CHOLA LITERATURE, written in Tamil , is the literature created before 5000 years and it was proved by world archaeological facts. It is one of the oldest language in the world. The age of the imperial Cholas was the most creative epoch of the history of South India and was the Golden Age of Tamil culture.
With the revival of Chola power in the middle of the 9th century, the avenues for the literature and art broadened. For the first time in history, an imperial state encompassed the entire South India bringing with it the safety and security to the people and provided the opportunity for the people to experience cultures beyond their own. Tamil became a language of the people.
The literature during this period may be classified into religious, secular and political.
* 1 Religious literature * 2 Secular literature * 3 Political literature * 4 Lost works * 5 References
During the imperial Chola period the Prabhanda became the dominant
form of poetry. The religious canons of Saiva and
Nambi Andar Nambi, who was a contemporary of
Rajaraja Chola I
Religious books on the
One of the best known Tamil works of this period is the Ramavatharam
by Kamban who flourished during the reign of Kulottunga III.
Ramavatharam is the greatest epic in Tamil Literature, and although
the author states that he followed Valmiki, his work is not a mere
translation or even an adaptation of the
Of the books on the
There were a number of books written on Tamil grammar. Yapperungalam
and Yapperungalakkarigai were two works on prosody by the
Of the works of a political nature, we find the poetic works on
various Chola kings. Jayamkondar wrote Kalingattupparani, a
semi-historical account on the two invasion of Kalinga by Kulothunga
Chola I . Jayamkondar was a poet-laureate in the Chola court and his
work is a fine example of the balance between fact and fiction the
poets had to tread. Ottakuttan, a close contemporary of Kambar, wrote
three Ulas on
Chola inscription mention the names of some of the literature which
are currently not available to us. They were once considered worthy of
public recognition, as the authors of these inscriptions assumed the
readers would know them by the mere mention of their names. Of these
are two works on Rajaraja Chola I, Rajararajesvara natakam and
Rajararaja Vijayam. The former of this was a play and was enacted at
Brihadisvara Temple in
There was a book on Kulothunga Chola I called Kulothunga Chola Charitai by Thirunarayana Bhatta. A certain Kamalalaya Bhatta wrote Kannivana Puranam and Pum Puliyur Natakam, works of a popular nature. The poet was awarded some tax free gifts for his works.
It is indeed a tragedy that we are unable to trace these lost works. This is true of most of the extant literature in India, which have been preserved more by chance and accident than by deliberate act of preservation.
* Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1935). The CōĻas, University of Madras, Madras (Reprinted 1984). * Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Repri