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Choquequirao
Choquequirao
(possibly from Quechua chuqi metal, k'iraw crib, cot)[1][2][3][4] is an Incan site in south Peru, similar in structure and architecture to Machu Picchu. The ruins are buildings and terraces at levels above and below Sunch'u Pata, the truncated hill top. The hilltop was anciently leveled and ringed with stones to create a 30 by 50 m platform. Choquequirao
Choquequirao
at an elevation of 3,050 metres (10,010 ft) [5]) is in the spurs of the Vilcabamba mountain range
Vilcabamba mountain range
in the Santa Teresa district, La Convención Province
La Convención Province
of the Cusco
Cusco
Region. The complex is 1,800 hectares, of which 30–40% is excavated.[6] The site overlooks the Apurimac River
Apurimac River
canyon which has an elevation of 1,450 metres (4,760 ft). The site is reached by a two-day hike from outside Cusco.[6] Choquequirao
Choquequirao
has topped in the prestigious Lonely Planet's Best in Travel 2017 Top Regions list.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Discovery

2 Location and layout

2.1 Sectors 2.2 Ceremonial center 2.3 Subsectors 2.4 Materials

3 Art 4 Access 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links 9 Photo gallery

History[edit] Choquequirao
Choquequirao
is a 15th and 16th century settlement associated with the Inca Empire, or more correctly Tahuantinsuyo.[8] The site had two major growth stages. This could be explained if Pachacuti
Pachacuti
founded Choquequirao
Choquequirao
and his son, Tupac Inca Yupanqui, remodeled and extended it after becoming the Sapa Inca.[9] Choquequirao
Choquequirao
is located in the area considered to be Pachacuti’s estate; which includes the areas around the rivers Amaybamba, Urabamba, Vilcabamba, Victos and Apurímac. Other sites in this area are Sayhuite, Machu Picchu, Chachabamba (Chachapampa), Choquesuysuy (Chuqisuyuy) and Guamanmarca (Wamanmarka); all of which share similar architectural styles with Choquequirao.[10] The architectural style of several important features appears to be of Chachapoya
Chachapoya
design, suggesting that Chachapoya
Chachapoya
workers were probably involved in the construction. This suggests that Tupaq Inka probably ordered the construction. Colonial documents also suggest that Tupac Inca ruled Choquequirao
Choquequirao
since his great grandson, Tupa Sayri, claimed ownership of the site and neighboring lands during Spanish colonization.[11] It was one of the last bastions of resistance and refuge of the Son of the Sun (the "Inca"), Manco Inca Yupanqui, who fled Cusco
Cusco
after his siege of the city failed in 1535. According to the Peruvian Tourism Office, " Choquequirao
Choquequirao
was probably one of the entrance check points to the Vilcabamba, and also an administrative hub serving political, social and economic functions. Its urban design has followed the symbolic patterns of the imperial capital, with ritual places dedicated to Inti
Inti
(the Incan sun god) and the ancestors, to the earth, water and other divinities, with mansions for administrators and houses for artisans, warehouses, large dormitories or kallankas and farming terraces belonging to the Inca or the local people. Spreading over 700 meters, the ceremonial area drops as much as 65 meters from the elevated areas to the main square."[5] The city also played an important role as a link between the Amazon Jungle and the city of Cusco. Discovery[edit] According to Ethan Todras-Whitehill of the New York Times, Choquequirao's first non-Incan visitor was the explorer Juan Arias Díaz in 1710.[12] The first written site reference in 1768 was made by Cosme Bueno, but was ignored at the time. In 1834 Eugene de Santiges rediscovered the site. In 1837 Leonce Agrand mapped the site for the first time, but his maps were forgotten. When Hiram Bingham, the discoverer of Machu Picchu, visited Choquequirao
Choquequirao
in 1909 the site gained more attention. The first excavations started in the 1970s. Location and layout[edit] Choquequirao
Choquequirao
is situated at an elevation of 3,000 m above sea level on a southwest-facing spur of a glaciated peak above the Apurimac River.[13] The region is characterized by mountain topography and covered with Amazonian flora and fauna.[14] It is 98 km west of Cusco, in the Vilcabamba range. The complex covers 6 km2.[15] Architecturally it is similar to Machu Picchu. The main structures, such as temples, huacas, elite residences, and fountain/bath systems are concentrated around two plazas along the crest of the ridge, which encompass approximately 2 km2 and follow Inca urban design. Also there is a conglomeration of common buildings clustered away from the plaza. Excavations and surface items suggest they were probably used for workshops and food preparation.[16] Most buildings are well-preserved and well-restored; restoration continues. The terrain around the site was greatly modified. The central area of the site was leveled artificially and the surrounding hillsides were terraced to allow cultivation and small residential areas.[14] The typical Inca terraces form the largest constructions on site. Many of the ceremonial structures are associated with water. There are two unusual temple wak'a sites that lie several hundred meters lower than the two plazas. These are carefully crafted step terraces down a steep slope are designed around water.[17] The site also contains a number of ceremonial structures such as the large usnu built on a truncates hill, the Giant Staircase, and an aqueduct providing water to the water shrines.[18] Sectors[edit] The archaeological complex of Choquequirao
Choquequirao
is divided into 12 sectors. While the contents of each sector are different, terraces used for various purposes are common throughout. It seems that most of the buildings here were either for ceremonial purposes, residences of the priests, or used to store food.

Sector I is the highest and most northerly portion of the site. There exist 5 buildings constructed on terraces at varying levels, a temple and a plaza, as well as a smaller plaza in the uppermost area of the sector. Two of the buildings appear to be qullqas (warehouses). The three long buildings, called kallankas were likely priests’ residences.[19] Sector II is where a majority of the qullqanpatas, or depositories are located. In one part of this sector there are 16 ceremonial platforms with canal routes in between that branch off from the main water way.[20] Sector III is between the hanan (high) area and the urin (low) area of the complex and contains what is believed to be the Haucaypata (Hawkaypata), or main plaza. At the periphery of the plaza there are one story and two story buildings. To the north, there is a Sunturwasi and a single level kallanka likely used for ceremony.[20] To the east are the buildings with two levels. The main plaza is discussed in more detail in the section called Ceremonial Center of this page. Sector IV is located in the southerly area of the complex, known as the urin zone. The main building here has walls that were probably ceremonial in function since one of them is known as “wall of offerings to the ancestors”.[20] Sector V is the location of the usnu which is a hill leveled at the summit to form an oval platform used for ceremony.[20] A small wall encircles the hill. From the platform, one can see the main plaza of sector III, the snowcapped mountains and the Apurímac River. Sector VI, south of the usnu in the urin area, it has the Wasi Kancha ("house yard"), also known as the priests' quarters. There are four terraces here that were used as ceremonial space.[21] In the walls of the terraces there is a zigzagged design. Sector VII can be reached from the main plaza by pathway. Located on the east side of Choquequirao, this zone contains cultivation terraces that have markedly greater amplitude than all others throughout the complex. Sector VIII, on the western side of the complex, has 80 cultivation terraces divided into plots by water canals that stream down from the main plaza. In this zone, one will find the famous "Llamas del Sol".[22] Sector IX contains general living quarters for groups of people, such as workers or families. The buildings are constructed on top of artificial platforms in circular and rectangular design, interconnected by stairways and narrow alleys. Sector X, called paraqtepata, has 18 terraced platforms that have irrigation canals running parallel to the stairs.[23] Sector XI has 80 terraces used for cultivation, called phaqchayuq ("the one with a waterfall"), which are the most extensive in the entire complex.[23] Also found here are small, quadrilateral enclosures with two levels used for both ceremony and living. Outside, there are three water fountains used for drinking and to supply the irrigation canals. Sector XII lies three hours away (by foot) from the upper part of the complex. Here there are 57 platforms with permanent irrigation systems. In the uppermost terraces there are buildings for ceremony and a pool of water fed by a spring. In the semicircular enclosures ceramic shards, stone tools and remains of bones have been found.[23]

Ceremonial center[edit] The ceremonial center of Choquequirao
Choquequirao
shares many features similar to those of other Inca ceremonial centers and pilgrimage sites, such as Isla del Sol, Quespiwanka (Qhispi Wank'a, palace of Huayna Capac), Machu Picchu/Llaqtapata, Tipon
Tipon
and Saywite. The long and treacherous route from Cusco
Cusco
to Choquequirao
Choquequirao
likely passed by Machu Picchu, leading onto the face of Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
Peak. From Llaqtapata, the path continued down into the Mollepata Valley, traversed the Yanamia pass at 4670 m, and continued across the Rio Blanco, finally reaching Choquequirao
Choquequirao
from above after an estimated 7- to 10-day journey.[24] The ceremonial center consists of a main platform and a lower plaza. Stone lined channels carried ceremonial water, or chicha to shrines and baths throughout the site. The main platform, unique in its size and prominence, limited ceremonial activity to royalty and the ministerial class. This seems as such due to evidence showing that the only entrance to the platform was through a double-jam doorway, which functioned to control access to the sacred space.[24] Other features of the ceremonial center include structures that mark the direction of certain solar events, such as when the June and December solstice sun rises and sets. Located in the main platform, the Giant Stairway opens to the sunrise of the December solstice. Measured at 25 meters long and 4.4 meters wide, this structure seems to have been purely ceremonial in function, since the stairs end abruptly partway down a hill, leading to nothing. Large boulders that rest upon the risers of the stairway become fully illuminated when the December solstice sun rises. Gary R. Ziegler and J. McKim Malville have postulated that when the boulders become illuminated, a wak'a is activated by its solar camaquen—a case similar to when the large stone of the Torreon at Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
becomes illuminated.[24] In the lower plaza a group of structures were found that appeared to be water shrines and baths. This belief is held based on their strong resemblance to those at sector II of Llaqtapata
Llaqtapata
and because there are numerous water channels leading to that portion of the plaza.[24] Overall, it seems as though the site was chosen, as Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
was, for its sacred geographical location, and was designed to facilitate ritual and ceremonial activity. Subsectors[edit] The area around Choquequiaro contains several subsectors that have been associated with the Inca culture that thrived in Choquequirao, suggesting that the subsectors are most likely part of the site. Design, construction style, and cultural parallels support that these sectors were tightly intertwined with Choquequiaro and the Inca at some point in their history. The lack of residential space in these sectors suggests that these were probably farming outposts from Choquequirao
Choquequirao
rather than an independent site.[25] Due to differences in design and construction styles, it is believed that these sectors were built in three different phases.[26] Like Choquequirao
Choquequirao
art style, the subsector also contains multiple camelid art and ceremonial phaqchas that are tightly related to Inca, especially Pachacuti’s government.[27] Materials[edit] All lithic materials utilized for the construction of the site and surrounding sectors were mined from the local quarries.[28] Due to the metamorphic rock in the quarries of Choquequirao, superb masonry like that at Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
could not be obtained. Instead, the entrances and corners were shaped from quartzite, and the walls were made of achlar and plastered with clay and then painted in a light orange color.[29] Art[edit] Most of the rock art in Choquequirao
Choquequirao
is in the terraced area where cultivation occurred. Archaeologists have documented twenty-five semi-naturalistic figures on the terraces of sector VIII of Choquequirao. The rocks used to build the walls are dark schist while the camelid images are of white calcocuarcita, a sandstone of quartz and carbonate.[30] The camelid motifs vary between a maximum height of 1.94 m and one minimum of 1.25 m.[31] In 2004, archaeologist Zenobio Valencia from the University of San Antonio Abad of Cusco found several camelid figurines made of white stones in a group of terraces in one sector of the archaeological site.[8] One recent discovery for example, uncovered a scene laid into the stone terraces with white quartzite depicting several llamas loaded with cargo standing by their handlers. Present on the uppermost terrace wall is a zigzag pattern of the same quartzite. This style of design is uniquely Chachapoya
Chachapoya
and not found in other sites of Inca construction, indicating that workers from Chachapoya
Chachapoya
may have been involved in the construction of Choquequirao.[32] Access[edit] Presently the only way to access Choquequirao
Choquequirao
is by a hard hike. The common trail head begins at the village of San Pedro de Cachora[33], which is approximately a 4-hour drive from Cuzco, along the Cusco-Abancay route. Another access point is from Huanipaca village, whose crossroad is located on the same route Cusco-Abancay, 4-5 km beyond the Cachora crossroad. Huanipaca offers a 15 km trail, half distance less than Cachora trail (31 km). Over 5,000 people trekked to Choquequirao
Choquequirao
in 2013. From Choquequirao it is possible to continue hiking to Machu Picchu. Most treks range from 7-day to 11-day hikes, and involve going over the Yanama Pass, which at 4,668 m is the highest point on the trek. The construction of the cable car to Choquequirao
Choquequirao
has been declared a priority by the Apurímac Regional Government, which are destined to receive 220 million Peruvian Soles (US$82.7 million) to fund the project. It will reduce a two-day hike to a 15-minute cable car ride.[34] Carlos Canales, president of the National Chamber of Tourism (Canatur) believes that in the first year of operation the Choquequirao
Choquequirao
cable car will receive 200,000 tourists, which will generate an income of US$4 million, with the average visitor paying US$20 per ticket.[35] See also[edit]

Inka Raqay Inka Wasi Iperu, tourist information and assistance Ñusta Hisp'ana Tourism in Peru

Notes[edit]

^ Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco
Cusco
2005 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary) (5-vowel-system) ^ Ref Bertonio ^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary) ^ Lee 1997 ^ a b Choquequirao, Peru's Tourism Office, 2011 ^ a b Trail to Choquequirao, El Comercio Newspaper, Lima, Peru, May 13, 2009, [Spanish] Archived April 16, 2013, at Archive.is ^ http://www.andina.com.pe/Ingles/noticia-peru-choquequirao-tops-lonely-planets-best-in-travel-2017-list-637078.aspx ^ a b Echevarría López 2009, p.213. ^ Echevarría López 2008, p.83. ^ Echevarría López 2008, p.82. ^ Ziegler 2011, pp.162-163. ^ Ethan Todras-Whitehill on the New York Times ^ Ziegler 2011, pp.162–163. ^ a b Echevarría López 2009, p.214. ^ Ziegler 2011, p.162. ^ Ziegler 2011, pp.163-164. ^ Ziegler 2011, p. 164. ^ Ziegler 2011, p. 162. ^ Burga, Manuel.(2008). p. 103-104. ^ a b c d Burga, Manuel. (2008). p. 104. ^ Burga, Manuel. (2008). p. 104-105. ^ Burga, Manuel. (2008). p. 105. ^ a b c Burga, Manuel. (2008). p. 106. ^ a b c d Ziegler 2011, p.167. ^ Echevarría López 2008, pp.81-82 ^ Echevarría López 2008, p.77. ^ Echevarría López 2008, pp.81-82. ^ Echevarría López 2008, p.72 ^ Ziegler 2011, pp.164-165. ^ Echevarría López 2009, pp.214-215. ^ Echevarría López 2009, p.216. ^ Ziegler 2011, p.165. ^ Trekking To Machu Picchu, Horizon Guides, 2017 ^ Salazar, Carla. "Tramway planned for Machu Picchu's 'sister city'". AP Travel. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 August 2013.  ^ " Choquequirao
Choquequirao
recibiría 600 mil viajeros en el 2018 con teleférico". El Comercio. Retrieved 7 December 2012. 

References[edit]

Burga, Manuel (2008). Choquequirao; símbolo de la resistencia andina (historia, antropología y linguística). Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. pp. 103–106. ISBN 9972-46-390-7.  Echevarría López, Gori Tumi; Zenobio Valencia García (2009). "The 'Llamas' from Choquequirao: A 15th century Cusco
Cusco
imperial rock art". Rock Art Research. 26 (2): 213–223.  Echevarría López, Gori Tumi; Zenobio Valencia García (2008). "Arqutectura y contexto arqueológico Sector VIII, andenes <<Las Llamas>> de Choquequirao". Investigaciones Sociales (20): 63–83.  Ziegler, Gary R.and J. McKim Malville. Choquequirao, Topa Inca's Machu Picchu: a royal estate and ceremonial centerjournal=Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 2011, number 278, pages 162–168. Ziegler, Gary R and J Mckim Malville.(2013). Machu Picchu's Sacred Sisters; Choquequirao
Choquequirao
and Llactapata; Astronomy, Symbolism and Sacred Geography in the Inca Heartland. Johnson Books, Boulder. Ziegler, Gary R. Beyond Machu Picchu; Lost City in the Clouds, Peruvian Times. http://www.peruviantimes.com/06/beyond-machu-picchu-choquequirao-lost-city-in-the-clouds/23519/ Lee, Vincent R. (1997). Inca Choqek'iraw: New Work at a Long Known Site. Cortez, CO:Sixpac Manco Publications. Choquequirao, Peru's Tourism Office, 2011 Trail to Choquequirao, El Comercio Newspaper, Lima, Peru, May 13, 2009, [Spanish] Cusco
Cusco
travel guide, September 5, 2011, [Spanish] The Other Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
article on Choquequirao
Choquequirao
(The New York Times, June 3, 2007) Jones, Paul. Exciting News about the Choquequirao
Choquequirao
Cable Car. Totally Latin America. S.A. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Salazar, Carla. Tramway planned for Machu Picchu’s 'sister city'. AP Travel. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Choquequirao
Choquequirao
recibiría 600 mil viajeros en el 2018 con teleférico. El Comercio. Retrieved 7 December 2012.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Choquequirao.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Choquequirao.

The Other Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
article on Choquequirao
Choquequirao
(The New York Times, June 3, 2007) Adventure Trekking Specialist in Choquequirao
Choquequirao
( Choquequirao
Choquequirao
Trek) Debate on the value of publicizing Choquequirao
Choquequirao
as a travel destination from the author of the New York Times article

Photo gallery[edit]

Twin buildings

Large terraces

Terraces, house and cascade

Ruins and flora

Ruins and flora

Ruins and flora

v t e

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Acaray Amaru Marka Wasi Arhuaturo Asana Asiru Phat'jata Aspero Awila Qhincha Mach'ay Awkin Punta Awkillu Waqra Awkimarka (Apurímac) Awkimarka (Huánuco) Awqa Punta Aya Muqu Ayamachay Ayawayq'u Azángaro Baths of Boza Bandurria Buena Vista Cahuachi Cajamarquilla Cao Viejo Carajía Caral Caves of Sumbay Cerro Baúl Cerro Pátapo Cerro Trinidad Chacamarca Chan Chan Chanquillo Chauchilla Cemetery Chavín de Huantar Chawaytiri Chichakuri Chipaw Marka Choquepuquio Choquequirao Chuqik'iraw Pukyu Churajón Chuya Ch'iqullu Cochabamba Colcampata Cota Coca Coricancha Cumbe Mayo El Brujo El Cañoncillo El Ingenio El Paraíso Garagay Gran Pajatén Gran Vilaya Guitarrero Cave Hatun Mach'ay Hatun Misapata Hatun Rumiyoc Hatun Uchku Hatun Usnu Hatunmarka Honcopampa Huaca de la Luna Huaca del Dragón Huaca del Sol Huaca Huallamarca Huaca Prieta Huaca Pucllana Huaca San Marcos Huaca Santa Ana Huacramarca Huamanmarca, La Convención Huamboy Huánuco Pampa Huari Huayna Picchu Huayrapongo Huiñao Incahuasi, Lima Inka Mach'ay Inka Raqay, Apurímac Inka Raqay, Ayacucho Inka Tampu, Cajamarca Inka Tampu, Huayopata Inka Tampu, Vilcabamba Inka Tunuwiri Inka Uyu Inka Wasi, Ayacucho Inka Wasi, Huancavelica Inkapintay Inkill Tampu Inti
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Inti
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