Chios (/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/; Greek: Χίος, translit. Híos; Ancient
Greek: Χίος, translit. Khíos) is the fifth largest of the
Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi)
off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from
Turkey by the
Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its
nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its
medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.
Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the
Chios regional unit, which is part of the
North Aegean region. The
principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios.
Locals refer to
Chios town as "Chora" ("Χώρα" literally means land
or country, but usually refers to the capital or a settlement at the
highest point of a Greek island).
It was also the site of the
Chios massacre in which tens of thousands
Greeks on the island were killed by Ottoman troops during the Greek
War of Independence in 1822.
1.1.1 East coast
1.1.2 Southern region (Mastichochoria)
2.2 Prehistoric period
2.3 Archaic and Classical periods
2.4 Hellenistic period
2.5 Roman period
2.6 Byzantine period
2.7 Genoese period (1304–1566)
2.8 Ottoman period
2.9 Modern period
5.3 Antimony Mines
7 International relations
7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
8 Notable natives and inhabitants
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 km (31 mi)
long from north to south, and 29 km (18 mi) at its widest,
covering an area of 842,289 km2 (325,210 sq mi). The
terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the
length of the island. The two largest of these mountains, Pelineon
(1,297 m (4,255 ft)) and Epos (1,188 m
(3,898 ft)), are situated in the north of the island. The center
of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller
peaks, known as Provatas.
Chios can be divided into five regions:
Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main
town of Chios, and the regions of
Vrontados and Kambos.
with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour
and medieval castle. The current castle, with a perimeter of
1,400 m (4,600 ft), was principally constructed during the
time of Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found
dating settlements there back to 2000 B.C. The town was substantially
damaged by an earthquake in 1881, and only partially retains its
Chios Town lies the large suburb of
4,500), which claims to be the birthplace of Homer. The suburb lies
Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is
supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's
Southern region (Mastichochoria)
View of the village of Mesta
View of Pyrgi village
Buildings in Pyrgi covered with sgraffito (local name:Xistà)
In the southern region of the island are the Mastichochoria
(literally "Mastic Villages"), the seven villages of Mesta
(Μεστά), Pyrgi (Πυργί), Olympi (Ολύμποι), Kalamoti
(Καλαμωτń), Vessa (Βέσσα), Lithi (Λιθί), and Elata
(Ελάτα), which together have controlled the production of mastic
gum in the area since the Roman period. The villages, built between
the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with
fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent
raids by marauding pirates. Between
Chios Town and
Mastichochoria lie a large number of historic villages including
Armolia (Αρμόλια), Myrmighi (Μυρμήγκι), and Kalimassia
(Καλλιμασιά). Along the east coast are the
fishing villages of Kataraktis (Καταρράκτης) and to the
Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma
to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of
Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The monastery was built with
funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, after three
monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he was in
exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates
attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822. It was
further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. In 1952, due to the
shortage of monks,
Nea Moni was converted to a convent.
The island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate,
Mediterranean (Csa), with modest variation due to the stabilising
effect of the surrounding sea. Average temperatures normally range
from a summer high of 27 °C (81 °F) to a winter low of
11 °C (52 °F) in January, although temperatures of over
40 °C (104 °F) or below freezing can sometimes be
The island normally experiences steady breezes (average 3–5 m/s
(6.7–11.2 mph)) throughout the year, with wind direction
predominantly northerly ("Etesian" Wind—locally called the
"Meltemi") or southwesterly (Sirocco).
Climate data for Chios, Greece
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Rock of Saint Markella, patron saint of Chios.
Chios Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the
Aegean Sea adjacent
to the island of Chios.
16th-century detailed map of
Chios by Piri Reis
Known as "Ophioussa" (Οφιούσσα, "snake island") and
"Pityoussa" (Πιτυούσσα, "pine-tree island") in antiquity,
during the later
Middle Ages the island was ruled by a number of
non-Greek powers and was known as Scio (Genoese), Chio (Italian) and
Sakız (صاقيز —Ottoman Turkish). The capital during that time
was "Kastron" (Κάστρον, "castle").
Archaeological research on
Chios has found evidence of habitation
dating back at least to the
Neolithic era. The primary sites of
research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio(n) Galas in
the north and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern-day
Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on
this period. The size and duration of these settlements have therefore
not been well-established.
British School at Athens
British School at Athens under the direction of Sinclair Hood
excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, and most current
information comes from these digs. The Greek Archaeological
Service has also been excavating periodically on
Chios since 1970,
though much of its work on the island remains unpublished.
The noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some
scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction
Neolithic era on the island. The inhabitants apparently all
benefited from agricultural and livestock farming.
It is also widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied by
humans during the
Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age (2300–1600), though researchers
have recently suggested that the lack of evidence from this period may
only demonstrate the lack of excavations on
Chios and the northern
By at least the 11th century BC the island was ruled by a monarchy,
and the subsequent transition to aristocratic (or possibly tyrannic)
rule occurred sometime over the next four centuries. Future
excavations may reveal more information about this period.
9th-century Euboean and Cypriote presence on the island is attested by
ceramics, while a Phoenician presence is noted at Erythrae, the
traditional competitor of
Chios on the mainland.
Archaic and Classical periods
Pherecydes, native to the Aegean, wrote that the island was occupied
by the Leleges, aboriginal
Greeks who were reported to be
subjected to the
Minoans on Crete. They were eventually driven out
by invading Ionians.
Chios was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian
League. As a result, Chios, at the end of the 7th century BC, was
one of the first cities to strike or mint coins, establishing the
sphinx as its symbol. It maintained this tradition for almost 900
In the 6th century BC, Chios’ government adopted a constitution
similar to that developed by
Solon in Athens and later developed
democratic elements with a voting assembly and people’s magistrates
In 546 BC,
Chios was subjected to the Persian Empire.
Ionian Revolt against the Persians in 499 BC. The naval power of
Chios during this period is demonstrated by the fact that the Chians
had the largest fleet (100 ships) of all of the
Ionians at the Battle
of Lade in 494 BC. At Lade, the Chian fleet doggedly continued to
fight the Persian fleet even after the defection of the Samians and
others, but the Chians were ultimately forced to retreat and were
again subjected to Persian domination.
The defeat of Persia at the
Battle of Mycale
Battle of Mycale in 479 BC meant the
Chios from Persian rule. When the Athenians formed the
Chios joined as one of the few members who did not have
to pay tribute but who supplied ships to the alliance.
By the fifth to fourth centuries BC, the island had grown to an
estimated population of over 120,000 (two to three times the estimated
population in 2005), based on the huge necropolis at the main city of
Chios. It is thought that the majority of the population lived in that
In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War,
Chios revolted against
Athens, and the Athenians besieged it. Relief only came the following
year when the Spartans were able to raise the siege. In the 4th
Chios was a member of the
Second Athenian Empire but
Athens during the Social War (357–355 BC), and
Chios became independent again until the rise of Macedonia.
Sphinx (emblem of Chios).
Theopompus returned to
Chios with the other exiles in 333 BC after
Alexander had invaded
Asia Minor and decreed their return, as well
as the exile or trial of Persian supporters on the island. Theopompus
was exiled again sometime after Alexander's death and took refuge in
During this period, the island also had become the largest exporter of
Greek wine, which was noted for being of relatively high quality (see
"Chian wine"). Chian amphoras, with a characteristic sphinx emblem and
bunches of grapes, have been found in nearly every country with whom
Greeks traded. These countries included Gaul, Upper Egypt,
and Southern Russia.
During the Third Macedonian War, thirty-five vessels allied to Rome,
carrying about 1,000 Galatian troops, as well as a number of horses,
were sent by
Eumenes II to his brother Attalus.
Leaving from Elaea, they were headed to the harbour of Phanae,
planning to disembark from there to Macedonia. However, Perseus's
naval commander Antenor intercepted the fleet between
Erythrae (on the
Western coast of Turkey) and Chios.
According to Livy, they were caught completely off-guard by
Antenor. Eumenes' officers at first thought the intercepting fleet
were friendly Romans, but scattered upon realizing they were facing an
attack by their Macedonian enemy, some choosing to abandon ship and
swim to Erythrae. Others, crashing their ships into land on Chios,
fled toward the city.
The Chians however closed their gates, startled at the calamity. And
the Macedonians, who had docked closer to the city anyway, cut the
rest of the fleet off outside the city gates, and on the road leading
to the city. Of the 1,000 men, 800 were killed, 200 taken prisoner.'
After the Roman conquest
Chios became part of the province of Asia.
Pliny remarks upon the islanders' use of variegated marble in their
buildings, and their appreciation for such stone above murals or other
forms of artificial decoration.
According to the Acts of the Apostles, Luke the Evangelist, Paul the
Apostle and their companions passed
Chios during Paul's third
missionary journey, on a passage from
Lesbos to Samos.
Aegean Sea (theme) and
Nea Moni of Chios
Nea Moni of Chios (11th century)
Byzantine Panagia Krina church (13th century), Vavili village
After the permanent division of the
Roman Empire in 395 AD,
for six centuries part of the Byzantine Empire. This came to an end
when the island was briefly held (1090–97) by Tzachas, a Turkish bey
in the region of Smyrna during the first expansion of the Turks to the
Aegean coast. However, the Turks were driven back from the Aegean
coast by the Byzantines aided by the First Crusade, and the island was
restored to Byzantine rule by admiral Constantine Dalassenos.
This relative stability was ended by the sacking of Constantinople by
Fourth Crusade (1204) and during the turmoil of the 13th century
the island's ownership was constantly affected by the regional power
struggles. After the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine empire was divided
up by the Latin emperors of Constantinople, with
becoming a possession of the Republic of Venice. However, defeats for
the Latin empire resulted in the island reverting to Byzantine rule in
Genoese period (1304–1566)
Lordship of Chios
Lordship of Chios and
Chios and Phocaea
Castle of Chios, southern bastion
Chios map by Benedetto Bordone, 1547
The Massacre of the Giustiniani at
Chios by Francesco Solimena
The Byzantine rulers had little influence and through the Treaty of
Nymphaeum, authority was ceded to the
Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa (1261). At
this time the island was frequently attacked by pirates, and by
1302–1303 was a target for the renewed Turkish fleets. To prevent
Turkish expansion, the island was reconquered and kept as a renewable
concession, at the behest of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II
Palaeologus, by the Genovese
Benedetto I Zaccaria
Benedetto I Zaccaria (1304), then admiral
to Philip of France. Zaccaria installed himself as ruler of the
island, founding the short-lived Lordship of Chios. His rule was
benign and effective control remained in the hands of the local Greek
landowners. Benedetto Zacharia was followed by his son Paleologo and
then his grandsons or nephews Benedetto II and Martino. They attempted
to turn the island towards the Latin and Papal powers, and away from
the predominant Byzantine influence. The locals, still loyal to the
Byzantine Empire, responded to a letter from the emperor and, despite
a standing army of a thousand infantrymen, a hundred cavalrymen and
two galleys, expelled the Zacharia family from the island (1329) and
dissolved the fiefdom.
Local rule was brief. In 1346, a chartered company or
Maona di Chio e di Focea") was set up in
Genoa to reconquer and
Chios and the neighbouring town of
Phocaea in Asia Minor.
Although the islanders firmly rejected an initial offer of protection,
the island was invaded by a Genoese fleet, led by Simone Vignoso, and
the castle besieged. Again rule was transferred peacefully, as on 12
September the castle was surrendered and a treaty signed with no loss
of privileges to the local landowners as long as the new authority was
The Genoese, being interested in profit rather than conquest,
controlled the trade-posts and warehouses, in particular the trade of
mastic, alum, salt and pitch. Other trades such as grain, wine oil and
cloth and most professions were run jointly with the locals. After a
failed uprising in 1347, and being heavily outnumbered (less than 10%
of the population in 1395), the Latins maintained light control over
the local population, remaining largely in the town and allowing full
religious freedom. In this way the island remained under Genoese
control for two centuries. By 1566, when
Chios to the
Ottoman Empire, there were 12.000
Greeks and 2.500 Genoese (or 17% of
the total population) in the island.
Main article: Sanjak of Sakız
The Massacre at Chios
The Massacre at Chios by Eugène Delacroix. This, and the works of
Lord Byron, did much to draw the attention of mainland Europe to the
catastrophe that had taken place in
Chios (1824, oil on canvas,
419 cm × 354 cm (165 in × 139 in),
Musée du Louvre, Paris).
"The blowing up of the Nasuh Ali Pasha's flagship by Constantine
Kanaris", painted by
Nikiphoros Lytras 143 cm × 109 cm
(56 in × 43 in). Averoff Gallery).
During Ottoman rule, the government and tax gathering again remained
in the hands of
Greeks and the Turkish garrison was small and
As well as the Latin and Turkish influx, documents record a small
Jewish population from at least 1049 AD. The original Greek
(Romaniote) Jews, thought to have been brought over by the Romans,
were later joined by Sephardic Jews welcomed by the Ottomans during
the Iberian expulsions of the 15th century.
The mainstay of the island's famous wealth was the mastic crop. Chios
was able to make a substantial contribution to the imperial treasury
while at the same time maintaining only a light level of taxation. The
Ottoman government regarded it as one of the most valuable provinces
of the Empire.
Further information: Greek War of Independence, Chian Committee, Chios
Chios Massacre, and Chian diaspora
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence broke out, the island's leaders
were reluctant to join the revolutionaries, fearing the loss of their
security and prosperity. However, in March 1822, several hundred armed
Greeks from the neighbouring island of
Samos landed in Chios. They
proclaimed the Revolution and launched attacks against the Turks, at
which point islanders decided to join the struggle.
Ottomans landed a large force on the island consequently and put down
the rebellion. The Ottoman massacre of
Chios expelled, killed, or
enslaved the inhabitants of the island. It wiped out whole
villages and affected the
Mastichochoria area, the mastic growing
villages in the south of the island. It triggered negative public
reaction in Western Europe, as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix, and in
the writing of Lord Byron and Victor Hugo.
In 1881, an earthquake, estimated as 6.5 on the moment magnitude
scale, damaged a large portion of the island's buildings and resulted
in great loss of life. Reports of the time spoke of 5,500–10,000
Chios during this time emerges as the motherland of the
Greek shipping industry. Indicatively, in 1764,
Chios had 6
vessels with 90 sailors on record, in 1875 there were 104 ships with
over 60,000 registered tonnes in 1889 were recorded 440 sailing ships
of various types with 3,050 sailors. The dynamic development of Chian
shipping in the 19th century is further attested by the various
shipping related services that were present in the island during this
time, such as the creation of the shipping insurance companies Chiaki
Thalssoploia (Χιακή Θαλασσοπλοϊα), Dyo Adelfai
(Δυο Αδελφαί), Omonoia (Ομονοια), the shipping bank
Archangelos (Αρχάγγελος) (1863). The boom of Chian shipping
took place with the successful transition from sailing vessels to
steam. To this end, Chian ship owners were supported by the strong
diaspora presence of Chian merchants, the connections they had
developed with the financing centers of the time (Istanbul, London),
the establishment in London of shipping businessmen, the creation of
shipping academies in
Chios and the expertise of Chian personnel on
Chios rejoined the rest of independent
Greece after the First Balkan
War (1912). The Greek Navy liberated
Chios in November 1912 in a hard
fought but brief amphibious operation. The
Ottoman Empire recognized
Greece's annexation of
Chios and the other Aegean islands by the
Treaty of London (1913).
Greece was neutral the island was occupied by the British
during World War I.They landed on 17 February 1916.This may have been
due to the island's proximity to the
Ottoman Empire and the city of
İzmir in particular.
It was affected by the population exchanges after the Greco–Turkish
War of 1919–1922, with the incoming Greek refugees settling in
Kastro (previously Turkish) and in new settlements hurriedly built
The island saw some local violence during the
Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War setting
neighbour against neighbour. This ended when the final band of
communist fighters was trapped and killed in the orchards of Kambos
and their bodies driven through the main town on the back of a truck.
In March 1948, the island was used as an internment camp for female
political detainees (communists or relatives of guerillas) and their
children, who were housed in military barracks near the town of Chios.
Up to 1300 women and 50 children were housed in cramped and degrading
conditions, until March 1949 when the camp was closed and the
inhabitants moved to Trikeri.
The production of mastic was threatened by the
Chios forest fire that
swept the southern half of the island in August 2012 and destroyed
some mastic groves.
According to the 2011 census,
Chios has a permanent resident
population of 52,674.
View of Oinousses
The present municipality
Chios was formed at the 2011 local government
reform by the merger of the following 8 former municipalities, that
became municipal units:
Chios mastiha alcoholic beverages: Mastiha Ouzo (left) and
Mastiha Liqueur (right).
The local merchant shipping community transports several locally grown
products including mastic, olives, figs, wine, mandarins, and
Local specialities of the island include:
Sporadically for some time at early 19th century to 1950s there was
mining activity on the island at Keramos Antimony Mines.
Adamantios Korais public library of
Rouketopolemos (Rocket war), Vrontados
Nea Moni is a monastery with fine mosaics from Constantine IX's reign
and a World Heritage Site.
An ancient inscription (at
Chios Archaeological Museum) from a
fifth-century funerary monument for Heropythos the son of Philaios,
traced his family back over fourteen generations to Kyprios at the
tenth century BC, before there were any written records in
Castle of Chios, a Byzantine fort built in the 10th century
St. George's church
Chios Byzantine Museum
Archaeological Museum of Chios
The town of
Vrontados is home to a unique Easter celebration, where
competing teams of locals gather at the town's two (rival) churches to
fire tens of thousands of homemade rockets at the other church's bell
tower while the Easter service is going on inside the churches, in
what has become known as rouketopolemos.
F.C. Lailapas (
Chiakos Laos, newspaper
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece
Twin towns – Sister cities
Chios is twinned with:
Italy (since 1985)
Notable natives and inhabitants
A native of
Chios is known in English as a Chian, or a Chioti.
Bupalus and Athenis, sons of Archermus
Homer (8th century BC), poet. See-History of the Pelopennesian War, by
Thucydides, section 3.104.5, wherein Thucydides quotes Homer's
self-reference: "A blind old man of Scio's rocky isle."
Oenopides (c. 490 – c. 420 BC), mathematician and geometer
Hippocrates of Chios
Hippocrates of Chios (c. 470 – c. 410 BC), notable mathematician,
geometer and astronomer
Chios (378 – c. 320 BC), rhetorical historian
Chios (304–250 BC), pioneering anatomist, royal
physician and founder of the ancient medical school of Alexandria, who
discovered the linking between organs through the systems of veins,
arteries and nerves
Aristo of Chios (c. 260 BC), Stoic philosopher
Claudia Metrodora (c. 54–68 AD), public benefactor
Saint Markella (14th century), martyr and saint of the Orthodox church
Matrona of Chios
Matrona of Chios (* 15th century, † before 1455), saint of the
Andrea Bianco (15th century), Genoese cartographer resided on Chios
In 1982, Ruth Durlacher hypothesised that
Chios was Christopher
Columbus's birthplace. Columbus himself said he was from the
Republic of Genoa, which included the island of
Chios at the time.
Columbus was friendly with a number of Chian Genoese families,
Chios in his writings and used the
Greek language for some
of his notes. 'Columbus' remains a common surname on Chios. Other
common Greek spellings are: Kouloumbis and Couloumbis.
Francisco Albo (16th century), pilot of Magellan expedition, the first
circumnavigation of the Earth
Leo Allatius (Leone Allacci) (c. 1586–1669), Greek Catholic scholar
Ioannis Psycharis, major promoter of Demotic Greek
Scylitzes family, descented from Byzantine times
Athanasios Parios (1722–1813), Greek hieromonk and notable
theologian, philosopher, educator, and hymnographer of his time
Macarius of Corinth
Macarius of Corinth (1731–1805), metropolitan bishop of Corinth,
mystic and spiritual theological writer
Nikephoros of Chios (ca. 1750–1821), abbot of
Nea Moni monastery,
theological writer and orthodox saint
Alexandros Kontostavlos (1789–1865), politician
Amvrosios Skaramagas (1790–1864), merchant
Alexandros Georgios Paspatis (1814–1891), linguist, historian and
physician, researcher of the
Romani language and of the history and
culture of the Roma people
George Colvocoresses (1816–1872), military officer
Mustapha Khaznadar (1817–1878), was Prime Minister of the Beylik of
Michel Emmanuel Rodocanachi (1821–1901), trader and banker of London
Andreas Syngros (1830), banker, descented from Chios
Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople
Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople (1833–?)
Ralli Brothers (18th–19th century), founders of major 19th century
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893), Ottoman Grand Vizier
Namık Kemal (1840–1888), one of the principal founders of modern
Turkish literature, served as a sub-prefect (exiled in practical
Chios from 1886 to his death on the island in 1888
Osman Hamdi Bey
Osman Hamdi Bey (1842–1910), Ottoman painter, archaeologist
George I. Zolotas (1845–1906), local historian of the island and
director of the high school of Chios; wrote a five volume History of
Chios in Greek language
Ioannis Psycharis (1854–1929), philologist, descented from Chios
Konstantinos Amantos (1874–1960), Byzantine scholar, professor at
the University of Athens, member of the
Kostia Vlastos (1883–1967), banker, of the old
John D. Chandris (1890–1942), Greek shipowner
Stavros Livanos (1891–1963), shipping magnate
Philip Pandely Argenti (1891–1974), member of an old Chian noble
family, greatest historian of the island, wrote more than a dozen
historical portrayals of the island of Chios
Ioannis Despotopoulos (1903–1992), architect
Kostas Perrikos (1905–1943),
Greek Resistance figure, leader of PEAN
Costas M. Lemos (1910–1995), Greek shipowner
Adamantios Lemos (1916–2006), actor
Anthony J. Angelicoussis (1918–1989), Greek shipowner
Andreas Papandreou (1919–1996), politician, Prime Minister of Greece
Anthony J. Chandris (1924–1984), Greek shipowner
Mikis Theodorakis (1925), composer, born on the island
Jani Christou (1926–1970), composer
George P. Livanos (1926–1997), Greek shipowner
Stamatios Krimigis (1938), NASA space scientist
Takis Fotopoulos (1940), political writer
Adamantios Vassilakis (1942), diplomat
Dimitris Varos (1949), author, poet, journalist
Dimos Avdeliodis (1952), writer, film and theater director
Mark Palios (1952, of Chian descent), former professional footballer
and former chief executive of the English Football Association
Matthew Mirones (1956), New York politician
Nikos Pateras (1963), shipowner
Angeliki Frangou (1965), shipowner
John Sitaras (1972), fitness professional
Scio Township, Michigan
^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011.
ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical
^ a b Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average
elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.
^ John Boardman; C. E. Vaphopoulou-Richardson (1986). Chios: a
conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984. Clarendon Press.
p. v. ISBN 9780198148647. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
^ 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and
their relation to tsunamis
^ "Chios". July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Aegean Sea. Eds. P.Saundry &
C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and
the Environment. Washington DC
^ Boardman, John Excavations in Chios, 1952–1955: Greek Emporio
(London : British School of Archaeology at Athens; Thames and
Hudson, 1967), cf. also Hood, Sinclair Excavations in Chios,
1938–1955: prehistoric Emporio and Ayio Gala (London : British
School of Archaeology at Athens: Thames and Hudson, 1981–)
^ Merouses, Nikos Chios. Physiko periballon & katoikese apo te
neolithike epoche mechri to telos tes archaiothtas. (Chios. Natural
Environment & Habitation from the
Neolithic Age to the end of
Antiquity) pg. 80. Papyros, 2002
^ Merouses 2002 ch. 4
^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 1
^ I.S. Lemos, The Protogeometric Aegean 2002:240, and Euboean ceramics
in the Archeological Museum, noted by Robin Lane Fox, Travelling
Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:60 note 59.
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Periodiko 4 (1986): 145–153.
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p. 188. ISBN 0006862497.
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^ Herodotus, The Histories IV.15
Peloponnesian War 3.10.
^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 3
^ A translation of the decree can be viewed online
^ Anthon, Charles A Manual of Greek Literature, p.251, 1853
^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 41. Simon and Schuster
^ Livy, 44.28
^ "Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, BOOK XXXVI. THE NATURAL
HISTORY OF STONES., CHAP. 5. (6.)—AT WHAT PERIOD MARBLE WAS FIRST
USED IN BUILDINGS". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
^ Acts 20:15
^ Brownworth, Lars (2009) Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine
Empire That Rescued Western Civilization, Crown Publishers,
ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5: "...the Muslims captured
Ephesus in 1090
and spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and
Lesbos fell in
quick succession." p. 233.
^ William Miller, "The Zaccaria of
Phocaea and Chios. (1275–1329.)"
The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 31, 1911 (1911), pp. 42–55;
^ Arbel, Benjamin, Bernard Hamilton, and David Jacob. Latins and
Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204.
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^ William St. Clair, That
Greece Might Still Be Free, The Philhellenes
in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, London, 1972,
p.79. ISBN 0-19-215194-0.
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^ William St. Clair, p. 79
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^ Y. Altinok; B. Alpar B; N. Özer; C. Gazioglu (2005). "1881 and 1949
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and Art. Translated from the Greek by Athena Dallas-Damis ... (The
Monuments of Chios). The
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Darantière, Rue Chabot-Charny, 65). Avec 17 mélodies populaires et
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chios.
Chios website—operated by
Chios Prefecture (including
Sarantakou Efi; Misailidou Anna; Beneki Eleni; Varlas Michael (20
April 2005). "Chios". Cultural
Portal of the Aegean Archipelago.
Foundation of the Hellenic World. Archived from the original on 7
August 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
(in Greek) / (in English) History of Chios
Chios in ancient sources @ attalus.org
"Chios". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911.
Küçük Tavşan Adası
Agios Georgios Skopelou
Administrative division of the
Northern Aegean Region
3,836 km2 (1,481 sq mi)
199,231 (as of 2011)
9 (since 2011)
Regional unit of Chios
Regional unit of Ikaria
Regional unit of Lemnos
Regional unit of Lesbos
Regional unit of Samos
Christiana Kalogirou (since 2014)
Subdivisions of the municipality of Chios
Municipal unit of Agios Minas
Municipal unit of Amani
Municipal unit of
Municipal unit of Ionia
Municipal unit of Kampochora
Agios Georgios Sykousis
Municipal unit of Kardamyla
Municipal unit of Mastichochoria
Municipal unit of Omiroupoli
World Heritage Sites in Greece
Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki
Church of the Acheiropoietos
Church of Saint Demetrios
Church of Hagia Sophia
Church of Panagia Chalkeon
Church of Saint Panteleimon
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Church of Saint Nicholas Orphanos
Church of Saint Catherine
Church of the Saviour
Church of Prophet Elijah
Old Town of Corfu
Acropolis of Athens
Mycenae and Tiryns
Treasury of Atreus
Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae
Medieval city of Rhodes
Grand Master's Palace
Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
Monastery of Saint John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse
Nea Moni of Chios
Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos
Third Journey of Paul the Apostle
7. Macedonia (again)