HOME
        TheInfoList






Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the first pandemic originating in India in 1817. Additionally, there have been many documented cholera outbreaks, such as a 1991–1994 outbreak in South America and, more recently, the 2016–2020 Yemen cholera outbreak.[1]

Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others. Lack of treatment of human feces and lack of treatment of drinking water greatly facilitate its spread. Bodies of water have been found to serve as a reservoir, and seafood shipped long distances can spread the disease.

Between 1816 and 1923, the first six cholera pandemics occurred consecutively and continuously over time. Increased commerce, migration, and pilgrimage are credited for its transmission.[2] Late in this period (particularly 1879-1883), major scientific breakthroughs towards the treatment of cholera develop: the first immunization by Pasteur, the development of the first cholera vaccine, and the identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. After a long hiatus, the seventh cholera pandemic spread in 1961. The pandemic subsided in 1970s, but continued on a smaller scale, with outbreaks across the developing world to the current day. Epidemics occurred after wars, civil unrest, or natural disasters, when water and food supplies become contaminated with Vibrio cholerae, and also due to crowded living conditions and poor sanitation.[3]

Deaths in India between 1817 and 1860, in the first three pandemics of the nineteenth century, are estimated to have exceeded 15 million people. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917, during the next three pandemics. Cholera deaths in the Russian Empire during a similar time period exceeded 2 million.[4]

Pandemics

The first cholera pandemic occurred in the Bengal region of India, near Calcutta starting in 1817 through 1824. The disease dispersed from India to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Eastern Africa through trade routes.[5] The second pandemic lasted from 1826 to 1837 and particularly affected North America and Europe due to the result of advancements in transportation and global trade, and increased human migration, including soldiers.[6] The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil. The fourth pandemic lasted from 1863 to 1875 spread from India to Naples and Spain. The fifth pandemic was from 1881–1896 and started in India and spread to Europe, Asia, and South America. The sixth pandemic started in India and was from 1899–1923. These epidemics were less fatal due to a greater understanding of the cholera bacteria. Egypt, the Arabian peninsula, Persia, India, and the Philippines were hit hardest during these epidemics, while other areas, like Germany in 1892 and Naples from 1910–1911, also experienced severe outbreaks. The seventh pandemic originated in 1961 in Indonesia and is marked by the emergence of a new strain, n

Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others. Lack of treatment of human feces and lack of treatment of drinking water greatly facilitate its spread. Bodies of water have been found to serve as a reservoir, and seafood shipped long distances can spread the disease.

Between 1816 and 1923, the first six cholera pandemics occurred consecutively and continuously over time. Increased commerce, migration, and pilgrimage are credited for its transmission.[2] Late in this period (particularly 1879-1883), major scientific breakthroughs towards the treatment of cholera develop: the first immunization by Pasteur, the development of the first cholera vaccine, and the identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. After a long hiatus, the seventh cholera pandemic spread in 1961. The pandemic subsided in 1970s, but continued on a smaller scale, with outbreaks across the developing world to the current day. Epidemics occurred after wars, civil unrest, or natural disasters, when water and food supplies become contaminated with Vibrio cholerae, and also due to crowded living conditions and poor sanitation.[3]

Deaths in India between 1817 and 1860, in the first three pandemics of the nineteenth century, are estimated to have exceeded 15 million people. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917, during the next three pandemics. Cholera deaths in the Russian Empire during a similar time period exceeded 2 million.[4]

The first cholera pandemic occurred in the Bengal region of India, near Calcutta starting in 1817 through 1824. The disease dispersed from India to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Eastern Africa through trade routes.[5] The second pandemic lasted from 1826 to 1837 and particularly affected North America and Europe due to the result of advancements in transportation and global trade, and increased human migration, including soldiers.[6] The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil. The fourth pandemic lasted from 1863 to 1875 spread from India to Naples and Spain. The fifth pandemic was from 1881–1896 and started in India and spread to Europe, Asia, and South America. The sixth pandemic started in India and was from 1899–1923. These epidemics were less fatal due to a greater understanding of the cholera bacteria. Egypt, the Arabian peninsula, Persia, India, and the Philippines were hit hardest during these epidemics, while other areas, like Germany in 1892 and Naples from 1910–1911, also experienced severe outbreaks. The seventh pandemic originated in 1961 in Indonesia and is marked by the emergence of a new strain, nicknamed El Tor, which still persists (as of 2019[7]) in developing countries.[8]

Cholera did not occur in the Americas for most of the 20th century after the early 1900s in New York City. It reappeared in the Caribbean toward the end of that century and seems likely to persist.[9]

First, 1817–1824

First cholera pandemic

The first cholera pandemic, though previously restricted, began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. Hundreds of thousands of Indians and ten thousand British troops died during this pandemic.[10] The cholera outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea in Europe, before receding.[citation needed]

Second, 1829–1837the Americas for most of the 20th century after the early 1900s in New York City. It reappeared in the Caribbean toward the end of that century and seems likely to persist.[9]

The first cholera pandemic, though previously restricted, began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. Hundreds of thousands of Indians and ten thousand British troops died during this pandemic.[10] The cholera outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea in Europe, before receding.[citation needed]

Second, 1829–1837

A second cholera pandemic reached Russia (see Cholera Riots), Hungary (about 100,000 deaths) and Germany in 1831; it killed 130,000 people in Egypt that year.[11] In 1832 it reached London and the United Kingdom (where more than 55,000 people died)[12] and A second cholera pandemic reached Russia (see Cholera Riots), Hungary (about 100,000 deaths) and Germany in 1831; it killed 130,000 people in Egypt that year.[11] In 1832 it reached London and the United Kingdom (where more than 55,000 people died)[12] and Paris. In London, the disease claimed 6,536 victims and came to be known as "King Cholera"; in Paris, 20,000 died (of a population of 650,000), and total deaths in France amounted to 100,000.[13] In 1833, a cholera epidemic killed many Pomo people which were a Native American tribe. The epidemic reached Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia[14] and New York in the same year, and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834. In the center of the country[clarification needed], it spread through the cities linked by the rivers and steamboat traffic.[15]

Similarly, in Washington DC (where there are no reliable mortality figures), Michael Shiner, an enslaved laborer at the Washington Navy Yard recorded, “The time the colery [cholera] broke out in about June and July August and September 1832 it Raged in the City of Washington and every day they wher [were] twelve or 13 carried out to they [their] graves a day."[16] By late July 1832

Similarly, in Washington DC (where there are no reliable mortality figures), Michael Shiner, an enslaved laborer at the Washington Navy Yard recorded, “The time the colery [cholera] broke out in about June and July August and September 1832 it Raged in the City of Washington and every day they wher [were] twelve or 13 carried out to they [their] graves a day."[16] By late July 1832 cholera had spread to Virginia and on 7 August 1832, Commodore Lewis Warrington confirmed to the Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury cholera was at the Gosport Navy Yard, “Between noon of that day, [1 August] and the morning of Friday [3 August], when all work on board her USS Fairfield stopped, several deaths by cholera occurred and fifteen or sixteen cases (of less violence) were reported."[17]

The epidemic of cholera, cause unknown and prognosis dire, had reached its peak.[18] Cholera afflicted Mexico's populations in 1833 and 1850, prompting officials to quarantine some populations and fumigate buildings, particularly in major urban centers, but nonetheless the epidemics were disastrous.[19]

During this pandemic, the scientific community varied in its beliefs about the causes of cholera. In France doctors believed cholera was associated with the poverty of certain communities or poor environment. Russians believed the disease was contagious, although doctors did not understand how it spread. The United States believed that cholera was brought by recent immigrants, specifically the Irish, and epidemiologists understand they were carrying disease from British ports. Lastly, some British thought the disease might rise from divine intervention.[5]

The social importance of the government having a direct role in the development and application of science was demonstrated through the U.S. Government's support of efforts to control the epidemic.[20]

Third, 1846–1860

The sixth cholera pandemic had little effect in western Europe because of advances in public health, but major Russian cities and the Ottoman Empire were particularly hard hit by cholera deaths. More than 500,000 people died of cholera in Russia from 1900 to 1925, which was also a time of social disruption because of revolution and warfare.[48]

The 1902–1904 cholera epidemic claimed 200,000 lives in the Philippines

The sixth cholera pandemic had little effect in western Europe because of advances in public health, but major Russian cities and the Ottoman Empire were particularly hard hit by cholera deaths. More than 500,000 people died of cholera in Russia from 1900 to 1925, which was also a time of social disruption because of revolution and warfare.[48]

The 1902–1904 cholera epidemic claimed 200,000 lives in the Philippines[49] including their revolutionary hero and first prime minister Apolinario Mabini. Cholera broke out 27 times during the hajj at Mecca from the 19th century to 1930.Philippines[49] including their revolutionary hero and first prime minister Apolinario Mabini. Cholera broke out 27 times during the hajj at Mecca from the 19th century to 1930.[48] The sixth pandemic killed more than 800,000 in India.

The last outbreak in the United States was in 1910–1911, when the steamship Moltke brought infected people from Naples to New York City. Vigilant health authorities isolated the infected in quarantine on Swinburne Island. Eleven people died, including a health care worker at the hospital on the island.[50][51][52]

In this time period, because immigrants and travelers often carried cholera from infected locales, the disease became associated with outsiders in each society. The Italians blamed the Jews and gypsies, the British who were in India accused the “dirty natives”, and the Americans thought the disease came from the Philippines.[53]

The seventh cholera pandemic began in Indonesia, called El Tor[54] after the strain, and reached East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1963, India in 1964, and the Soviet Union in 1966. From North Africa, it spread into Italy by 1973. In the late 1970s, there were small outbreaks in Japan and in the South Pacific. There was an outbreak in Odessa in July 1970 and there were also many reports of a cholera outbreak near Baku in 1972, but information about it was suppressed in the Soviet Union.[citation needed] In 1970, a cholera outbreak struck the Sağmalcılar district of Istanbul, then an impoverished slum, claiming more than 50 lives; eventually the notoriety of the incident led to the renaming of the district as Bayrampaşa. Also in 1970, a few cases were reported in Jerusalem in August.

Recent outbreaks

Vibrio cholerae has shown to be a very potent pathogenic bacterium causing many pandemics and epidemics over the past three centuries. However, most outbreaks are known to be self-limiting, meaning they come to an end after peaking without human int

Vibrio cholerae has shown to be a very potent pathogenic bacterium causing many pandemics and epidemics over the past three centuries. However, most outbreaks are known to be self-limiting, meaning they come to an end after peaking without human intervention. One of the mechanisms significantly determining the course of epidemics is phage predation.[55] This process is strongly dependent on successful recognition of the bacteria by lytic phages, in which cell surface receptors play a crucial role. Bacteria can reduce their susceptibility by changing their surface receptors and thus preventing phage adsorption. In the case of V. cholerae, the changed receptor gene expression is due to an alteration in cell-density during its infection cycle, a process called quorum sensing (QS). The stool samples collected from patients contain clumps of bacterial cells, demonstrating the occurrence of cell-cell interaction in the latter stage of the infection cycle. QS is strongly regulated by two auto-inducer molecules, AI-2 and CAI-1.[56] Evidently, these molecules will have a significant impact on the success of phage predation in V. cholerae infections. A previous study has unravelled the mode of action of auto-inducers on preventing predation on the level of phage entry.[57] The study has shown that the aforementioned auto-inducers downregulate the ten biosynthetic genes of the surface O-antigen which is primarily used as a phage receptor for Vibriophages. This mechanism results in an increased phage resistance. It can be stated that the loss of the ability to produce the receptor, reduces the possibility of a phage-dependent limitation or even elimination of V. cholerae. This should be kept in mind when developing a treatment for enteric bacterial infections with phages as an intervention tool. Future approaches may include additional quorum regulators that operate as “quorum quenchers” to reduce quorum-mediated phage resistance.

1990s

  • January 1991 – Septemb

    A persistent urban myth states 90,000 people died in Chicago of cholera and typhoid fever in 1885, but this story has no factual basis.[105] In 1885, a torrential rainstorm flushed the Chicago River and its attendant pollutants into Lake Michigan far enough that the city's water supply was contaminated. But, as cholera was not present in the city, there were no cholera-related deaths. As a result of the pollution, the city made changes to improve its treatment of sewage and avoid similar events.

    In popular culture

    Unlike tuberculosis ("consumption") which in literature and the arts was often romanticized as a disease of denizens of the demimondaine or those with an artistic temperament,[106] cholera is a disease which almost entirely affects the lower-classes living in filth and poverty. This, and the unpleasant course of the disease – which includes voluminous "rice-water" diarrhea, the hemorrhaging of liquids from the mouth, and violent muscle contractions which continue even after death – has discouraged the disease from being romanticized, or even the actual factual presentation of the disease in popular culture.[107]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ "Crisis in Yemen Archived March 9, 2019, at the Wayback Machine"
    2. ^ Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I. (2006). "Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread". Adv Parasitol. Advances in Parasitology. National Institutes of Health. 62: 293–343. doi:10.1016/S0065-308X(05)62009-X. ISBN 9780120317622. PMC 3145127. PMID 16647974.
    3. ^ Handa, Sanjeev (February 16, 2016). "Cholera: Background". MedScape. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
    4. ^ Beardsley GW (2000). "The 1832 Cholera Epidemic in New York State: 19th Century Responses to Cholerae Vibrio (part 1)". The Early America Review. 3 (2). Archived from the original on 2010-05-02. Retrieved 2010-02-01.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    5. ^ a b Hayes, J.N. (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 214–219.
    6. ^ McNeil J. Something New Under The Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth Century World (The Global Century Series).
    7. ^ "Cholera – Vibrio cholerae infection | Cholera | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-05-16. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
    8. ^ Aberth, John (2011). Plagues in World History. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7425-5705-5.
    9. ^ Blake, PA (1993). "Epidemiology of cholera in the Americas". Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 22 (3): 639–60. PMID 7691740.
    10. ^ Pike J (2007-10-23). "Cholera- Biological Weapons". Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). GlobalSecurity.com. Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
    11. ^ Cholera Epidemic in Egypt (1947) Archived 2010-11-22 at the Wayback Machine.
    12. ^ "Asiatic Cholera Pandemic of 1817". Archived from the original on 2014-12-28. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
    13. tuberculosis ("consumption") which in literature and the arts was often romanticized as a disease of denizens of the demimondaine or those with an artistic temperament,[106] cholera is a disease which almost entirely affects the lower-classes living in filth and poverty. This, and the unpleasant course of the disease – which includes voluminous "rice-water" diarrhea, the hemorrhaging of liquids from the mouth, and violent muscle contractions which continue even after death – has discouraged the disease from being romanticized, or even the actual factual presentation of the disease in popular culture.[107]