The Info List - Chios

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(/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/; Greek: Χίος, translit. Híos; Ancient Greek: Χίος, translit. Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey
by the Chios
Strait. Chios
is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios
regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios.[2] Locals refer to Chios
town as "Chora" ("Χώρα" literally means land or country, but usually refers to the capital or a settlement at the highest point of a Greek island). It was also the site of the Chios massacre
Chios massacre
in which tens of thousands of Greeks
on the island were killed by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822.


1 Geography

1.1 Regions

1.1.1 East coast 1.1.2 Southern region (Mastichochoria) 1.1.3 Interior

1.2 Climate 1.3 Geology

2 History

2.1 Etymology 2.2 Prehistoric period 2.3 Archaic and Classical periods 2.4 Hellenistic period 2.5 Roman period 2.6 Byzantine period 2.7 Genoese period (1304–1566) 2.8 Ottoman period 2.9 Modern period

3 Demographics 4 Government 5 Economy

5.1 Commerce 5.2 Cuisine 5.3 Antimony Mines

6 Culture 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

8 Notable natives and inhabitants

8.1 Ancient 8.2 Medieval 8.3 Modern

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Geography[edit] Chios
island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 km (31 mi) long from north to south, and 29 km (18 mi) at its widest, covering an area of 842,289 km2 (325,210 sq mi).[3] The terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island. The two largest of these mountains, Pelineon (1,297 m (4,255 ft)) and Epos (1,188 m (3,898 ft)), are situated in the north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas. Regions[edit] Chios
can be divided into five regions: East coast[edit]

Park at Chios

Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main town of Chios, and the regions of Vrontados
and Kambos. Chios
Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour and medieval castle. The current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400 m (4,600 ft), was principally constructed during the time of Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found dating settlements there back to 2000 B.C. The town was substantially damaged by an earthquake in 1881, and only partially retains its original character. North of Chios
Town lies the large suburb of Vrontados
(population 4,500), which claims to be the birthplace of Homer.[4] The suburb lies in the Omiroupoli
municipality, and its connection to the poet is supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's Rock".[5] Southern region (Mastichochoria)[edit]

View of the village of Mesta

View of Pyrgi village

Buildings in Pyrgi covered with sgraffito (local name:Xistà)

In the southern region of the island are the Mastichochoria[6] (literally "Mastic Villages"), the seven villages of Mesta (Μεστά), Pyrgi (Πυργί), Olympi (Ολύμποι), Kalamoti (Καλαμωτń), Vessa (Βέσσα), Lithi (Λιθί), and Elata (Ελάτα), which together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area since the Roman period. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates.[citation needed] Between Chios
Town and the Mastichochoria
lie a large number of historic villages including Armolia (Αρμόλια), Myrmighi (Μυρμήγκι), and Kalimassia (Καλλιμασιά).[citation needed] Along the east coast are the fishing villages of Kataraktis (Καταρράκτης) and to the south, Nenita
(Νένητα). Interior[edit] Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, after three monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he was in exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822. It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake.[7] In 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni
Nea Moni
was converted to a convent. Climate[edit] The island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate, Mediterranean (Csa), with modest variation due to the stabilising effect of the surrounding sea. Average temperatures normally range from a summer high of 27 °C (81 °F) to a winter low of 11 °C (52 °F) in January, although temperatures of over 40 °C (104 °F) or below freezing can sometimes be encountered. The island normally experiences steady breezes (average 3–5 m/s (6.7–11.2 mph)) throughout the year, with wind direction predominantly northerly ("Etesian" Wind—locally called the "Meltemi") or southwesterly (Sirocco).

Climate data for Chios, Greece

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 11 (52) 11 (52) 13 (55) 17 (63) 22 (72) 26 (79) 28 (82) 28 (82) 25 (77) 20 (68) 16 (61) 13 (55) 19.2 (66.5)

Average low °C (°F) 5 (41) 5 (41) 6 (43) 9 (48) 13 (55) 17 (63) 19 (66) 19 (66) 16 (61) 12 (54) 9 (48) 6 (43) 11.3 (52.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 100 (3.94) 78 (3.07) 61 (2.4) 44 (1.73) 24 (0.94) 4 (0.16) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 8 (0.31) 23 (0.91) 55 (2.17) 122 (4.8) 520 (20.47)

Source: www.weather-to-travel.com[8]


Mount Pelinaio

Rock of Saint Markella, patron saint of Chios.

The Chios
Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
adjacent to the island of Chios.[9] History[edit]

16th-century detailed map of Chios
by Piri Reis

Etymology[edit] Known as "Ophioussa" (Οφιούσσα, "snake island") and "Pityoussa" (Πιτυούσσα, "pine-tree island") in antiquity, during the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the island was ruled by a number of non-Greek powers and was known as Scio (Genoese), Chio (Italian) and Sakız (صاقيز —Ottoman Turkish). The capital during that time was "Kastron" (Κάστρον, "castle"). Prehistoric period[edit] Archaeological research on Chios
has found evidence of habitation dating back at least to the Neolithic
era. The primary sites of research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio(n) Galas in the north and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern-day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on this period. The size and duration of these settlements have therefore not been well-established. The British School at Athens
British School at Athens
under the direction of Sinclair Hood excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, and most current information comes from these digs.[10] The Greek Archaeological Service has also been excavating periodically on Chios
since 1970, though much of its work on the island remains unpublished. The noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction during the Neolithic
era on the island. The inhabitants apparently all benefited from agricultural and livestock farming.[11] It is also widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied by humans during the Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age
(2300–1600), though researchers have recently suggested that the lack of evidence from this period may only demonstrate the lack of excavations on Chios
and the northern Aegean.[12] By at least the 11th century BC the island was ruled by a monarchy, and the subsequent transition to aristocratic (or possibly tyrannic) rule occurred sometime over the next four centuries. Future excavations may reveal more information about this period.[13] 9th-century Euboean and Cypriote presence on the island is attested by ceramics, while a Phoenician presence is noted at Erythrae, the traditional competitor of Chios
on the mainland.[14] Archaic and Classical periods[edit] Pherecydes, native to the Aegean, wrote that the island was occupied by the Leleges,[15] aboriginal Greeks
who were reported to be subjected to the Minoans
on Crete.[16] They were eventually driven out by invading Ionians. Chios
was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian League. As a result, Chios, at the end of the 7th century BC,[17] was one of the first cities to strike or mint coins, establishing the sphinx as its symbol. It maintained this tradition for almost 900 years. In the 6th century BC, Chios’ government adopted a constitution similar to that developed by Solon
in Athens[18] and later developed democratic elements with a voting assembly and people’s magistrates called damarchoi.[19] In 546 BC, Chios
was subjected to the Persian Empire.[19] Chios
joined the Ionian Revolt
Ionian Revolt
against the Persians in 499 BC. The naval power of Chios
during this period is demonstrated by the fact that the Chians had the largest fleet (100 ships) of all of the Ionians
at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC. At Lade, the Chian fleet doggedly continued to fight the Persian fleet even after the defection of the Samians and others, but the Chians were ultimately forced to retreat and were again subjected to Persian domination.[20] The defeat of Persia at the Battle of Mycale
Battle of Mycale
in 479 BC meant the liberation of Chios
from Persian rule. When the Athenians formed the Delian League, Chios
joined as one of the few members who did not have to pay tribute but who supplied ships to the alliance.[21] By the fifth to fourth centuries BC, the island had grown to an estimated population of over 120,000 (two to three times the estimated population in 2005), based on the huge necropolis at the main city of Chios. It is thought that the majority of the population lived in that area.[22] In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, Chios
revolted against Athens, and the Athenians besieged it. Relief only came the following year when the Spartans were able to raise the siege. In the 4th century BC, Chios
was a member of the Second Athenian Empire but revolted against Athens
during the Social War (357–355 BC), and Chios
became independent again until the rise of Macedonia. Hellenistic period[edit]

Reproduction of Sphinx
(emblem of Chios).

Theopompus returned to Chios
with the other exiles in 333 BC after Alexander had invaded Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and decreed their return,[23] as well as the exile or trial of Persian supporters on the island. Theopompus was exiled again sometime after Alexander's death and took refuge in Egypt.[24] During this period, the island also had become the largest exporter of Greek wine, which was noted for being of relatively high quality (see "Chian wine"). Chian amphoras, with a characteristic sphinx emblem and bunches of grapes, have been found in nearly every country with whom the ancient Greeks
traded. These countries included Gaul, Upper Egypt, and Southern Russia.[25] Roman period[edit] During the Third Macedonian War, thirty-five vessels allied to Rome, carrying about 1,000 Galatian troops, as well as a number of horses, were sent by Eumenes II
Eumenes II
to his brother Attalus. Leaving from Elaea, they were headed to the harbour of Phanae, planning to disembark from there to Macedonia. However, Perseus's naval commander Antenor intercepted the fleet between Erythrae
(on the Western coast of Turkey) and Chios. According to Livy,[26] they were caught completely off-guard by Antenor. Eumenes' officers at first thought the intercepting fleet were friendly Romans, but scattered upon realizing they were facing an attack by their Macedonian enemy, some choosing to abandon ship and swim to Erythrae. Others, crashing their ships into land on Chios, fled toward the city. The Chians however closed their gates, startled at the calamity. And the Macedonians, who had docked closer to the city anyway, cut the rest of the fleet off outside the city gates, and on the road leading to the city. Of the 1,000 men, 800 were killed, 200 taken prisoner.' After the Roman conquest Chios
became part of the province of Asia. Pliny remarks upon the islanders' use of variegated marble in their buildings, and their appreciation for such stone above murals or other forms of artificial decoration.[27] According to the Acts of the Apostles, Luke the Evangelist, Paul the Apostle and their companions passed Chios
during Paul's third missionary journey, on a passage from Lesbos
to Samos.[28] Byzantine period[edit] Further information: Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
(theme) and Samos

in Nea Moni of Chios
Nea Moni of Chios
(11th century)

Byzantine Panagia Krina church (13th century), Vavili village

After the permanent division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, Chios
was for six centuries part of the Byzantine Empire. This came to an end when the island was briefly held (1090–97) by Tzachas, a Turkish bey in the region of Smyrna during the first expansion of the Turks to the Aegean coast.[29] However, the Turks were driven back from the Aegean coast by the Byzantines aided by the First Crusade, and the island was restored to Byzantine rule by admiral Constantine Dalassenos. This relative stability was ended by the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
(1204) and during the turmoil of the 13th century the island's ownership was constantly affected by the regional power struggles. After the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine empire was divided up by the Latin emperors of Constantinople, with Chios
nominally becoming a possession of the Republic of Venice. However, defeats for the Latin empire resulted in the island reverting to Byzantine rule in 1225. Genoese period (1304–1566)[edit] See also: Lordship of Chios
Lordship of Chios
and Maona
of Chios
and Phocaea

Castle of Chios, southern bastion

map by Benedetto Bordone, 1547

The Massacre of the Giustiniani at Chios
by Francesco Solimena

The Byzantine rulers had little influence and through the Treaty of Nymphaeum, authority was ceded to the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
(1261).[30] At this time the island was frequently attacked by pirates, and by 1302–1303 was a target for the renewed Turkish fleets. To prevent Turkish expansion, the island was reconquered and kept as a renewable concession, at the behest of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus, by the Genovese Benedetto I Zaccaria
Benedetto I Zaccaria
(1304), then admiral to Philip of France. Zaccaria installed himself as ruler of the island, founding the short-lived Lordship of Chios. His rule was benign and effective control remained in the hands of the local Greek landowners. Benedetto Zacharia was followed by his son Paleologo and then his grandsons or nephews Benedetto II and Martino. They attempted to turn the island towards the Latin and Papal powers, and away from the predominant Byzantine influence. The locals, still loyal to the Byzantine Empire, responded to a letter from the emperor and, despite a standing army of a thousand infantrymen, a hundred cavalrymen and two galleys, expelled the Zacharia family from the island (1329) and dissolved the fiefdom.[31] Local rule was brief. In 1346, a chartered company or Maona
(the " Maona
di Chio e di Focea") was set up in Genoa
to reconquer and exploit Chios
and the neighbouring town of Phocaea
in Asia Minor. Although the islanders firmly rejected an initial offer of protection, the island was invaded by a Genoese fleet, led by Simone Vignoso, and the castle besieged. Again rule was transferred peacefully, as on 12 September the castle was surrendered and a treaty signed with no loss of privileges to the local landowners as long as the new authority was accepted. The Genoese, being interested in profit rather than conquest, controlled the trade-posts and warehouses, in particular the trade of mastic, alum, salt and pitch. Other trades such as grain, wine oil and cloth and most professions were run jointly with the locals. After a failed uprising in 1347, and being heavily outnumbered (less than 10% of the population in 1395), the Latins maintained light control over the local population, remaining largely in the town and allowing full religious freedom. In this way the island remained under Genoese control for two centuries. By 1566, when Genoa
lost Chios
to the Ottoman Empire, there were 12.000 Greeks
and 2.500 Genoese (or 17% of the total population) in the island.[32] Ottoman period[edit] Main article: Sanjak of Sakız

The Massacre at Chios
The Massacre at Chios
by Eugène Delacroix. This, and the works of Lord Byron, did much to draw the attention of mainland Europe to the catastrophe that had taken place in Chios
(1824, oil on canvas, 419 cm × 354 cm (165 in × 139 in), Musée du Louvre, Paris).

"The blowing up of the Nasuh Ali Pasha's flagship by Constantine Kanaris", painted by Nikiphoros Lytras
Nikiphoros Lytras
143 cm × 109 cm (56 in × 43 in). Averoff Gallery).

During Ottoman rule, the government and tax gathering again remained in the hands of Greeks
and the Turkish garrison was small and inconspicuous.[33] As well as the Latin and Turkish influx, documents record a small Jewish population from at least 1049 AD.[34] The original Greek (Romaniote) Jews, thought to have been brought over by the Romans, were later joined by Sephardic Jews welcomed by the Ottomans during the Iberian expulsions of the 15th century. The mainstay of the island's famous wealth was the mastic crop. Chios was able to make a substantial contribution to the imperial treasury while at the same time maintaining only a light level of taxation. The Ottoman government regarded it as one of the most valuable provinces of the Empire.[35] Modern period[edit] Further information: Greek War of Independence, Chian Committee, Chios expedition, Chios
Massacre, and Chian diaspora When the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
broke out, the island's leaders were reluctant to join the revolutionaries, fearing the loss of their security and prosperity. However, in March 1822, several hundred armed Greeks
from the neighbouring island of Samos
landed in Chios. They proclaimed the Revolution and launched attacks against the Turks, at which point islanders decided to join the struggle. Ottomans landed a large force on the island consequently and put down the rebellion. The Ottoman massacre of Chios
expelled, killed, or enslaved the inhabitants of the island.[36] It wiped out whole villages and affected the Mastichochoria
area, the mastic growing villages in the south of the island. It triggered negative public reaction in Western Europe, as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix, and in the writing of Lord Byron and Victor Hugo. In 1881, an earthquake, estimated as 6.5 on the moment magnitude scale, damaged a large portion of the island's buildings and resulted in great loss of life. Reports of the time spoke of 5,500–10,000 fatalities.[37] Meanwhile, Chios
during this time emerges as the motherland of the modern Greek shipping
Greek shipping
industry. Indicatively, in 1764, Chios
had 6 vessels with 90 sailors on record, in 1875 there were 104 ships with over 60,000 registered tonnes in 1889 were recorded 440 sailing ships of various types with 3,050 sailors. The dynamic development of Chian shipping in the 19th century is further attested by the various shipping related services that were present in the island during this time, such as the creation of the shipping insurance companies Chiaki Thalssoploia (Χιακή Θαλασσοπλοϊα), Dyo Adelfai (Δυο Αδελφαί), Omonoia (Ομονοια), the shipping bank Archangelos (Αρχάγγελος) (1863). The boom of Chian shipping took place with the successful transition from sailing vessels to steam. To this end, Chian ship owners were supported by the strong diaspora presence of Chian merchants, the connections they had developed with the financing centers of the time (Istanbul, London), the establishment in London of shipping businessmen, the creation of shipping academies in Chios
and the expertise of Chian personnel on board.[38] Chios
rejoined the rest of independent Greece
after the First Balkan War (1912). The Greek Navy liberated Chios
in November 1912 in a hard fought but brief amphibious operation. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
recognized Greece's annexation of Chios
and the other Aegean islands by the Treaty of London (1913). Although Greece
was neutral the island was occupied by the British during World War I.They landed on 17 February 1916.This may have been due to the island's proximity to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the city of İzmir in particular.[39] It was affected by the population exchanges after the Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922, with the incoming Greek refugees settling in Kastro (previously Turkish) and in new settlements hurriedly built south of Chios
Town. The island saw some local violence during the Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War
setting neighbour against neighbour. This ended when the final band of communist fighters was trapped and killed in the orchards of Kambos and their bodies driven through the main town on the back of a truck. In March 1948, the island was used as an internment camp for female political detainees (communists or relatives of guerillas) and their children, who were housed in military barracks near the town of Chios. Up to 1300 women and 50 children were housed in cramped and degrading conditions, until March 1949 when the camp was closed and the inhabitants moved to Trikeri.[40] The production of mastic was threatened by the Chios
forest fire that swept the southern half of the island in August 2012 and destroyed some mastic groves. Demographics[edit] According to the 2011 census, Chios
has a permanent resident population of 52,674.[41] Government[edit]

View of Oinousses

The present municipality Chios
was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 8 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[2]

Agios Minas Amani Chios
(town) Ionia Kampochora Kardamyla Mastichochoria Omiroupoli


Bottles of Chios
mastiha alcoholic beverages: Mastiha Ouzo (left) and Mastiha Liqueur (right).

Commerce[edit] The local merchant shipping community transports several locally grown products including mastic, olives, figs, wine, mandarins, and cherries. Cuisine[edit] Local specialities of the island include:

kordelia malathropita sfougato mamoulia (dessert) masourakia (dessert) mastichato (drink)

Antimony Mines[edit] Sporadically for some time at early 19th century to 1950s there was mining activity on the island at Keramos Antimony Mines. Culture[edit]

Adamantios Korais
Adamantios Korais
public library of Chios

(Rocket war), Vrontados

Nea Moni
Nea Moni
is a monastery with fine mosaics from Constantine IX's reign and a World Heritage Site.[42] An ancient inscription (at Chios
Archaeological Museum) from a fifth-century funerary monument for Heropythos the son of Philaios, traced his family back over fourteen generations to Kyprios at the tenth century BC, before there were any written records in Greece.[43][44]


Castle of Chios, a Byzantine fort built in the 10th century

St. George's church


Byzantine Museum Archaeological Museum of Chios


The town of Vrontados
is home to a unique Easter celebration, where competing teams of locals gather at the town's two (rival) churches to fire tens of thousands of homemade rockets at the other church's bell tower while the Easter service is going on inside the churches, in what has become known as rouketopolemos.[45]


F.C. Lailapas
F.C. Lailapas
( Chios


Chiakos Laos, newspaper Politis, newspaper Dimokratiki, newspaper

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Chios
is twinned with:

Brezno, Slovakia Dinant, Belgium Ermoupoli, Greece Genoa, Italy
(since 1985)[46] Guiyang, China Ortona, Italy Polykastro, Greece

Notable natives and inhabitants[edit] A native of Chios
is known in English as a Chian, or a Chioti.[47] Ancient[edit]

and Athenis, sons of Archermus

(8th century BC), poet. See-History of the Pelopennesian War, by Thucydides, section 3.104.5, wherein Thucydides quotes Homer's self-reference: "A blind old man of Scio's rocky isle." Oenopides (c. 490 – c. 420 BC), mathematician and geometer Hippocrates of Chios
Hippocrates of Chios
(c. 470 – c. 410 BC), notable mathematician, geometer and astronomer Theopompus of Chios
(378 – c. 320 BC), rhetorical historian[48] Erasistratus
of Chios
(304–250 BC), pioneering anatomist, royal physician and founder of the ancient medical school of Alexandria, who discovered the linking between organs through the systems of veins, arteries and nerves[49] Aristo of Chios (c. 260 BC), Stoic philosopher Claudia Metrodora (c. 54–68 AD), public benefactor


Leo Allatius

Saint Markella
Saint Markella
(14th century), martyr and saint of the Orthodox church Matrona of Chios
Matrona of Chios
(* 15th century, † before 1455), saint of the Orthodox church Andrea Bianco
Andrea Bianco
(15th century), Genoese cartographer resided on Chios In 1982, Ruth Durlacher hypothesised that Chios
was Christopher Columbus's birthplace.[50] Columbus himself said he was from the Republic of Genoa, which included the island of Chios
at the time. Columbus was friendly with a number of Chian Genoese families, referenced Chios
in his writings and used the Greek language
Greek language
for some of his notes.[51] 'Columbus' remains a common surname on Chios. Other common Greek spellings are: Kouloumbis and Couloumbis. Francisco Albo (16th century), pilot of Magellan expedition, the first circumnavigation of the Earth Leo Allatius
Leo Allatius
(Leone Allacci) (c. 1586–1669), Greek Catholic scholar and theologian


Ioannis Psycharis, major promoter of Demotic Greek

Andreas Syngros

family, descented from Byzantine times Mavrokordatos
family Athanasios Parios (1722–1813), Greek hieromonk and notable theologian, philosopher, educator, and hymnographer of his time Macarius of Corinth
Macarius of Corinth
(1731–1805), metropolitan bishop of Corinth, mystic and spiritual theological writer Nikephoros of Chios (ca. 1750–1821), abbot of Nea Moni
Nea Moni
monastery, theological writer and orthodox saint Alexandros Kontostavlos
Alexandros Kontostavlos
(1789–1865), politician Amvrosios Skaramagas (1790–1864), merchant Alexandros Georgios Paspatis (1814–1891), linguist, historian and physician, researcher of the Romani language
Romani language
and of the history and culture of the Roma people George Colvocoresses (1816–1872), military officer Mustapha Khaznadar
Mustapha Khaznadar
(1817–1878), was Prime Minister of the Beylik of Tunis Michel Emmanuel Rodocanachi (1821–1901), trader and banker of London Andreas Syngros
Andreas Syngros
(1830), banker, descented from Chios Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople
Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople
(1833–?) Ralli Brothers
Ralli Brothers
(18th–19th century), founders of major 19th century trading enterprise Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
(1819–1893), Ottoman Grand Vizier Namık Kemal
Namık Kemal
(1840–1888), one of the principal founders of modern Turkish literature, served as a sub-prefect (exiled in practical terms) of Chios
from 1886 to his death on the island in 1888 Osman Hamdi Bey
Osman Hamdi Bey
(1842–1910), Ottoman painter, archaeologist George I. Zolotas (1845–1906), local historian of the island and director of the high school of Chios; wrote a five volume History of Chios
in Greek language Ioannis Psycharis
Ioannis Psycharis
(1854–1929), philologist, descented from Chios Konstantinos Amantos (1874–1960), Byzantine scholar, professor at the University of Athens, member of the Athens
Academy Kostia Vlastos
Kostia Vlastos
(1883–1967), banker, of the old Vlastos
family John D. Chandris (1890–1942), Greek shipowner Stavros Livanos (1891–1963), shipping magnate Philip Pandely Argenti (1891–1974), member of an old Chian noble family, greatest historian of the island, wrote more than a dozen historical portrayals of the island of Chios Ioannis Despotopoulos (1903–1992), architect Kostas Perrikos
Kostas Perrikos
(1905–1943), Greek Resistance
Greek Resistance
figure, leader of PEAN Costas M. Lemos (1910–1995), Greek shipowner Adamantios Lemos (1916–2006), actor Anthony J. Angelicoussis (1918–1989), Greek shipowner Andreas Papandreou
Andreas Papandreou
(1919–1996), politician, Prime Minister of Greece Anthony J. Chandris (1924–1984), Greek shipowner Mikis Theodorakis
Mikis Theodorakis
(1925), composer, born on the island Jani Christou (1926–1970), composer George P. Livanos (1926–1997), Greek shipowner Stamatios Krimigis
Stamatios Krimigis
(1938), NASA space scientist Takis Fotopoulos
Takis Fotopoulos
(1940), political writer Adamantios Vassilakis
Adamantios Vassilakis
(1942), diplomat Dimitris Varos (1949), author, poet, journalist Dimos Avdeliodis (1952), writer, film and theater director Mark Palios (1952, of Chian descent), former professional footballer and former chief executive of the English Football Association Matthew Mirones (1956), New York politician Nikos Pateras (1963), shipowner Angeliki Frangou (1965), shipowner John Sitaras (1972), fitness professional

See also[edit]

Chian wine Chian diaspora Scio Township, Michigan


^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ a b Kallikratis law Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.  ^ John Boardman; C. E. Vaphopoulou-Richardson (1986). Chios: a conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984. Clarendon Press. p. v. ISBN 9780198148647. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  ^ Δασκαλóπετρα ^ Μαστιχοχώρια ^ 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and their relation to tsunamis ^ "Chios". July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2009.  ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Aegean Sea. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC ^ Boardman, John Excavations in Chios, 1952–1955: Greek Emporio (London : British School of Archaeology at Athens; Thames and Hudson, 1967), cf. also Hood, Sinclair Excavations in Chios, 1938–1955: prehistoric Emporio and Ayio Gala (London : British School of Archaeology at Athens: Thames and Hudson, 1981–) ISBN 0-500-96017-8 ^ Merouses, Nikos Chios. Physiko periballon & katoikese apo te neolithike epoche mechri to telos tes archaiothtas. (Chios. Natural Environment & Habitation from the Neolithic
Age to the end of Antiquity) pg. 80. Papyros, 2002 ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 4 ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 1 ^ I.S. Lemos, The Protogeometric Aegean 2002:240, and Euboean ceramics in the Archeological Museum, noted by Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:60 note 59. ^ Strabo
14.1.3 ^ Herodotus
1.171 ^ Agelarakis A., "Analyses of Cremated Human Skeletal Remains Dating to the Seventh Century BC, Chios, Greece". Horos: Ena Archaeognostiko Periodiko 4 (1986): 145–153. ^ Murray, Oswyn (1993). Early Greece
(2nd ed.). London: Fontana. p. 188. ISBN 0006862497.  ^ a b Grant, Michael (1989). The Classical Greeks. Guild Publishing London. p.149 ^ Herodotus, The Histories IV.15 ^ Thucydides, Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
3.10. ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 3 ^ A translation of the decree can be viewed online ^ Anthon, Charles A Manual of Greek Literature, p.251, 1853 ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 41. Simon and Schuster 1989 ^ Livy, 44.28 ^ "Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, BOOK XXXVI. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF STONES., CHAP. 5. (6.)—AT WHAT PERIOD MARBLE WAS FIRST USED IN BUILDINGS". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Acts 20:15 ^ Brownworth, Lars (2009) Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization, Crown Publishers, ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5: "...the Muslims captured Ephesus
in 1090 and spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and Lesbos
fell in quick succession." p. 233. ^ William Miller, "The Zaccaria of Phocaea
and Chios. (1275–1329.)" The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 31, 1911 (1911), pp. 42–55; doi:10.2307/624735. ^ Arbel, Benjamin, Bernard Hamilton, and David Jacob. Latins and Greeks
in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. ISBN 0-7146-3372-0. ^ Chios
History Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ William St. Clair, That Greece
Might Still Be Free, The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, London, 1972, p.79. ISBN 0-19-215194-0. ^ "The Sephardic Community of Chios". Sephardicstudies.org. Retrieved 22 March 2009.  ^ William St. Clair, p. 79 ^ Hellenic Genocide Events Archived 4 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 19 May 2008 ^ Y. Altinok; B. Alpar B; N. Özer; C. Gazioglu (2005). "1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and their relation to tsunamis" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 5: 717–725. doi:10.5194/nhess-5-717-2005. Retrieved 31 July 2010.  ^ Μιχαηλίδης, Σταύρος Γ. (2014). Σταύρος Γ. Λιβανός. Η Χιώτικη Ναυτιλιακή παραδοση στην κορυφή της παγκόσμιας ναυτιλίας. Χίος.  ^ "First World War.com – On This Day – 17 February 1916". www.firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  ^ Becoming a Subject: Political Prisoners During the Greek Civil War: Polymeris Voglis, Published 2002Berghahn Books ISBN 157181308X ^ "2011 Population Census" (PDF). HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY.  ^ [1] Archived 3 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ A Corpus of the Inscriptions of Chios
(IG XII 6.3) ^ Wood, Michael (1998). In Search of the Trojan War. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: Univ of CA Press. ISBN 0-520-21599-0.  ^ Matthew Somerville (3 July 2017). "This Insane Greek Fireworks Battle Puts Your July 4th to Shame". Narrative.ly. Retrieved 3 July 2017.  ^ Municipality of Genoa
– Homepage. ^ Dictionary.com ^ Jona Lendering. " Theopompus of Chios". Livius.org. Retrieved 22 March 2009.  ^ Arthur Bard; Mitchell G. Bard (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding the Brain. Alpha Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-02-864310-6.  ^ A New Theory Clarifying the Identity OF Christopher Columbus: A Byzantine Prince from Chios, Greece. by Ruth G Durlacher-Wolper 1982(Published by The New World Museum, San Salvador, Bahamas) ^ "The Chian Federation". Chianfed.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 

Further reading[edit]

Fanny Aneroussi, Leonidas Mylonadis: The Kampos of Chios
in its Heyday: Houses and Surroundings. Translated from the Greek by Antonis Scotiniotis. (Aipos Series, no 12). Akritas Publications, Nea Smyrni 1992, ISBN 960-7006-87-9. Charalambos Th. Bouras: Chios. (Guides to Greece, no 4). National Bank of Greece, Athens
1974. Charalambos Th. Bouras: Greek Traditional Architecture: Chios. Melissa, Athens
1984. Athena Zacharou-Loutrari, Vaso Penna, Tasoula Mandala: Chios: History and Art. Translated from the Greek by Athena Dallas-Damis ... (The Monuments of Chios). The Chios
Prefecture, Chios
1989. OCLC 31423355. Hubert Pernot: En Pays Turc: L’île de Chios. (Dijon, Imprimerie Darantière, Rue Chabot-Charny, 65). Avec 17 mélodies populaires et 118 simili-gravures. J. Maisonneuve, Libraire-Éditeur, Paris 1903. (online) Arnold C. Smith: The Architecture of Chios: Subsidiary Buildings, Implements and Crafts. Edited by Philip Pandely Argenti. Tison, London 1962. Michales G. Tsankares, Alkes X. Xanthakes: Chios: hekato chronia photographies, 1850–1950. (Chios: One Hundred Years of Photographs, 1850–1950). Synolo, Athens
1996, ISBN 960-85416-4-6. Eleftherios Yalouris: The Archeology and Early History of Chios. (From the Neolithic
Period to the End of the Sixth Century B.C.). University of Oxford, Merton College, dissertation, 1976.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chios.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chios.

Official Chios
website—operated by Chios
Prefecture (including tourist guide) Sarantakou Efi; Misailidou Anna; Beneki Eleni; Varlas Michael (20 April 2005). "Chios". Cultural Portal
of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  (in Greek) / (in English) History of Chios Chios
in ancient sources @ attalus.org  "Chios". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 236–237. 

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Aegean Sea



 Greece  Turkey


Aegean civilizations Aegean dispute Aegean Islands

Aegean Islands


Amorgos Anafi Andros Antimilos Antiparos Delos Despotiko Donousa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kardiotissa Kea Keros Kimolos Koufonisia Kythnos Milos Mykonos Naxos Paros Polyaigos Rineia Santorini Schoinoussa Serifopoula Serifos Sifnos Sikinos Syros Therasia Tinos Vous


Agathonisi Arkoi Armathia Alimia Astakida Astypalaia Çatalada Chamili Farmakonisi Gaidaros Gyali Halki Imia/Kardak Kalolimnos Kalymnos Kandelioussa Kara Ada Karpathos Kasos Kinaros Kos Küçük Tavşan Adası Leipsoi
(Lipsi) Leros Levitha
(Lebynthos) Nimos Nisyros Pacheia Patmos Platy Pserimos Rhodes Salih Ada Saria Symi Syrna Telendos Tilos Zaforas

North Aegean

Agios Efstratios Agios Minas Ammouliani Ayvalık Islands Büyük Ada Chios Chryse Cunda Foça Islands Fournoi Korseon Icaria Imbros Koukonesi Lemnos Lesbos Metalik Ada Nisiopi Oinousses Pasas Psara Samiopoula Samos Samothrace Tenedos Thasos Thymaina Uzunada Zourafa


Aegina Agios Georgios Agistri Dokos Hydra Poros Psyttaleia Salamis Spetses


Adelfoi Islets Agios Georgios Skopelou Alonnisos Argos Skiathou Dasia Erinia Gioura Grammeza Kyra Panagia Lekhoussa Peristera Piperi Psathoura Repi Sarakino Skandili Skantzoura Skiathos Skopelos Skyropoula Skyros Tsoungria Valaxa


Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Agioi Apostoloi Agioi Pantes Agioi Theodoroi Agios Nikolaos Anavatis Arnaouti Aspros Volakas Avgo Crete Daskaleia Dia Diapori Dionysades Elasa Ftena Trachylia Glaronisi Gramvousa Grandes Kalydon (Spinalonga) Karavi Karga Katergo Kavallos Kefali Kolokythas Koursaroi Kyriamadi Lazaretta Leon Mavros Mavros
Volakas Megatzedes Mochlos Nikolos Palaiosouda Peristeri Peristerovrachoi Petalida Petalouda Pontikaki Pontikonisi Praso (Prasonisi) Prosfora Pseira Sideros Souda Valenti Vryonisi


Antikythera Euboea Kythira Makronisos

v t e

Administrative division of the Northern Aegean
Northern Aegean

Area 3,836 km2 (1,481 sq mi) Population 199,231 (as of 2011) Municipalities 9 (since 2011) Capital Mytilini

Regional unit of Chios

Chios Oinousses Psara

Regional unit of Ikaria

Fournoi Korseon Ikaria

Regional unit of Lemnos

Agios Efstratios Lemnos

Regional unit of Lesbos


Regional unit of Samos


Regional governor Christiana Kalogirou (since 2014) Decentralized Administration Aegean

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Chios

Municipal unit of Agios Minas

Neochori Thymiana

Municipal unit of Amani

Agio Gala Chalandra Diefcha Fyta Keramos Kourounia Leptopoda Melanios Nea Potamia Nenitouria Parparia Pirama Pispilounta Trypes Volissos

Municipal unit of Chios


Municipal unit of Ionia

Exo Didyma Flatsia Kallimasia Katarraktis Koini Mesa Didyma Myrmigki Nenita Pagida Tholopotami Vouno

Municipal unit of Kampochora

Agios Georgios Sykousis Chalkeio Dafnonas Vasileonoiko Vaviloi Ververato Zyfias

Municipal unit of Kardamyla

Amades Kampia Kardamyla Pityous Spartounta Viki

Municipal unit of Mastichochoria

Armolia Elata Emporio Kalamoti Lithi Mesta Olympoi Patrika Pyrgi Vessa

Municipal unit of Omiroupoli

Anavatos Avgonyma Karyes Lagkada Sidirounta Sykiada Vrontados

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Greece


Aigai Mount Athos Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki

City Walls Rotunda Church of the Acheiropoietos Church of Saint Demetrios Latomou Monastery Church of Hagia Sophia Church of Panagia Chalkeon Church of Saint Panteleimon Church of the Holy Apostles Church of Saint Nicholas Orphanos Church of Saint Catherine Church of the Saviour Vlatades Monastery Church of Prophet Elijah Byzantine Bath



Delphi Hosios Loukas Meteora Old Town of Corfu


Acropolis of Athens Daphni Monastery


Epidaurus Mycenae
and Tiryns

Lion Gate Treasury of Atreus

Mystras Olympia Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae

Aegean Islands

Delos Medieval city of Rhodes

Grand Master's Palace Fortifications

Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
and the Cave of the Apocalypse Nea Moni
Nea Moni
of Chios Pythagoreion
and Heraion of Samos

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Third Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Galatia 2. Phrygia 3. Ephesus 4. Macedonia 5. Corinth 6. Cenchreae 7. Macedonia (again) 8. Troas 9. Assos 10. Mytilene 11. Chios 12. Samos 13. Miletus 14. Cos 15. Rhodes 16. Patara 17. Tyre 18. Ptolemais 19. Caesarea 20. Jerusalem

v t e

Ionian League

Chios Clazomenae Colophon Ephesus Erythrae Lebedus Miletus Myus Phocaea Priene Samos Teos

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236336