CHIOS (/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/ ; Greek : Χίος, alternative transliterations
Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands , situated
Aegean Sea , 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The
island is separated from
Turkey by the Çeşme Strait.
notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic
Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the
11th-century monastery of
Nea Moni , a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the
Chios regional unit , which is part of the
North Aegean region . The
principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios
town . Locals refer to
Chios town as "Chora" ("Χώρα" literally
means land or country, but usually refers to the capital or a
settlement at the highest point of a Greek island).
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Regions
* 1.1.1 East coast
* 1.1.2 Southern region (Mastichochoria)
* 1.1.3 Interior
* 1.2 Geology
* 1.3 Climate
* 2 History
* 2.1 Etymology
* 2.2 Prehistoric period
* 2.3 Archaic and Classical periods
* 2.4 Hellenistic period
* 2.5 Roman period
* 2.6 Byzantine period
* 2.7 Genoese period (1304–1566)
* 2.8 Ottoman period
* 2.9 Modern period
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Government
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Commerce
* 5.2 Cuisine
* 6 Culture
* 7 International relations
* 7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 8 Notable natives and inhabitants
* 8.1 Ancient
* 8.2 Medieval
* 8.3 Modern
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 kilometres (31 mi) long
from north to south, 29 kilometres (18 mi) at its widest, and covers
an area of 842.289 square kilometres (325.21 sq mi). The terrain is
mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of
the island. The two largest of these mountains, Pelineon (1,297 metres
(4,255 ft)) and Epos (1,188 metres (3,898 ft)), are situated in the
north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east
and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas.
Chios can be divided into five regions:
Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main
town of Chios, and the regions of
Vrontados and Kambos.
with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour
and medieval castle. The current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400
metres (4,600 ft), was principally constructed during the time of
Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found dating
settlements there back to 2000 B.C. The town was substantially damaged
by an earthquake in 1881, and only partially retains its original
Chios Town lies the large suburb of
4,500), which claims to be the birthplace of
Homer . The suburb lies
Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is
supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's
Southern Region (
View of Pyrgi village View of the village of Mesta
In the south of the island are the
Mastichochoria , literally:
Mastic Villages, the seven villages of Mesta (Μεστά), Pyrgi
(Πυργί), Olympi (Ολύμποι), Kalamoti (Καλαμωτń),
Vessa (Βέσσα), Lithi (Λιθί) and
Elata (Ελάτα), which
together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area
since the Roman period. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th
centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and
narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding
Chios Town and the
Mastichochoria lie a large number
of historic villages including Armolia (Αρμόλια), Myrmighi
(Μυρμήγκι), and Kalimassia (Καλλιμασιά). Along the
east coast are the fishing villages of Kataraktis
(Καταρράκτης) and to the south
Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of
Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century
Nea Moni , a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site . The monastery
was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor
Constantine IX ,
after three monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he
was in exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial
estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822
. It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. In 1952, due to
the shortage of monks,
Nea Moni was converted to a convent.
Saint Markella , patron saint of Chios.
Chios Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the
Aegean Sea adjacent
to the island of Chios.
The island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate,
Mediterranean (Csa) , with modest variation due to the stabilising
effect of the surrounding sea. Average temperatures normally range
from a summer high of 27 °C (81 °F) to a winter low of 11 °C (52
°F) in January, although temperatures of over 40 °C (104 °F) or
below freezing can sometimes be encountered.
The island normally experiences steady breezes (average 3–5 m/s)
throughout the year, with winds direction predominantly northerly
Etesian " Wind—locally called the "Meltemi"), or south westerly
CLIMATE DATA FOR CHIOS, GREECE
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
16th-century map of
Known as "Ophioussa" (Οφιούσσα, "snake island") and
"Pityoussa" (Πιτυούσσα, "pine-tree island") in antiquity,
during the later
Middle Ages the island was ruled by a number of
non-Greek powers and was known as Scio (Genoese ), Chio (Italian) and
Sakız (صاقيز —Ottoman Turkish ). The capital during that time
was "Kastron" (Κάστρον, "castle").
Archaeological research on
Chios has found evidence of habitation
dating back at least to the
Neolithic era. The primary sites of
research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio(n) Galas,
in the north, and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in
modern-day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack
information on this period. The size and duration of these settlements
have therefore not been well-established.
British School at Athens
British School at Athens under the direction of Sinclair Hood
excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, and most current
information comes from these digs. The Greek Archaeological Service
has also been excavating periodically on
Chios since 1970, though much
of its work on the island remains unpublished.
The noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads
some scholars to believe that there may have been little social
distinction during the
Neolithic era on the island. The inhabitants
apparently all benefited from agricultural and livestock farming.
It is also widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied
by humans during the
Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age (2300–1600), though
researchers have recently suggested that the lack of evidence from
this period may only demonstrate the lack of excavations on
the northern Aegean .
By at least the 11th century BC the island was ruled by a monarchy,
and the subsequent transition to aristocratic (or possibly tyrannic )
rule occurred sometime over the next four centuries. Future
excavations may reveal more information about this period.
9th-century Euboean and Cypriote presence on the island is attested by
ceramics, while a Phoenician presence is noted at
Erythrae , the
traditional competitor of
Chios on the mainland.
ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL PERIODS
Pherecydes , native to the Aegean, wrote that the island was occupied
Leleges , aboriginal Greeks who were reported to be subjected
Crete . They were eventually driven out by invading
Chios was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian
League . As a result, Chios, at the end of the 7th century BC, was
one of the first cities to strike or mint coins, establishing the
sphinx as its symbol. It maintained this tradition for almost 900
In the 6th century BC, Chios’ government adopted a constitution
similar to that developed by
Athens and later developed
democratic elements with a voting assembly and people’s magistrates
In 546 BC,
Chios was subjected to the Persian Empire .
Ionian Revolt against the Persians in 499 BC. The naval power of
Chios during this period is demonstrated by the fact that the Chians
had the largest fleet (100 ships) of all of the
Ionians at the Battle
of Lade in 494 BC. At Lade, the Chian fleet doggedly continued to
fight the Persian fleet even after the defection of the Samians and
others, but the Chians were ultimately forced to retreat and were
again subjected to Persian domination.
The defeat of Persia at the
Battle of Mycale in 479 BC meant the
Chios from Persian rule. When the Athenians formed the
Delian League ,
Chios joined as one of the few members who did not
have to pay tribute but who supplied ships to the alliance.
By the fifth to fourth centuries BC, the island had grown to an
estimated population of over 120,000 (two to three times the estimated
population in 2005), based on the huge necropolis at the main city of
Chios. It is thought that the majority of the population lived in that
In 412 BC, during the
Peloponnesian War ,
Chios revolted against
Athens, and the Athenians besieged it. Relief only came the following
year when the Spartans were able to raise the siege. In the 4th
Chios was a member of the
Second Athenian Empire but
Athens during the
Social War (357–355 BC) , and
Chios became independent again until the rise of Macedonia .
Sphinx (emblem of Chios).
Theopompus returned to
Chios with the other exiles in 333 BC after
Alexander had invaded
Asia Minor and decreed their return, as well as
the exile or trial of Persian supporters on the island.
exiled again sometime after Alexander's death and took refuge in
During this period, the island also had become the largest exporter
of Greek wine, which was noted for being of relatively high quality
Chian wine "). Chian amphoras , with a characteristic sphinx
emblem and bunches of grapes, have been found in nearly every country
with whom the ancient Greeks traded. These countries included
Upper Egypt and Southern
Third Macedonian War , thirty-five vessels allied to Rome,
carrying about 1,000 Galatian troops, as well as a number of horses,
were sent by
Eumenes II to his brother Attalus .
Leaving from Elaea, they were headed to the harbour of Phanae,
planning to disembark from there to Macedonia. However, Perseus 's
naval commander Antenor intercepted the fleet between
Erythrae (on the
Western coast of Turkey) and Chios.
Livy , they were caught completely off-guard by
Antenor. Eumenes' officers at first thought the intercepting fleet
were friendly Romans, but scattered upon realizing they were facing an
attack by their Macedonian enemy, some choosing to abandon ship and
swim to Erythrae. Others, crashing their ships into land on Chios,
fled toward the city.
The Chians however closed their gates, startled at the calamity. And
the Macedonians, who had docked closer to the city anyway, cut the
rest of the fleet off outside the city gates, and on the road leading
to the city. Of the 1,000 men, 800 were killed, 200 taken prisoner.'
After the Roman conquest
Chios became part of the province of Asia .
Pliny remarks upon the islanders' use of variegated marble in their
buildings, and their appreciation for such stone above murals or other
forms of artificial decoration.
According to the
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles ,
Luke the Evangelist , Paul
the Apostle and their companions passed
Chios during Paul's third
missionary journey, on a passage from
Aegean Sea (theme) and
Nea Moni of Chios
Nea Moni of Chios (11th century)
After the permanent division of the
Roman Empire in 395 AD,
for six centuries part of the
Byzantine Empire . This came to an end
when the island was briefly held (1090–97) by
Tzachas , a Turkish
bey in the region of Smyrna during the first expansion of the Turks to
the Aegean coast. However, the Turks were driven back from the Aegean
coast by the Byzantines aided by the
First Crusade , and the island
was restored to Byzantine rule by admiral Constantine Dalassenos .
This relative stability was ended by the sacking of Constantinople by
Fourth Crusade (1204) and during the turmoil of the 13th century
the island's ownership was constantly affected by the regional power
struggles. After the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine empire was divided
up by the Latin emperors of Constantinople , with
becoming a possession of the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice . However, defeats for
the Latin empire resulted in the island reverting to Byzantine rule in
GENOESE PERIOD (1304–1566)
Lordship of Chios
Lordship of Chios and
Maona di Chio e di Focea Castle
Chios Chios, 16th century The Massacre of the
Francesco Solimena .
The Byzantine rulers had little influence and through the Treaty of
Nymphaeum , authority was ceded to the
Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa (1261). At
this time the island was frequently attacked by pirates, and by
1302–1303 was a target for the renewed Turkish fleets. To prevent
Turkish expansion, the island was reconquered and kept as a renewable
concession, at the behest of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II
Palaeologus , by the Genovese
Benedetto I Zaccaria (1304), then
admiral to Philip of France. Zaccaria installed himself as ruler of
the island, founding the short-lived
Lordship of Chios
Lordship of Chios . His rule was
benign and effective control remained in the hands of the local Greek
landowners. Benedetto Zacharia was followed by his son Paleologo and
then his grandsons or nephews Benedetto II and Martino . They
attempted to turn the island towards the Latin and Papal powers, and
away from the predominant Byzantine influence. The locals, still loyal
to the Byzantine Empire, responded to a letter from the emperor and,
despite a standing army of a thousand infantrymen, a hundred
cavalrymen and two galleys, expelled the Zacharia family from the
island (1329) and dissolved the fiefdom.
Local rule was brief. In 1346, a chartered company or
Maona di Chio e di Focea ") was set up in
Genoa to reconquer and
Chios and the neighbouring town of
Phocaea in Asia Minor.
Although the islanders firmly rejected an initial offer of protection,
the island was invaded by a Genoese fleet, led by Simone Vignoso, and
the castle besieged. Again rule was transferred peacefully, as on 12
September the castle was surrendered and a treaty signed with no loss
of privileges to the local landowners as long as the new authority was
The Genoese, being interested in profit rather than conquest,
controlled the trade-posts and warehouses, in particular the trade of
mastic, alum, salt and pitch. Other trades such as grain, wine oil and
cloth and most professions were run jointly with the locals. After a
failed uprising in 1347, and being heavily outnumbered (less than 10%
of the population in 1395), the Latins maintained light control over
the local population, remaining largely in the town and allowing full
religious freedom. In this way the island remained under Genoese
control for two centuries. By 1566, when
Chios to the
Ottoman Empire , there were 12.000 Greeks and 2.500 Genoese (or 17% of
the total population) in the island.
Sanjak of Sakız
The Massacre at Chios by Eugène
Delacroix . This, and the works of Lord Byron , did much to draw the
attention of mainland Europe to the catastrophe that had taken place
Chios (1824, oil on canvas, 419 cm × 354 cm (165 in × 139 in),
Louvre , Paris). "The blowing up of the Nasuh Ali
Pasha's flagship by
Constantine Kanaris ", painted by Nikiphoros
Lytras 143 cm × 109 cm (56 in × 43 in).
Averoff Gallery ).
During Ottoman rule, the government and tax gathering again remained
in the hands of Greeks and the Turkish garrison was small and
As well as the Latin and Turkish influx, documents record a small
Jewish population from at least 1049 AD. The original Greek
(Romaniote ) Jews, thought to have been brought over by the Romans,
were later joined by Sephardic Jews welcomed by the Ottomans during
the Iberian expulsions of the 15th century.
The mainstay of the island's famous wealth was the mastic crop. Chios
was able to make a substantial contribution to the imperial treasury
while at the same time maintaining only a light level of taxation. The
Ottoman government regarded it as one of the most valuable provinces
of the Empire.
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence ,
Chios Massacre , and
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence broke out, the island's leaders
were reluctant to join the revolutionaries, fearing the loss of their
security and prosperity. However, in March 1822, several hundred armed
Greeks from the neighbouring island of
Samos landed in Chios. They
proclaimed the Revolution and launched attacks against the Turks, at
which point islanders decided to join the struggle.
Ottomans landed a large force on the island consequently and put down
the rebellion. The Ottoman massacre of
Chios expelled, killed, or
enslaved the inhabitants of the island. It wiped out whole villages,
and affected the
Mastichochoria area, the mastic growing villages in
the south of the island. It triggered negative public reaction in
Western Europe, as portrayed by
Eugène Delacroix , and in the writing
of Lord Byron and
Victor Hugo .
In 1881, an earthquake , estimated as 6.5 on the moment magnitude
scale , damaged a large portion of the island's buildings and resulted
in great loss of life. Reports of the time spoke of 5,500–10,000
Chios during this time emerges as the motherland of the
Greek shipping industry. Indicatively, in 1764,
Chios had 6
vessels with 90 sailors on record, in 1875 there were 104 ships with
over 60,000 registered tonnes in 1889 were recorded 440 sailing ships
of various types with 3,050 sailors. The dynamic development of Chian
shipping in the 19th century is further attested by the various
shipping related services that were present in the island during this
time, such as the creation of the shipping insurance companies Chiaki
Thalssoploia (Χιακή Θαλασσοπλοϊα), Dyo Adelfai
(Δυο Αδελφαί), Omonoia (Ομονοια), the shipping bank
Archangelos (Αρχάγγελος) (1863). The boom of Chian shipping
took place with the successful transition from sailing vessels to
steam. To this end, Chian ship owners were supported by the strong
diaspora presence of Chian merchants, the connections they had
developed with the financing centers of the time (Istanbul, London),
the establishment in London of shipping businessmen, the creation of
shipping academies in
Chios and the expertise of Chian personnel on
Chios rejoined the rest of independent
Greece after the First Balkan
War (1912). The Greek Navy liberated
Chios in November 1912 in a hard
fought but brief amphibious operation. The
Ottoman Empire recognized
Greece's annexation of
Chios and the other Aegean islands by the
Treaty of London (1913)
Treaty of London (1913) .
Greece was neutral the island was occupied by the British
during World War I.They landed on 17 February 1916.This may have been
due to the island's proximity to the
Ottoman Empire and the city of
İzmir in particular.
It was affected by the population exchanges after the Greco–Turkish
War of 1919–1922 , the incoming Greek refugees settling in Kastro
(previously Turkish) and in new settlements hurriedly built south of
The island saw some local violence during the
Greek Civil War setting
neighbour against neighbour. This ended when the final band of
communist fighters was trapped and killed in the orchards of Kambos
and their bodies driven through the main town on the back of a truck.
In March 1948, the island was used as an internment camp for female
political detainees (communists or relatives of guerillas) and their
children, who were housed in military barracks near the town of Chios.
Up to 1300 women and 50 children were housed in cramped and degrading
conditions, until March 1949 when the camp was closed and the
inhabitants moved to Trikeri .
The production of mastic was threatened by the
Chios forest fire that
swept the southern half of the island in August 2012 and destroyed
some mastic groves .
According to the 2011 census,
Chios has a permanent resident
population of 52,674.
The present municipality
Chios was formed at the 2011 local
government reform by the merger of the following 8 former
municipalities, that became municipal units:
Bottles of mastika drink of Chios.
The local merchant shipping community transports several locally
grown products including mastic , olives , figs , wine, mandarins ,
and cherries .
Local specialities of the island include:
* mamoulia (dessert)
* masourakia (dessert)
* mastichato (drink)
Adamantios Korais public library of
Nea Moni is a monastery with fine mosaics from
Constantine IX 's
reign and a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
* An ancient inscription (at
Chios Archaeological Museum) from a
fifth-century funerary monument for Heropythos the son of Philaios,
traced his family back over fourteen generations to Kyprios at the
tenth century BC, before there were any written records in Greece.
Castle of Chios , a Byzantine fort built in the 10th century
* St. George's church
Chios Byzantine Museum
Archaeological Museum of Chios
* The town of
Vrontados is home to a unique Easter celebration,
where competing teams of locals gather at the town's two (rival)
churches to fire tens of thousands of homemade rockets at the other
church's bell tower while the Easter service is going on inside the
churches, in what has become known as rouketopolemos .
F.C. Lailapas (
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Chios is twinned with:
Italy (since 1985)
NOTABLE NATIVES AND INHABITANTS
A native of
Chios is known in English as a Chian, or a Chioti.
Athenis , sons of
Homer (8th century BC), poet. See-History of the Pelopennesian
War, by Thucydides, section 3.104.5, wherein Thucydides quotes Homer's
self-reference: "A blind old man of Scio's rocky isle."
Oenopides (c. 490 – c. 420 BC), mathematician and geometer
Hippocrates of Chios
Hippocrates of Chios (c. 470 – c. 410 BC), notable
mathematician, geometer and astronomer
Chios (378 – c. 320 BC), rhetorical historian
Chios (304–250 BC), pioneering anatomist, royal
physician and founder of the ancient medical school of Alexandria, who
discovered the linking between organs through the systems of veins,
arteries and nerves
Aristo of Chios (c. 260 BC), Stoic philosopher
Claudia Metrodora (c. 54–68 AD), public benefactor
Saint Markella (14th century), martyr and saint of the Orthodox
Matrona of Chios (* 15th century, † before 1455), saint of the
Andrea Bianco (15th century), Genoese cartographer resided on
* In 1982, Ruth Durlacher hypothesised that
Chios was Christopher
Columbus 's birthplace. Columbus himself said he was from the
Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa , which included the island of
Chios at the time.
Columbus was friendly with a number of Chian Genoese families,
Chios in his writings and used the
Greek language for some
of his notes. 'Columbus' remains a common surname on Chios. Other
common Greek spellings are: Kouloumbis and Couloumbis.
* Francisco Albo (16th century), pilot of Magellan expedition, the
first circumnavigation of the Earth
Leo Allatius (Leone Allacci) (c. 1586–1669), Greek Catholic
scholar and theologian
Athanasios Parios (1722–1813), Greek hieromonk and notable
theologian, philosopher, educator, and hymnographer of his time
Macarius of Corinth (1731–1805), metropolitan bishop of Corinth,
mystic and spiritual theological writer
Nikephoros of Chios (ca. 1750–1821), abbot of Nea Moni
monastery, theological writer and orthodox saint
Alexandros Kontostavlos (1789–1865), politician
* Amvrosios Skaramagas (1790–1864), merchant
George Colvocoresses (1816–1872), military officer
Mustapha Khaznadar (1817–1878), was Prime Minister of the Beylik
Michel Emmanuel Rodocanachi (1821–1901), trader and banker of
Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople (1833–?)
Ralli Brothers (18th–19th century), founders of major 19th
century trading enterprise
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893), Ottoman
Namık Kemal (1840–1888), one of the principal founders of
modern Turkish literature, served as a sub-prefect (exiled in
practical terms) of
Chios from 1886 to his death on the island in 1888
Osman Hamdi Bey
Osman Hamdi Bey (1842–1910), Ottoman painter, archaeologist
* George I. Zolotas (1845–1906), local historian of the island and
director of the high school of Chios; wrote a five volume History of
Chios in Greek language
Ioannis Psycharis (1854–1929), philologist, descented from Chios
Konstantinos Amantos (1874–1960), Byzantine scholar, professor
at the University of Athens, member of the
Kostia Vlastos (1883–1967), banker
John D. Chandris (1890–1942), Greek shipowner
Stavros Livanos (1891–1963), shipping magnate
* Philip Pandely Argenti (1891–1974), member of an old Chian
aristocratic family, greatest historian of the island, wrote more than
a dozen historical portrayals of the island of Chios
Ioannis Despotopoulos (1903–1992), architect
Kostas Perrikos (1905–1943),
Greek Resistance figure, leader of
* Costas M. Lemos (1910–1995), Greek shipowner
Adamantios Lemos (1916–2006), actor
* Anthony J. Angelicoussis (1918–1989), Greek shipowner
Andreas Papandreou (1919–1996), politician, Prime Minister of
* Anthony J. Chandris (1924–1984), Greek shipowner
Mikis Theodorakis (1925), composer
Jani Christou (1926–1970), composer
George P. Livanos (1926–1997), Greek shipowner
Stamatios Krimigis (1938), NASA space scientist
Takis Fotopoulos (1940), political writer
Adamantios Vassilakis (1942), diplomat
Dimitris Varos (1949), author, poet, journalist
Mark Palios (1952, of Chian descent), former professional
footballer and former chief executive of the English Football
Matthew Mirones (1956), New York politician
John Sitaras (1972), fitness professional
Scio Township, Michigan
* ^ A B "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών
2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic
* ^ A B Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
* ^ "Population ">(PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of
Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.
* ^ John Boardman; C. E. Vaphopoulou-Richardson (1986). Chios: a
conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984. Clarendon Press. p. v.
ISBN 9780198148647 . Retrieved 30 July 2014.
* ^ Δασκαλóπετρα
* ^ Μαστιχοχώρια
* ^ 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean
Sea) and their relation to tsunamis
* ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Aegean Sea. Eds. P.Saundry &
C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and
the Environment. Washington DC
* ^ "Chios". July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
* ^ Boardman, John Excavations in Chios, 1952–1955: Greek Emporio
(London : British School of Archaeology at Athens; Thames and Hudson,
1967), cf. also Hood, Sinclair Excavations in Chios, 1938–1955:
prehistoric Emporio and Ayio Gala (London : British School of
Archaeology at Athens: Thames and Hudson, 1981–) ISBN 0-500-96017-8
* ^ Merouses, Nikos Chios. Physiko periballon & katoikese apo te
neolithike epoche mechri to telos tes archaiothtas. (Chios. Natural
Environment & Habitation from the
Neolithic Age to the end of
Antiquity) pg. 80. Papyros, 2002
* ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 4
* ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 1
* ^ I.S. Lemos, The Protogeometric Aegean 2002:240, and Euboean
ceramics in the Archeological Museum, noted by Robin Lane Fox,
Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:60 note 59.
* ^ Agelarakis A., "Analyses of Cremated Human Skeletal Remains
Dating to the Seventh Century BC, Chios, Greece". Horos: Ena
Archaeognostiko Periodiko 4 (1986): 145–153.
* ^ Murray, Oswyn (1993). Early
Greece (2nd ed.). London: Fontana.
p. 188. ISBN 0006862497 .
* ^ A B Grant, Michael (1989). The Classical Greeks. Guild
Publishing London. p.149
* ^ Herodotus, The Histories IV.15
* ^ Thucydides,
Peloponnesian War 3.10.
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