable that the popes of the Italian Renaissance have been subjected by many writers with an overly harsh tone. Pope Julius II for example was not only an effective secular leader in military affairs, a deviously effective politician but foremost one of the greatest patron of the Renaissance
Renaissance
period and person who also encouraged open criticism from noted humanists.

The blossoming of renaissance humanism was made very much possible due to the universality of the institutions of Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and represented by personalities such as Pope Pius II , Nicolaus Copernicus , Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
, Desiderius Erasmus, sir Thomas More , Bartolomé de Las Casas , Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Teresa of Ávila . George Santayana in his work _ The Life of Reason _ postulated the tenets of the all encompassing order the Church had brought and as the repository of the legacy of classical antiquity :

The enterprise of individuals or of small aristocratic bodies has meantime sown the world which we call civilised with some seeds and nuclei of order. There are scattered about a variety of churches, industries, academies, and governments. But the universal order once dreamt of and nominally almost established, the empire of universal peace, all-permeating rational art, and philosophical worship, is mentioned no more. An unformulated conception, the prerational ethics of private privilege and national unity, fills the background of men's minds. It represents feudal traditions rather than the tendency really involved in contemporary industry, science, or philanthropy. Those dark ages, from which our political practice is derived, had a political theory which we should do well to study; for their theory about a universal empire and a catholic church was in turn the echo of a former age of reason, when a few men conscious of ruling the world had for a moment sought to survey it as a whole and to rule it justly.

REFORMATION AND EARLY MODERN ERA

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CHRISTIAN CULTURE

* Christian
Christian
culture

* Protestant culture * Holidays * Pop culture * Mormon culture * Cultural Christian
Christian

* Art

* Christian
Christian
symbolism * Early art * Christian
Christian
icons * Architecture

* Literature

* American Catholic
Catholic
literature * Bible fiction * Christian
Christian
drama * Christian
Christian
poetry * Christian
Christian
novel * Christian
Christian
science fiction * Spiritual autobiography

* Music

* CCM * Christmas music * Church music * Gospel music * Liturgical music

* Science
Science

* Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and science * Quakers in science * Christian
Christian
scientists * Catholic
Catholic
scientists * Christian
Christian
Nobel laureates * Catholic
Catholic
cleric-scientists

* History

* Christianity
Christianity
in Civilization * Eastern Orthodox history * Christian
Christian
influences in Islam
Islam

Christianity
Christianity
portal

* v * t * e

Further information: Reformation , Counter- Reformation , History of Protestantism , and European wars of religion Further information: Ottoman wars in Europe , History of the Russo-Turkish wars , and History of the Serbian–Turkish wars Further information: Jesuit China missions and Spanish missions in the Americas
Americas

Developments in western philosophy and European events brought change to the notion of the _Corpus Christianum_. The Hundred Years\' War accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a centralized state. The rise of strong, centralized monarchies denoted the European transition from feudalism to capitalism . By the end of the Hundred Years' War, both France and England were able to raise enough money through taxation to create independent standing armies. In the Wars of the Roses , Henry Tudor took the crown of England. His heir, the absolute king Henry VIII establishing the English church .

In modern history , the Reformation and rise of modernity in the early 16th century entailed a change in the _Corpus Christianum_. In the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 officially ended the idea among secular leaders that all Christians must be united under one church. The principle of _cuius regio, eius religio _ ("whose the region is, his religion") established the religious, political and geographic divisions of Christianity, and this was established with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which legally ended the concept of a single Christian
Christian
hegemony in the territories of the Holy Roman Empire, despite the Catholic
Catholic
Church's doctrine that it alone is the one true Church founded by Christ. Subsequently, each government determined the religion of their own state. Christians living in states where their denomination was _not_ the established one were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.

The European wars of religion are usually taken to have ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), or arguably, including the Nine Years\' War and the War of the Spanish Succession in this period, with the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. In the 18th century, the focus shifts away from religious conflicts, either between Christian
Christian
factions or against the external threat of Islam. The European Miracle , the Age of Enlightenment and the formation of the great Colonial empire together with the beginning decline of the Ottoman Empire mark the end of the geopolitical "history of Christendom". Instead the focus of western history shifts to the development of the nation-state , accompanied by increasing atheism and secularism , culminating with the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the 19th century.

CLASSICAL CULTURE

Further information: Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Renaissance
Renaissance
, Theological aesthetics , Role of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Western civilization , and Christian
Christian
culture

ART AND LITERATURE

Writings And Poetry

Main articles: Christian
Christian
literature and Christian
Christian
poetry

Christian
Christian
literature is writing that deals with Christian
Christian
themes and incorporates the Christian
Christian
world view. This constitutes a huge body of extremely varied writing. Christian
Christian
poetry is any poetry that contains Christian
Christian
teachings, themes, or references. The influence of Christianity
Christianity
on poetry has been great in any area that Christianity has taken hold. Christian
Christian
poems often directly reference the Bible
Bible
, while others provide allegory .

Supplemental Arts

Main article: Christian
Christian
art

Christian
Christian
art is art produced in an attempt to illustrate, supplement and portray in tangible form the principles of Christianity. Virtually all Christian
Christian
groupings use or have used art to some extent. The prominence of art and the media, style, and representations change; however, the unifying theme is ultimately the representation of the life and times of Jesus
Jesus
and in some cases the Old Testament
Old Testament
. Depictions of saints are also common, especially in Anglicanism , Roman Catholicism , and Eastern Orthodoxy .

Illumination

Main article: Illuminated manuscript Picture of Christ
Christ
in Majesty contained in an illuminated manuscript.

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period AD 400 to 600, primarily produced in Ireland, Constantinople
Constantinople
and Italy. The majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, although many illuminated manuscripts survive from the 15th century Renaissance
Renaissance
, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity .

Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices , which had superseded scrolls; some isolated single sheets survive. A very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus . Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment (most commonly of calf , sheep, or goat skin), but most manuscripts important enough to illuminate were written on the best quality of parchment, called vellum , traditionally made of unsplit calfskin , though high quality parchment from other skins was also called _parchment_.

Iconography

Main articles: Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm
, Religious image , Christian
Christian
icons , and Christian
Christian
symbolism There are few old ceramic icons, such as this St. Theodor icon which dates to ca. 900 (from Preslav
Preslav
, Bulgaria ).

Christian
Christian
art began, about two centuries after Christ, by borrowing motifs from Roman Imperial imagery, classical Greek and Roman religion and popular art. Religious images are used to some extent by the Abrahamic Christian
Christian
faith, and often contain highly complex iconography, which reflects centuries of accumulated tradition. In the Late Antique period iconography began to be standardised, and to relate more closely to Biblical
Biblical
texts, although many gaps in the canonical Gospel
Gospel
narratives were plugged with matter from the apocryphal gospels . Eventually the Church would succeed in weeding most of these out, but some remain, like the ox and ass in the Nativity of Christ
Christ
.

An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity
Christianity
. Christianity
Christianity
has used symbolism from its very beginnings. In both East and West, numerous iconic types of Christ
Christ
, Mary and saints and other subjects were developed; the number of named types of icons of Mary, with or without the infant Christ, was especially large in the East, whereas Christ
Christ
Pantocrator was much the commonest image of Christ.

Christian
Christian
symbolism invests objects or actions with an inner meaning expressing Christian
Christian
ideas. Christianity
Christianity
has borrowed from the common stock of significant symbols known to most periods and to all regions of the world. Religious symbolism is effective when it appeals to both the intellect and the emotions. Especially important depictions of Mary include the Hodegetria and Panagia
Panagia
types. Traditional models evolved for narrative paintings, including large cycles covering the events of the Life of Christ, the Life of the Virgin , parts of the Old Testament, and, increasingly, the lives of popular saints . Especially in the West, a system of attributes developed for identifying individual figures of saints by a standard appearance and symbolic objects held by them; in the East they were more likely to identified by text labels.

Each saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian
Christian
saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem , in order to identify them. The study of these forms part of iconography in Art history . They were particularly See also: Saint
Saint
symbology and Iconography
Iconography

Architecture

Main article: Church architecture The structure of a typical Gothic cathedral.

Christian
Christian
architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Christianity
Christianity
to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Christian
Christian
culture.

Buildings were at first adapted from those originally intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have often imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as concrete, as well as simpler styles has had its effect upon the design of churches and arguably the flow of influence has been reversed. From the birth of Christianity
Christianity
to the present, the most significant period of transformation for Christian architecture in the west was the Gothic cathedral . In the east, Byzantine
Byzantine
architecture was a continuation of Roman architecture .

PHILOSOPHY

Main articles: Christian
Christian
philosophy and Scholasticism

Christian
Christian
philosophy is a term to describe the fusion of various fields of philosophy with the theological doctrines of Christianity. Scholasticism , which means "that belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or _school people_) of medieval universities c. 1100–1500. Scholasticism originally started to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian
Christian
theology. Scholasticism is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning . Further information: Christian apologetics and History of science in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION

Main article: Christianity
Christianity
and science Science
Science
, and particularly geometry and astronomy , was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. Since these Christians believed God imbued the universe with regular geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.

MEDIEVAL CONDITIONS

Main articles: Medieval
Medieval
science , Medieval
Medieval
technology , and List of Christian
Christian
thinkers in science

The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, which was the most sophisticated culture during antiquity, suffered under Muslim conquests limiting its scientific prowess during the Medieval
Medieval
period. Christian
Christian
Western Europe
Europe
had suffered a catastrophic loss of knowledge following the fall of the Western Roman Empire . But thanks to the Church scholars such as Aquinas
Aquinas
and Buridan , the West carried on at least the spirit of scientific inquiry which would later lead to Europe's taking the lead in science during the Scientific Revolution using translations of medieval works .

Medieval
Medieval
technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian
Christian
rule. After the Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 12th century , medieval Europe
Europe
saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption of gunpowder and the astrolabe , the invention of spectacles , and greatly improved water mills , building techniques, agriculture in general, clocks , and ships . The latter advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration . The development of water mills was impressive, and extended from agriculture to sawmills both for timber and stone, probably derived from Roman technology . By the time of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
, most large villages in Britain had mills. They also were widely used in mining , as described by Georg Agricola
Georg Agricola
in De Re Metallica for raising ore from shafts, crushing ore, and even powering bellows .

Significant in this respect were advances within the fields of navigation . The compass and astrolabe along with advances in shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans and thus domination of the worlds economic trade. Gutenberg ’s printing press made possible a dissemination of knowledge to a wider population, that would not only lead to a gradually more egalitarian society, but one more able to dominate other cultures, drawing from a vast reserve of knowledge and experience.

RENAISSANCE INNOVATIONS

Main articles: History of science in the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Renaissance technology

During the Renaissance
Renaissance
, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, math, manufacturing, and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. _ Renaissance
Renaissance
technology _ is the set of artifacts and customs, spanning roughly the 14th through the 16th century. The era is marked by such profound technical advancements like the printing press , linear perspectivity , patent law , double shell domes or Bastion fortresses . Draw-books of the Renaissance
Renaissance
artist-engineers such as Taccola and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
give a deep insight into the mechanical technology then known and applied.

Renaissance
Renaissance
science spawned the Scientific Revolution ; science and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement. The _Scientific Renaissance_ was the early phase of the Scientific Revolution. In the two-phase model of early modern science: a _Scientific Renaissance_ of the 15th and 16th centuries, focused on the restoration of the natural knowledge of the ancients; and a _Scientific Revolution_ of the 17th century, when scientists shifted from recovery to innovation.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Christianity
Christianity

GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD

Christianity
Christianity
- Percentage by country (2010 data) Christian
Christian
majority countries Main article: Christianity
Christianity
by country

Christianity
Christianity
is the predominant religion in Europe, Russia, the Americas
Americas
, Oceania
Oceania
, the Philippines
Philippines
, Eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
, Southern Africa , Central Africa
Central Africa
and East Africa
East Africa
. There are also large Christian
Christian
communities in other parts of the world, such as China, India and Central Asia , where Christianity
Christianity
is the second-largest religion after Islam
Islam
. The United States is the largest Christian country in the world by population, followed by Brazil
Brazil
and Mexico.

Many Christians not only live under, but also have an official status in, a state religion of the following nations: Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian Apostolic Church ), Costa Rica
Costa Rica
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church), Denmark ( Church of Denmark ), El Salvador
El Salvador
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church), England ( Church of England ), Georgia ( Georgian Orthodox church ), Greece ( Church of Greece ), Iceland
Iceland
(Church of Iceland
Iceland
), Liechtenstein (Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church), Malta
Malta
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church), Monaco (Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church), Romania
Romania
( Romanian Orthodox Church ), Norway ( Church of Norway
Church of Norway
), Vatican City
Vatican City
(Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church), Switzerland (Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, Swiss Reformed Church
Swiss Reformed Church
and Christian
Christian
Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of Switzerland ).

NUMBER OF ADHERENTS

Main article: Christianity
Christianity
by country

The estimated number of Christians in the world ranges from 2.2 billion to 2.4 billion people. The faith represents approximately one-third of the world's population and is the largest religion in the world, with the three largest groups of Christians being the Catholic Church , Protestantism , and the Eastern Orthodox Church . The largest Christian
Christian
denomination is the Catholic
Catholic
Church, with an estimated 1.2 billion adherents.

NOTABLE CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS

A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice. In contrast, the term Holy Orders is used by many Christian
Christian
churches to refer to ordination or to a group of individuals who are set apart for a special role or ministry. Historically, the word "order" designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordinatio meant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Religious orders are composed of initiates (laity) and, in some traditions, ordained clergies.

Various organizations include:

* In the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, religious institutes and secular institutes are the major forms of institutes of consecrated life , similar to which are societies of apostolic life . They are organisations of laity and/or clergy who live a common life under the guidance of a fixed rule and the leadership of a superior. (ed., see Category:Roman Catholic
Catholic
orders and societies for a particular listing.) * Anglican religious orders are communities of laity and/or clergy in the Anglican churches who live under a common rule of life. (ed., see Category:Anglican organizations for a particular listing)

See also: Category: Christian
Christian
organizations

CHRISTIANITY LAW AND ETHICS

CHURCH AND STATE FRAMING

Main articles: Canon law and Christian
Christian
ethics

Within the framework of Christianity, there are at least three possible definitions for Church law. One is the Torah/Mosaic Law (from what Christians consider to be the Old Testament
Old Testament
) also called Divine Law or Biblical
Biblical
law . Another is the instructions of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth in the Gospel
Gospel
(sometimes referred to as the Law of Christ
Christ
or the New Commandment or the New Covenant ). A third is canon law which is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, the Eastern Orthodox churches, and the Anglican Communion of churches. The way that such church law is legislated , interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was initially a rule adopted by a council (From Greek _kanon_ / κανών, Hebrew
Hebrew
kaneh / קנה, for rule, standard, or measure); these canons formed the foundation of canon law.

Christian
Christian
ethics in general has tended to stress the need for grace , mercy , and forgiveness because of human weakness and developed while Early Christians were subjects of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. From the time Nero blamed Christians for setting Rome
Rome
ablaze (64 AD) until Galarius (311 AD), persecutions against Christians erupted periodically. Consequently, Early Christian
Christian
ethics included discussions of how believers should relate to Roman authority and to the empire.

Under the Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
(312-337), Christianity
Christianity
became a legal religion. While some scholars debate whether Constantine's conversion to Christianity
Christianity
was authentic or simply matter of political expediency, Constantine\'s decree made the empire safe for Christian practice and belief. Consequently, issues of Christian
Christian
doctrine, ethics and church practice were debated openly, see for example the First Council of Nicaea and the First seven Ecumenical Councils
First seven Ecumenical Councils
. By the time of Theodosius I (379-395), Christianity
Christianity
had become the state religion of the empire. With Christianity
Christianity
in power, ethical concerns broaden and included discussions of the proper role of the state.

Render unto Caesar… is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus
Jesus
in the synoptic gospels which reads in full, "_Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s_". This phrase has become a widely quoted summary of the relationship between Christianity
Christianity
and secular authority. The gospels say that when Jesus
Jesus
gave his response, his interrogators "marvelled, and left him, and went their way." Time has not resolved an ambiguity in this phrase, and people continue to interpret this passage to support various positions that are poles apart. The traditional division, carefully determined, in Christian
Christian
thought is the state and church have separate spheres of influence .

Thomas Aquinas
Aquinas
thoroughly discussed that _human law_ is positive law which means that it is natural law applied by governments to societies. All human laws were to be judged by their conformity to the natural law. An unjust law was in a sense no law at all. At this point, the natural law was not only used to pass judgment on the moral worth of various laws, but also to determine what the law said in the first place. This could result in some tension. Late ecclesiastical writers followed in his footsteps. See also: Doctrine of the two kingdoms and Unam sanctam

Democratic Ideology

Main article: Christian
Christian
democracy

Christian
Christian
democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian
Christian
principles to public policy. It emerged in 19th-century Europe, largely under the influence of Catholic
Catholic
social teaching . In a number of countries, the democracy's Christian
Christian
ethos has been diluted by secularisation . In practice, Christian
Christian
democracy is often considered conservative on cultural, social and moral issues and progressive on fiscal and economic issues. In places, where their opponents have traditionally been secularist socialists and social democrats , Christian
Christian
democratic parties are moderately conservative , whereas in other cultural and political environments they can lean to the left.

WOMEN\'S ROLES

Main article: Women in Christianity
Christianity

Attitudes and beliefs about the roles and responsibilities of women in Christianity
Christianity
vary considerably today as they have throughout the last two millennia — evolving along with or counter to the societies in which Christians have lived. The Bible
Bible
and Christianity historically have been interpreted as excluding women from church leadership and placing them in submissive roles in marriage. Male leadership has been assumed in the church and within marriage, society and government.

Some contemporary writers describe the role of women in the life of the church as having been downplayed, overlooked, or denied throughout much of Christian
Christian
history. Paradigm shifts in gender roles in society and also many churches has inspired reevaluation by many Christians of some long-held attitudes to the contrary. Christian
Christian
egalitarians have increasingly argued for equal roles for men and women in marriage , as well as for the ordination of women to the clergy . Contemporary conservatives meanwhile have reasserted what has been termed a "complementarian " position, promoting the traditional belief that the Bible
Bible
ordains different roles and responsibilities for women and men in the Church and family.

MAJOR CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS

Main articles: Christian
Christian
denominations and history of Christian theology

A schematic of Christian
Christian
denominational taxonomy. The different width of the lines (thickest for "Protestantism" and thinnest for "Oriental Orthodox" and "Nestorians") is without objective significance. Protestantism in general, and not just Restorationism, claims a direct connection with Early Christianity. Both the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Eastern Orthodox churches would consider themselves in unbroken continuity with the "early Christianity" line.

Major branches and movements within Protestantism

A Christian
Christian
denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and doctrine within Christianity. Worldwide, Christians are divided, often along ethnic and linguistic lines, into separate churches and traditions. Technically, divisions between one group and another are defined by church doctrine and church authority . Centering on language of _professed Christianity_ and _true Christianity_, issues that separate one group of followers of Jesus from another include:

* Apostolic succession , * Biblical
Biblical
authority , * Biblical
Biblical
criticism , * Biblical
Biblical
inerrancy , * Biblical
Biblical
infallibility , * Biblical
Biblical
inspiration , * Biblical
Biblical
interpretation , * Papal primacy , and * Views of Jesus
Jesus
( Christology ).

Christianity
Christianity
is composed of, but not limited to, five major branches of Churches: Catholicism , Eastern Orthodoxy , Oriental Orthodoxy , Anglicanism , and Protestantism . Some listings include Anglicans among Protestants while others list the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox together as one group, thus the number of distinct major branches can vary between three and five depending on the listing. The Assyrian Church of the East (Nestorians) and the Old Catholic
Catholic
churches are also distinct Christian
Christian
bodies of historic importance, but much smaller in adherents and geographic scope. Each of the branches has important subdivisions. Because the Protestant subdivisions do not maintain a common theology or earthly leadership, they are far more distinct than the subdivisions of the other four groupings. _Denomination_ typically refers to one of the many Christian
Christian
groupings including each of the multitude of Protestant subdivisions. See also: East–West Schism , History of the East–West Schism , History of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, History of the Eastern Orthodox Church , History of Protestantism , History of the Anglican Communion , and History of Oriental Orthodoxy

SIZES OF DENOMINATION

Catholicism is the largest denomination, comprising just over half of Christians worldwide.

In Christendom, the largest denominations are:

* Roman Catholicism – 1.3 billion * Protestantism – 540 million * Eastern Orthodoxy – 300 million * Anglicanism – 115 million * Oriental Orthodoxy – 75 million * Nontrinitarianism – 26 million * Nestorianism – 1 million * Old Catholicism - 0.4 million

See also: List of Christian
Christian
denominations and List of Christian denominations by number of members

CHRISTENDOM AND OTHER BELIEFS

Main article: Christianity
Christianity
and other religions

In the interaction between Christendom
Christendom
and other belief systems, men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand the Other
Other
(not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed). Such interactions have led to various interfaith dialogue events. History records many examples of interfaith initiatives and dialogue throughout the ages. In the field of comparative religion , the interactions connects fundamental ideas in Christianity
Christianity
with similar ones in other religions. Christianity
Christianity
and other religions appear to share some elements. Regarding Christianity's relationship with other world beliefs, Christianity
Christianity
and other beliefs have differences and similarities in connection with each other.

JUDAISM

Main article: Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism
Judaism
Jewish population by country (2010)

Although Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism
Judaism
share historical roots, these two religions differ on fundamental points. Though Judeo-Christian tradition emphasizes continuities and convergences between the two religions, there are many other areas in which the faiths diverge. See also: Jewish population and Judaism
Judaism
by country

ISLAM

Main articles: Muslim world and Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
Percentage adherents of Islam
Islam
and a map of the Muslim World (2014).

Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
share their origins in the Abrahamic tradition , as well as Judaism. Islam
Islam
accepts Jesus
Jesus
and his miracles and other aspects of Christianity
Christianity
as part of its faith - with some differences in interpretation, and rejects other aspects. See also: Divisions of the world in Islam
Islam
and Islamic schools and branches

BUDDHISM

Main article: Buddhism and Christianity
Christianity
Percentage adherents of Buddhism.

There has been much speculation regarding a possible connection between both the Buddha
Buddha
and the Christ
Christ
, and between Buddhism and Christianity
Christianity
. Buddhism originated in India about 500 years before the Apostolic Age and the origins of Christianity
Christianity
. See also: Buddhism by country

HINDUISM

Main article: Hinduism and other religions Hinduism - Percentage by country

The declaration _ Nostra aetate _ officially established inter-religious dialogue between Catholics and Hindus. It has promoted common values between religions. There are over 17.3 million Catholics in India, which represents less than 2% of the total population and is the largest Christian
Christian
Church within India. See also: Hinduism by country

SECULARISM

Main articles: Secular world and Humanism Atheists , agnostics and nonreligious , by the Dentsu Institute (2006) and Zuckerman (2005)

Irreligion is an absence, indifference or hostility to religion. Secularism , in one sense, may assert the right to be free to choose religious beliefs and non-beliefs. In its most prominent form, secularism is critical of religious orthodoxy and asserts that reason and the scientific method are better ways to understand reality than religious beliefs. Humanism refers to a philosophy centered on humankind. Much of Humanism's life stance upholds human reason, ethics, and justice, and rejects supernaturalism ( Christian
Christian
mythology ). See also: Demographics of atheism and Secularization

SEE ALSO

Main Outline of Christianity
Christianity
, Christian
Christian
Apologetics , Criticism of Christianity
Christianity
General Ecumenism , Christianity
Christianity
and other religions , Christian
Christian
Flag , Crusade
Crusade
, Christian
Christian
pilgrimage , The Good News , The City of God , Christian
Christian
culture History History of Christianity
Christianity
, Constantinian shift , Constantine I
Constantine I
and Christianity
Christianity
Roman Catholic Church Papism , Church militant and church triumphant , Union of Christendom
Christendom
, Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ecumenism , Political Catholicism , Interdict
Interdict
"Western" concepts Western world , Western nationalism , Role of Christianity
Christianity
in civilization Muslim world Spread of Islam
Islam
, Islamic Studies , Islamic Golden Age Church and State Freedom of religion , Caesaropapism , Ecumene , Dominionism , _Res publica christiana _ Other
Other
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(Holy Roman Emperor )

NOTES

* ^ Current sources are in general agreement that Christians make up about 33% of the world's population—slightly over 2.4 billion adherents in mid-2015.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ See Merriam-Webster.com : dictionary, "Christendom" * ^ Marty, Martin (2008). _The Christian
Christian
World: A Global History_. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-58836-684-9 . * ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JxJQ_98I3R0C&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=Christendom+Western+World&source=bl&ots=l8469gtMIi&sig=eLj2kazhU50RyBxX9dzbmacjLlc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjB0afai5jVAhWjAsAKHVBlD2A4ChDoAQgpMAE#v=onepage&q=Christendom%20Western%20World Glenn Olsen (1961). _Crisis in Western Education_ (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836 . * ^ Acts 3:1; Acts 5:27–42; Acts 21:18–26; Acts 24:5; Acts 24:14; Acts 28:22; Romans 1:16; Tacitus, _Annales_ xv 44; Josephus _Antiquities_ xviii 3; Mortimer Chambers, _The Western Experience Volume II_ chapter 5; _The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion_ page 158. * ^ Walter Bauer, _Greek-English Lexicon_; Ignatius of Antioch Letter to the Magnesians 10, Letter to the Romans (Roberts-Donaldson tr., Lightfoot tr., Greek text). However, an edition presented on some websites, one that otherwise corresponds exactly with the Roberts-Donaldson translation, renders this passage to the interpolated inauthentic longer recension of Ignatius's letters, which does not contain the word "Christianity." * ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). _The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information_. Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p. 700. * ^ The church in the Roman empire before A.D. 170, Part 170 By Sir William Mitchell Ramsay * ^ Boyd, William Kenneth (1905). The ecclesiastical edicts of the Theodosian code, Columbia University
University
Press. * ^ Challand, Gérard (1994). _The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age_. University
University
of California Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-520-07964-9 . * ^ Willis Mason West (1904). _The ancient world from the earliest times to 800 A.D. ..._ Allyn and Bacon. p. 551. * ^ Peter Brown; Peter Robert Lamont Brown (2003). _The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity 200-1000 AD_. Wiley. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-631-22138-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Durant, Will (2005). _Story of Philosophy_. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-69500-2 . Retrieved 10 December 2013. * ^ Shaping a global theological mind By Darren C. Marks. Page 45 * ^ Somerville, R. (1998). Prefaces to Canon Law books in Latin Christianity: Selected translations, 500-1245 ; commentary and translations. New Haven

20th century sources

* _The Return of Christendom_. Macmillan. 1922. * Andrew Dickson White (1897). _A History of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom_. D. Appleton. * F. G. Cole (1908). _Mother of All Churches: A Brief and Comprehensive Handbook of the Holy Eastern Orthodox Church_. Skeffington.

19th century sources

* Hull, Moses. Encyclopedia of Biblical
Biblical
Spiritualism; Or, A Concordance to the Principal Passages of the Old and New Testament Scriptures Which Prove or Imply Spiritualism; Together with a Brief History of the Origin of Many of the Important Books of the Bible. Chicago: M. Hull, 1895. (ed., reprint version is available) * Bosanquet, Bernard. The Civilization of Christendom, And Other Studies. London: S. Sonnenschein, 1893. * _The History of Teachings of the Early Church, as a Basis for the Re-union of Christendom: Lectures_. E. & J. B. Young. 1893. * John Hodson Egar (1887). _Christendom; ecclesiastical and political, from Constantine to the Reformation_. J. Pott. * _The Churches of Christendom_. Macniven and Wallace. 1884. * Charles, Elizabeth (1880). _Sketches of the women of Christendom, by the author of \'Chronicles of the Schönberg-Cotta family\'._ * Naville, Ernest (1880). _The Christ: Seven lectures_. T. & T. Clark. * George William Cox (1870). _Latin and Teutonic Christendom: An Historical Sketch_. Longmans, Green & Company. * Girdlestone, Charles (1870). _Christendom, sketched from history in the light of holy Scripture_. Published for the Author by Sampson Low, Son, & Marston. * John Radford Thomson (1867). _Symbols of Christendom: an elementary text-book_. * Thomas William Allies (1865). _The formation of Christendom_. * Stearns, George (1857). _The mistake of Christendom; or, Jesus
Jesus
and His Gospel
Gospel
before Paul and Christianity_. B. Marsh. * Johnson, Richard (1824). _The Renowned History of the Seven Champions of Christendom: St. George of England, St. Denis of France, St. James of Spain, St. Anthony of Italy, St. Andrew of Scotland, St. Patrick of Ireland, and St. David of Wales, and Their Sons_. W. Baynes.

FURTHER READING

* Bainton, Roland H. (1966). _Christendom: a Short History of Christianity
Christianity
and Its Impact on Western Civilization_, in series, _Harper Colophon Books_. New York: Harper padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutCHRISTENDOMat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Websites

* Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Union of Christendom". Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

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