CHLAMYDOSAUROMYCES PUNCTATUS is the sole species in the monotypic
genus of fungi ,
Chlamydosauromyces in the family,
Onygenaceae . It
was found in the skin shed from frilled lizard. This fungus is
mesophilic and digests hair. It reproduces both sexually and
asexually. The fungus has so far not been reported to be pathogenic.
* 1 Growth and reproduction
* 2 Taxonomy
* 3 Ecology
* 4 References
GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION
Colonies of C. punctatus are yellow in the center and relatively flat
surface at the pale peripherals with a central bump. This fungus is
mesophile and grows at 30 °C (86 °F), but does not grow above 35
°C (95 °F). This fungus also shows digestion of hairs after 14 days
in vitro. The keratinolytic, or keratin-digesting, capability is one
of the characteristics of
Onygenaceae . It is also cycloheximide
resistant. C. punctatus can reproduce both in sexual and asexual
forms. The teleomorph phase is gymnothecial and arises through a
homothallic mating system.
Ascomata of this species are round,
200–600 μm in diameter containing asci 7–9 (10) μm in length.
Ascospores are yellow, 4–4.5 × 3–3.5 μm in diameter. The
ascospores look like pitted smarties or pulley wheels , which is
Chlamydosauromyces punctatus has
branched, narrow, smooth-walled, yellow hyphae , 1.5–2.5 μm in
width with thin-walled septa . Peripheral hyphae are poorly
differentiated and this is the reason that C. punctatus was once
considered in the
Ascomata lack elongate appendages.
The cells initiating anastomosis are slightly swollen.
Chlamydosauromyces is a monotypic genus, which has only single
species in the family,
Onygenaceae . However, it was initially
thought to be affiliated with the family
Gymnoascaceae because it
possesses ascospores with equatorial grooves, a common feature of the
Gymnoascaceae not normally found in the Onygenaceae. hypha As well,
hyphae of this species are sparsely differentiated similar to those
of the genus
Arachniotus (Gymnoascaceae). Molecular genetic analyses
demonstrated the affiliation of this fungus to the Onygenaceae. The
Chlamydosauromyces was named after the frilled lizard,
Chlamydosaurus kingii and the species epithet 'punctatus' was selected
in reference to the pitted ornamentation of the ascospores. The name
Chlamydosauromyces punctatus is a Latin masculine name.
Small subunit (SSU) region in the nuclear ribosomal gene of C.
punctatus is 1,738 nucleotides in length. Phylogenic study based on
the sequence have shown
Renispora flavissima to be the closest related
taxon. Both are treated within the Ongenaceae and share similar
characteristics such as the yellow color, thin walls, narrow ascomata
, and ascospores with pitted walls. Even though these two species are
the most closely related to each other, the bootstrap value was low
(78%), indicating that the phylogenic similarity is not particularly
high. In addition to the phylogenic distance, there are notable
morphological differences between the genus
Renispora . the hyphae of
Chlamydosauromyces are subhyaline whereas
Renispora are hyaline or translucent. Moreover,
liver-shaped ascospores , but ascospores of
like pulley wheels. In addition to the morphological differences
between two species of fungi, the conidia of the Chrysosporium
Renispora are large with spiny tubercules and formed on
Chlamydosauromyces produces an asexual state
characterized by alternate arthroconidia .
Chlamydosauromyces punctatus was first found in the putatively
healthy Squamate reptiles free of cutaneous lesions. The fungus was
first isolated in 2001 from the shed skin of a 7-year-old healthy male
Chlamydosaurus kingii , from the San Diego Zoo (the
lizard typically lives in trees found in the northern part of the
Australia). Among samples of three different Squamate reptiles
donated by the Zoo, the skin samples of two of the reptile species
did not show any evidence of invasion by the fungus. The ex-type
strain of C. punctatus is in depository at UAMH 9990. Though unique
to reptiles, this species is distinct from the commonly associated
fungal pathogens of reptiles. C. punctatus is associated with the
shed skin of healthy lizards free of lesions or symptoms.
* ^ A B C Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM (December 2007). "Outline of
Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum,
Department of Botany. 13: 1–58. Archived from the original on March
18, 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W L. Sigler; S.
Hambleton & J.A. Paré. "
Chlamydosauromyces punctatus gen. & sp. nov.
(Onygenaceae) from the skin of a lizard". Studies in Mycology. 47:
* ^ A B C D E "Sigler, L. "UAMH Collection Catalogue"" (PDF). UAMH
Centre for Global Microfungal Biodiversity. University of Toronto.
* ^ A B "UAMH Research - Lizards Retrieved 2016-10-12". University
* ^ Reiss E, Shadomy HJ, Lyon GM (2011). Fundamental Medical
Mycology (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 648. ISBN 1118101758 .
* ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary
Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 556. ISBN
* ^ Schroeter (1964). "
Arachniotus Ruber (Van Toughen)".
Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 47 (4): 553–8.
* ^ "
Chlamydosauromyces Sigler, Hambl. & Paré 2002".
International Mycological Association.
* ^ "UAMH9990 Centre for Global Microfungal Biodiversity.
University of Toronto". University of Toronto.
* ^ A B "
Renispora flavissima Sigler, P.K. Gaur, Lichtw. & J.W.
MycoBank . International Mycological Association.
* ^ A B C "J.A. Part, L. Sigler, S. and Crystal L. Rypien. Survey
Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii on the skin of
healthy captive Squamate Reptiles and Notes on their Cutaneous Fungal
Mycobiota" (PDF). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery. 13
* ^ Jacobson, Elliott R (2007). Infectious diseases and Pathology
of reptiles. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420004038 .
* ^ Mader, Douglas R (2006). Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier
Inc. ISBN 978-0-7216-9327-9 .
* Wd : Q5102727
* EoL : 6550774
* Fungorum : 418407
* GBIF : 2596427
MycoBank : 418407