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CHORLEYWOOD is a village and civil parish in Three Rivers District
Three Rivers District
, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
. It is situated in the far south-west of Hertfordshire on the border with Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi) north-west of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
. It is part of the London commuter belt and included in the government-defined Greater London Urban Area
Greater London Urban Area
. Chorleywood
Chorleywood
as a parish was created in 1845 from part of the parish of Rickmansworth .

The parish had a population of 11,286 people at the 2011 census . In a 2004 survey of neighbourhoods carried out by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister , Chorleywood
Chorleywood
was found to be the neighbourhood in England
England
with the highest quality of life. Of the 32,482 neighbourhoods surveyed, Chorleywood
Chorleywood
came out top using thirty-seven criteria.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Transport * 3 Chorleywood Common
Chorleywood Common
* 4 Politics * 5 Schools * 6 Demography * 7 Twin town * 8 Footnotes * 9 External links

HISTORY

Cricket Ground Chorleywood Common
Chorleywood Common

Settlement at Chorleywood
Chorleywood
dates to the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
era when the plentiful flint supply led to swift development of tools by man. The Romans built a village on the ancient site complete with a mill and brewery.

A large influx of Saxon settlers called it 'Cerola Leah', meaning a meadow in a clearing. Through Chorleywood
Chorleywood
runs the line that once divided the Kingdoms of Mercia
Mercia
and Wessex
Wessex
and now divides the counties of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Buckinghamshire. Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
gave Chorleywood
Chorleywood
to the Monastery of St Albans
St Albans
.

By 1278, it was known as 'Bosco de Cherle' or 'Churl's Wood', Norman for 'Peasant's Wood'. Upon the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
, it passed to the Bishopric of London, being renamed 'Charleywoode'. It became Crown property during the reign of Elizabeth I . The Turnpike Act (1663) gave Chorleywood
Chorleywood
a chance to exploit its strategic position, allowing locals the opportunity to charge civilians to use the road from Hatfield to Reading .

Chorleywood
Chorleywood
is most famous for its Quakers . Non-conformists flocked to Chorleywood, promised sanctuary by the locals. William Penn
William Penn
founded the Pennsylvania Colony
Pennsylvania Colony
with settlers from Chorleywood, Rickmansworth and nearby towns in southern Buckinghamshire, having lived and married in Chorleywood.

Chorleywood House , a Regency mansion, was built in 1822 by John Barnes, replacing an earlier house. John Saunders Gilliat
John Saunders Gilliat
, the Governor of the Bank of England
England
in 1883-1885, lived in it. In 1892, the house was bought by Lady Ela Sackville Russell, eldest daughter of the 9th Duke of Bedford . She modified and enlarged the house, turning the grounds into a model estate with market gardens.

The population was 1,500 in 1897; two years later the railway was extended to Chorleywood
Chorleywood
on 8 July 1889.

When the Local Government Act 1894
Local Government Act 1894
created districts as subdivisions of the newly created county councils , Chorleywood
Chorleywood
became part of the Watford Rural District , which encircled Watford
Watford
. In 1913, the town was separated from Watford Rural District to become Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Urban District .

In the early 1960s, researchers at the British Baking Industries Research Association in Chorleywood
Chorleywood
improved upon an earlier American bread making process. This resulted in the Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Bread Process which is now used in over 80% of commercial bread production throughout the UK.

In the 1973 BBC Television
BBC Television
documentary, Metro-land
Metro-land
, Sir John Betjeman described Chorleywood
Chorleywood
as "essential Metro-land
Metro-land
".

In 1974, the Urban District, along with Rickmansworth Urban District and most of Watford Rural District were merged to form the Three Rivers non-metropolitan district .

TRANSPORT

Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Station

Chorleywood
Chorleywood
has grown remarkably in the past century following the extension of the Metropolitan line
Metropolitan line
of the London Underground
London Underground
which reached Chorleywood
Chorleywood
in 1889. Chorleywood station is in Zone 7 on the Metropolitan line, situated between Chalfont and Latimer and Rickmansworth . The majority of trains stopping at Chorleywood
Chorleywood
are operated by London Underground
London Underground
and the station is also on Chiltern Railways line running between Marylebone and Aylesbury stations.

Junction 18 of the M25 with the A404 is at Chorleywood.

The 336 bus route runs via Chorleywood
Chorleywood
between High Wycombe
High Wycombe
and Watford
Watford
.

CHORLEYWOOD COMMON

Chorleywood Common
Chorleywood Common
Chorleywood Urban District in 1971 was a small authority separated from Watford Rural District

Chorleywood Common
Chorleywood Common
is 0.8 square kilometres (200 acres) of wooded common land . It is a County Heritage Site, with significant biodiversity. Since cattle grazing ended soon after the First World War , the land has been used for recreational purposes. Chorleywood Golf Club maintains a nine-hole golf course on the Common.

In the 19th century, the MCC established a cricket pitch on the Common, which is used by Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Cricket Club's senior and junior teams to this day.

POLITICS

Map of "Metro-land", from the 1924 Metro-land
Metro-land
booklet published by the Metropolitan Railway

Chorleywood
Chorleywood
is a part of the UK Parliament constituency , South West Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
. David Gauke
David Gauke
, a resident, is the Member of Parliament (MP) and the current Chief Secretary to the Treasury
Chief Secretary to the Treasury
.

A larger Chorleywood
Chorleywood
constituency, including Chorleywood, Sarratt
Sarratt
and part of Abbots Langley
Abbots Langley
is represented by Chris Hayward, Conservative , at Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council .

At a district level, Chorleywood
Chorleywood
is part of Three Rivers ; the two wards , Chorleywood
Chorleywood
North & Sarratt
Sarratt
and Chorleywood
Chorleywood
South & Maple Cross, are divided by the railway line. Chorleywood
Chorleywood
South Chorleywood North & Sarratt
Sarratt
includes the north part of Chorleywood, Loudwater , Sarratt
Sarratt
and Belsize .

Chorleywood
Chorleywood
parish covers all Chorleywood, Loudwater and north-western parts of Rickmansworth . Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Parish councillors are currently ten Liberal Democrats and seven Conservatives.

SCHOOLS

St Clement Danes School
St Clement Danes School
is a mixed academy school . Russell School, Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Primary and Christ Church schools are all mixed primary schools.

DEMOGRAPHY

At the 2011 census, the parish of Chorleywood
Chorleywood
had a resident population of 11,286, of whom:

Chorleywood (parish) THREE RIVERS ENGLAND ">

* ^ "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ "Suburbs score in quality of life". BBC News. 6 May 2004. Retrieved 10 September 2006. * ^ A B C D E F "Local History". Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Parish Council. Retrieved 11 June 2008. * ^ "The Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Bread Process, Training course, Campden and Chorleywood
Chorleywood
Food Research Association (CCFRA)". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. * ^ Davidson, Max (5 June 2002). "End of the line for a poet\'s scorn". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. London. Retrieved 11 June 2008. * ^ " David Gauke
David Gauke
MP". Conservative Party . Retrieved 10 June 2008. * ^ "Age structure". United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2011. Office for National Statistics. 12 February 2013. * ^ "Ethnic group".