The CHOTA NAGPUR PLATEAU is a plateau in eastern India, which covers
* 1 Etymology * 2 Formation
* 3 Divisions
* 4 Climate
* 5 Ecology
* 5.1 Protected areas
* 6 Minerals * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagavanshis , who ruled in this part of the country. Chota is a corruption of the word small, a village in the outskirts of Ranchi , which has the remains of an old fort belonging to the Nagavanshis .
The Chota Nagpur
The Chota Nagpur
The western plateau with an average elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above mean sea level merges into the plateau of Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. The flat topped plateaux, locally known as pats are characterized by level surface and accordance of their summit levels shows they are part of one large plateau. Examples include Netarhat Pat, Jamira Pat, Khamar Pat, Rudni Pat etc. The area is also referred to as Western Ranchi Plateau. It is believed to be composed of Deccan lava.
Dassam falls in the plateau
It is the largest part of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The elevation of
the plateau land in this part is about 700 m (2,300 ft) and gradually
slopes down towards south-east into the hilly and undulating region of
Singhbhum (earlier Singhbhum district or what is now Kolhan division
). The plateau is highly dissected.
There are many waterfalls at the edges of
Ranchi plateau where rivers
coming from over the plateau surface form waterfalls when they descend
through the precipitous escarpments of the plateau and enter the area
of significantly lower height. The
North Karo River has formed a 17 m
(56 ft) high Pheruaghaugh Falls at the southern margin of Ranchi
plateau. Such falls are called scarp falls.
Hundru Falls (75 m) on
Subarnarekha River near Ranchi,
Hazaribagh plateau is often subdivided into two parts – the
higher plateau and the lower plateau. Here the higher plateau is
referred to as
Hazaribagh plateau and the lower plateau as Koderma
Hazaribagh plateau on which
Hazaribagh town is built is
about 64 km (40 mi) east by west and 24 km (15 mi) north by south with
an average elevation of 610 m (2,000 ft). The north-eastern and
southern faces are mostly abrupt; but to the west it narrows and
descends slowly in the neighbourhood.of Simaria and Jabra where it
curves to the south and connects with the
The western portion of Hazaribagh plateau constitutes a broad watershed between the Damodar drainage on the south and the Lilajan and Mohana rivers on the north. The highest hills in this area are called after the villages of Kasiatu, Hesatu and Hudu, and rise fronting the south 180 m (600 ft) above the general level of the plateau. Further east along the southern face a long spur projects right up to the Damodar river where it ends in Aswa Pahar, elevation 751 metres (2,465 ft). At the south-eastern corner of the plateau is Jilinga Hill at 932 metres (3,057 ft). Mahabar Jarimo at 666 m (2,185 ft) and Barsot at 660 m (2,180 ft) stand in isolation to the east, and on the north-west edge of the plateau Sendraili at 670 m (2,210 ft) and Mahuda at 734 m (2,409 ft) are the most prominent features. Isolated on the plateau, in the neighbourhood of Hazaribagh town are four hills of which the highest Chendwar rises to 860 m (2,810 ft). On all sides it has an exceedingly abrupt scarp, modified only on the south-east. In the south it falls almost sheer in a swoop of 670 m (2,200 ft) to the bed of Bokaro River , below Jilinga Hill. Seen from the north the edge of this plateau has the appearance of a range of hills, at the foot of which (on the Koderma plateau) runs the Grand Trunk Road and NH 2 (new NH19 ).
The Koderma plateau is also referred to as the Hazaribagh lower plateau or as the Chauparan-Koderma-Girighi sub-plateau.
The northern face of the Koderma plateau, elevated above the plains of Bihar, has the appearance of a range of hills, but in reality it is the edge of a plateau, 240 metres (800 ft) from the level of the Gaya plain. Eastward this northern edge forms a well-defined watershed between heads of the tributaries of Gaya and those of the Barakar River , which traverses the Koderma and Giridih districts in an easterly direction. The slope of this plateau to the east is uniform and gentle and is continued past the river, which bears to the south-east, into the Santhal Parganas and gradually disappears in the lower plains of Bengal. The western boundary of the plateau is formed by the deep bed of the Lilajan River .The southern boundary consists of the face of the higher plateau, as far as its eastern extremity, where for some distance a low and undistinguished watershed runs eastward to the western spurs of Parasnath Hills . The drainage to the south of this low line passes by the Jamunia River to the Damodar.
The Damodar basin forms a trough between the Ranchi and Hazaribagh plateaux resulting from enormous fractures at their present edges, which caused the land between to sink to a great depth and incidentally preserved from denudation the Karanpura, Ramgarh and Bokaro coalfields. The northern boundary of the Damodar valley is steep as far as the south eastern corner of the Hazaribagh plateau. On the south of the trough the Damodar keeps close to the edge of the Ranchi plateau till it has passed Ramgarh, after which a turn to the north-east leaves on the right hand a wide and level valley on which the Subarnarekha begins to intrude, south of Gola till the Singhpur Hills divert it to the south. Further to the east the Damodar River passes tamely into the Manbhum sector of lowest step of the Chotanagpur plateau.
The Palamu division generally lies at a lower height than the surrounding areas of Chota Nagpur Plateau. On the east the Ranchi plateau intrudes into the division and the southern part of the division merges with the Pat region. On the west are the Surguja highlands of Chhattishgarh and Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. The Son River touches the north-western corner of the division and then forms the state boundary for about 72 kilometres (45 mi). The general system of the area is a series of parallel ranges of hills running east and west through which the North Koel River passes. The hills in the south are the highest in the area, and the picturesque and isolated cup-like Chhechhari valley is surrounded by lofty hills on every side. Lodh Falls drops from a height of 150 metres (490 ft) from these hills, making it the highest waterfall on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Netarhat and Pakripat plateaux are physiographically part of the Pat region.
In the lowest step of the Chota Nagpur Plateau, the Manbhum area
covers the present
The Singhbhum area contains much more hilly and broken country. The
whole of the western part is a mass of hill ranges rising to 910
metres (3,000 ft) in the south-west.
Jamshedpur sits on an open
plateau, 120 to 240 metres (400 to 800 ft) above mean sea level, with
a higher plateau to the south of it. The eastern part is mostly hilly,
though near the borders of
The Chota Nagpur
Sal trees (Shorea robusta) are found in forests of Chota Nagpur
The Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests, a tropical and subtropical
dry broadleaf forests ecoregion , encompasses the plateau. The
ecoregion has an area of 122,100 square kilometres (47,100 sq mi),
covering most of
The ecoregion is drier than surrounding ones, including the Eastern
Highlands moist deciduous forests that covers the
The plateau is covered with a variety of different habitats of which
Sal forest is predominant. The plateau is home to the Palamau Tiger
Reserve and other large blocks of natural habitat which are among the
few remaining refuges left in
Forests range from dry to wet and reach up to 25 metres (82 ft) tall.
The plateau is also swampy in some places and in other parts is
covered with bamboo grasslands and shrubs such as
Dodonaea . The flora of the plateau is distinct from the wetter parts
Tigers, Asian elephants, four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), chinkara (Gazella bennettii), dhole wild dog (Cuon alpinus) and sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) are some of the animals found here while birds include the threatened lesser florican (Eupodotis indica), Indian grey hornbill and other hornbills.
More than half of the natural forest on the plateau has been cleared for grazing land and the scale of the mining operations on the plateau is disturbing to the movement and therefore the survival of wildlife including elephants and tigers.
Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary ,
Chota Nagpur plateau is a store house of minerals like mica , bauxite , copper , limestone , iron ore and coal . The Damodar valley is rich in coal and it is considered as the prime centre of coking coal in the country. Massive coal deposits are found in the central basin spreading over 2,883 square kilometres (1,113 sq mi). The important coalfields in the basin are Jharia , Raniganj , West Bokaro , East Bokaro , Ramgarh , South Karanpura and North Karanpura .
* Ecoregions of
* ^ "Chhota Nagpur Plateau". mapsofindia. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
* ^ A B Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127-128,
Orient Longmans, 1949.
* ^ A B C D Geography By Yash Pal Singh. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
* ^ A B "Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests". The Encyclopaedia of
Earth. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
* ^ Perspectives in geomorphology By Hari Shanker Sharma. Retrieved
* ^ A B C "
* Gupta, Satya Prakash. Tribes of Chotanagpur Plateau: An
Ethno-Nutritional Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1983
* Mukhopadhyay, Subhash Chandra. Geomorphology of the Subarnarekha
Basin: The Chota Nagpur Plateau, Eastern India. : University of
* Sinha, Birendra K. Light at the End of the Tunnel: A Journey
Towards Fulfilment in the Chotanagpur
* Media related to Chota Nagpur
* v * t * e
MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS
LOWLANDS AND ISLANDS
* v * t * e
* Barakar * Bokaro * Damodar * Jamunia * Konar * Mundeswari * Rupnarayan
* Damodar Valley Corporation * Durgapur * Konar * Maithon * Panchet * Tenughat * Tilaiya
* Bankura * Bardhaman * Hooghly * Howrah * Paschim Medinipur * Purba Medinipur * Purulia
Bokaro Steel Plant
Bokaro Thermal Power Station B
Durgapur Steel Plant
* Grand Trunk Road * National Highway 17 * National Highway 18 * National Highway 2 * National Highway 50 * National Highway 522 * National Highway 60
* v * t * e
Links: ------ /wiki/Plateau