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CHIOS (/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/ ; Greek : Χίος, alternative transliterations Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands , situated in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the Çeşme Strait. Chios
Chios
is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni
Nea Moni
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
.

Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios
Chios
regional unit , which is part of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region . The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios town . Locals refer to Chios
Chios
town as "Chora" ("Χώρα" literally means land or country, but usually refers to the capital or a settlement at the highest point of a Greek island).

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Regions

* 1.1.1 East coast * 1.1.2 Southern region (Mastichochoria) * 1.1.3 Interior

* 1.2 Geology * 1.3 Climate

* 2 History

* 2.1 Etymology * 2.2 Prehistoric period * 2.3 Archaic and Classical periods * 2.4 Hellenistic period * 2.5 Roman period * 2.6 Byzantine period * 2.7 Genoese period (1304–1566) * 2.8 Ottoman period * 2.9 Modern period

* 3 Demographics * 4 Government

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Commerce * 5.2 Cuisine

* 6 Culture

* 7 International relations

* 7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 8 Notable natives and inhabitants

* 8.1 Ancient * 8.2 Medieval * 8.3 Modern

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Chios
Chios
island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 kilometres (31 mi) long from north to south, 29 kilometres (18 mi) at its widest, and covers an area of 842.289 square kilometres (325.21 sq mi). The terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island. The two largest of these mountains, Pelineon (1,297 metres (4,255 ft)) and Epos (1,188 metres (3,898 ft)), are situated in the north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas.

REGIONS

Chios
Chios
can be divided into five regions:

East Coast

Park at Chios (town)

Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main town of Chios, and the regions of Vrontados and Kambos. Chios
Chios
Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour and medieval castle. The current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400 metres (4,600 ft), was principally constructed during the time of Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found dating settlements there back to 2000 B.C. The town was substantially damaged by an earthquake in 1881, and only partially retains its original character.

North of Chios
Chios
Town lies the large suburb of Vrontados (population 4,500), which claims to be the birthplace of Homer
Homer
. The suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's Rock".

Southern Region ( Mastichochoria )

View of Pyrgi village View of the village of Mesta

In the south of the island are the Mastichochoria , literally: Mastic Villages, the seven villages of Mesta (Μεστά), Pyrgi (Πυργί), Olympi (Ολύμποι), Kalamoti (Καλαμωτń), Vessa (Βέσσα), Lithi (Λιθί) and Elata (Ελάτα), which together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area since the Roman period. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios
Chios
Town and the Mastichochoria lie a large number of historic villages including Armolia (Αρμόλια), Myrmighi (Μυρμήγκι), and Kalimassia (Καλλιμασιά). Along the east coast are the fishing villages of Kataraktis (Καταρράκτης) and to the south Nenita (Νένητα).

Interior

Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni
Nea Moni
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. The monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX , after three monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he was in exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822 . It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. In 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni
Nea Moni
was converted to a convent.

GEOLOGY

Rock of Saint Markella , patron saint of Chios.

The Chios
Chios
Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
adjacent to the island of Chios.

CLIMATE

The island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate, Mediterranean (Csa) , with modest variation due to the stabilising effect of the surrounding sea. Average temperatures normally range from a summer high of 27 °C (81 °F) to a winter low of 11 °C (52 °F) in January, although temperatures of over 40 °C (104 °F) or below freezing can sometimes be encountered.

The island normally experiences steady breezes (average 3–5 m/s) throughout the year, with winds direction predominantly northerly (" Etesian " Wind—locally called the "Meltemi"), or south westerly (Sirocco).

CLIMATE DATA FOR CHIOS, GREECE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 11 (52) 11 (52) 13 (55) 17 (63) 22 (72) 26 (79) 28 (82) 28 (82) 25 (77) 20 (68) 16 (61) 13 (55) 19.2 (66.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 5 (41) 5 (41) 6 (43) 9 (48) 13 (55) 17 (63) 19 (66) 19 (66) 16 (61) 12 (54) 9 (48) 6 (43) 11.3 (52.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 100 (3.94) 78 (3.07) 61 (2.4) 44 (1.73) 24 (0.94) 4 (0.16) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 8 (0.31) 23 (0.91) 55 (2.17) 122 (4.8) 520 (20.47)

Source: www.weather-to-travel.com

HISTORY

16th-century map of Chios
Chios
by Piri Reis
Piri Reis

ETYMOLOGY

Known as "Ophioussa" (Οφιούσσα, "snake island") and "Pityoussa" (Πιτυούσσα, "pine-tree island") in antiquity, during the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the island was ruled by a number of non-Greek powers and was known as Scio (Genoese ), Chio (Italian) and Sakız (صاقيز —Ottoman Turkish ). The capital during that time was "Kastron" (Κάστρον, "castle").

PREHISTORIC PERIOD

Archaeological research on Chios
Chios
has found evidence of habitation dating back at least to the Neolithic
Neolithic
era. The primary sites of research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio(n) Galas, in the north, and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern-day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on this period. The size and duration of these settlements have therefore not been well-established.

The British School at Athens
British School at Athens
under the direction of Sinclair Hood excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, and most current information comes from these digs. The Greek Archaeological Service has also been excavating periodically on Chios
Chios
since 1970, though much of its work on the island remains unpublished.

The noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction during the Neolithic
Neolithic
era on the island. The inhabitants apparently all benefited from agricultural and livestock farming.

It is also widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied by humans during the Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age
(2300–1600), though researchers have recently suggested that the lack of evidence from this period may only demonstrate the lack of excavations on Chios
Chios
and the northern Aegean .

By at least the 11th century BC the island was ruled by a monarchy, and the subsequent transition to aristocratic (or possibly tyrannic ) rule occurred sometime over the next four centuries. Future excavations may reveal more information about this period. 9th-century Euboean and Cypriote presence on the island is attested by ceramics, while a Phoenician presence is noted at Erythrae , the traditional competitor of Chios
Chios
on the mainland.

ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL PERIODS

Pherecydes , native to the Aegean, wrote that the island was occupied by the Leleges , aboriginal Greeks who were reported to be subjected to the Minoans on Crete
Crete
. They were eventually driven out by invading Ionians
Ionians
.

Chios
Chios
was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian League . As a result, Chios, at the end of the 7th century BC, was one of the first cities to strike or mint coins, establishing the sphinx as its symbol. It maintained this tradition for almost 900 years.

In the 6th century BC, Chios’ government adopted a constitution similar to that developed by Solon
Solon
in Athens
Athens
and later developed democratic elements with a voting assembly and people’s magistrates called damarchoi.

In 546 BC, Chios
Chios
was subjected to the Persian Empire . Chios
Chios
joined the Ionian Revolt against the Persians in 499 BC. The naval power of Chios
Chios
during this period is demonstrated by the fact that the Chians had the largest fleet (100 ships) of all of the Ionians
Ionians
at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC. At Lade, the Chian fleet doggedly continued to fight the Persian fleet even after the defection of the Samians and others, but the Chians were ultimately forced to retreat and were again subjected to Persian domination.

The defeat of Persia at the Battle of Mycale in 479 BC meant the liberation of Chios
Chios
from Persian rule. When the Athenians formed the Delian League
Delian League
, Chios
Chios
joined as one of the few members who did not have to pay tribute but who supplied ships to the alliance.

By the fifth to fourth centuries BC, the island had grown to an estimated population of over 120,000 (two to three times the estimated population in 2005), based on the huge necropolis at the main city of Chios. It is thought that the majority of the population lived in that area.

In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
, Chios
Chios
revolted against Athens, and the Athenians besieged it. Relief only came the following year when the Spartans were able to raise the siege. In the 4th century BC, Chios
Chios
was a member of the Second Athenian Empire but revolted against Athens
Athens
during the Social War (357–355 BC) , and Chios
Chios
became independent again until the rise of Macedonia .

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

Reproduction of Sphinx
Sphinx
(emblem of Chios).

Theopompus returned to Chios
Chios
with the other exiles in 333 BC after Alexander had invaded Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and decreed their return, as well as the exile or trial of Persian supporters on the island. Theopompus was exiled again sometime after Alexander's death and took refuge in Egypt.

During this period, the island also had become the largest exporter of Greek wine, which was noted for being of relatively high quality (see " Chian wine "). Chian amphoras , with a characteristic sphinx emblem and bunches of grapes, have been found in nearly every country with whom the ancient Greeks traded. These countries included Gaul
Gaul
, Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
and Southern Russia
Russia
.

ROMAN PERIOD

During the Third Macedonian War , thirty-five vessels allied to Rome, carrying about 1,000 Galatian troops, as well as a number of horses, were sent by Eumenes II
Eumenes II
to his brother Attalus .

Leaving from Elaea, they were headed to the harbour of Phanae, planning to disembark from there to Macedonia. However, Perseus 's naval commander Antenor intercepted the fleet between Erythrae (on the Western coast of Turkey) and Chios.

According to Livy
Livy
, they were caught completely off-guard by Antenor. Eumenes' officers at first thought the intercepting fleet were friendly Romans, but scattered upon realizing they were facing an attack by their Macedonian enemy, some choosing to abandon ship and swim to Erythrae. Others, crashing their ships into land on Chios, fled toward the city.

The Chians however closed their gates, startled at the calamity. And the Macedonians, who had docked closer to the city anyway, cut the rest of the fleet off outside the city gates, and on the road leading to the city. Of the 1,000 men, 800 were killed, 200 taken prisoner.'

After the Roman conquest Chios
Chios
became part of the province of Asia .

Pliny remarks upon the islanders' use of variegated marble in their buildings, and their appreciation for such stone above murals or other forms of artificial decoration.

According to the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
, Luke the Evangelist , Paul the Apostle and their companions passed Chios
Chios
during Paul's third missionary journey, on a passage from Lesbos
Lesbos
to Samos
Samos
.

BYZANTINE PERIOD

Further information: Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
(theme) and Samos
Samos
(theme) Mosaic
Mosaic
of Nea Moni of Chios
Nea Moni of Chios
(11th century)

After the permanent division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, Chios
Chios
was for six centuries part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. This came to an end when the island was briefly held (1090–97) by Tzachas
Tzachas
, a Turkish bey in the region of Smyrna during the first expansion of the Turks to the Aegean coast. However, the Turks were driven back from the Aegean coast by the Byzantines aided by the First Crusade
First Crusade
, and the island was restored to Byzantine rule by admiral Constantine Dalassenos .

This relative stability was ended by the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
(1204) and during the turmoil of the 13th century the island's ownership was constantly affected by the regional power struggles. After the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine empire was divided up by the Latin emperors of Constantinople , with Chios
Chios
nominally becoming a possession of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
. However, defeats for the Latin empire resulted in the island reverting to Byzantine rule in 1225.

GENOESE PERIOD (1304–1566)

See also: Lordship of Chios
Lordship of Chios
and Maona di Chio e di Focea Castle of Chios
Chios
Chios, 16th century The Massacre of the Giustiniani at Chios
Chios
by Francesco Solimena
Francesco Solimena
.

The Byzantine rulers had little influence and through the Treaty of Nymphaeum , authority was ceded to the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
(1261). At this time the island was frequently attacked by pirates, and by 1302–1303 was a target for the renewed Turkish fleets. To prevent Turkish expansion, the island was reconquered and kept as a renewable concession, at the behest of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus , by the Genovese Benedetto I Zaccaria (1304), then admiral to Philip of France. Zaccaria installed himself as ruler of the island, founding the short-lived Lordship of Chios
Lordship of Chios
. His rule was benign and effective control remained in the hands of the local Greek landowners. Benedetto Zacharia was followed by his son Paleologo and then his grandsons or nephews Benedetto II and Martino . They attempted to turn the island towards the Latin and Papal powers, and away from the predominant Byzantine influence. The locals, still loyal to the Byzantine Empire, responded to a letter from the emperor and, despite a standing army of a thousand infantrymen, a hundred cavalrymen and two galleys, expelled the Zacharia family from the island (1329) and dissolved the fiefdom.

Local rule was brief. In 1346, a chartered company or Maona (the " Maona di Chio e di Focea ") was set up in Genoa
Genoa
to reconquer and exploit Chios
Chios
and the neighbouring town of Phocaea in Asia Minor. Although the islanders firmly rejected an initial offer of protection, the island was invaded by a Genoese fleet, led by Simone Vignoso, and the castle besieged. Again rule was transferred peacefully, as on 12 September the castle was surrendered and a treaty signed with no loss of privileges to the local landowners as long as the new authority was accepted.

The Genoese, being interested in profit rather than conquest, controlled the trade-posts and warehouses, in particular the trade of mastic, alum, salt and pitch. Other trades such as grain, wine oil and cloth and most professions were run jointly with the locals. After a failed uprising in 1347, and being heavily outnumbered (less than 10% of the population in 1395), the Latins maintained light control over the local population, remaining largely in the town and allowing full religious freedom. In this way the island remained under Genoese control for two centuries. By 1566, when Genoa
Genoa
lost Chios
Chios
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, there were 12.000 Greeks and 2.500 Genoese (or 17% of the total population) in the island.

OTTOMAN PERIOD

Main article: Sanjak of Sakız The Massacre at Chios by Eugène Delacroix . This, and the works of Lord Byron , did much to draw the attention of mainland Europe to the catastrophe that had taken place in Chios
Chios
(1824, oil on canvas, 419 cm × 354 cm (165 in × 139 in), Musée du Louvre
Louvre
, Paris). "The blowing up of the Nasuh Ali Pasha's flagship by Constantine Kanaris ", painted by Nikiphoros Lytras 143 cm × 109 cm (56 in × 43 in). Averoff Gallery ).

During Ottoman rule, the government and tax gathering again remained in the hands of Greeks and the Turkish garrison was small and inconspicuous.

As well as the Latin and Turkish influx, documents record a small Jewish population from at least 1049 AD. The original Greek (Romaniote ) Jews, thought to have been brought over by the Romans, were later joined by Sephardic Jews welcomed by the Ottomans during the Iberian expulsions of the 15th century.

The mainstay of the island's famous wealth was the mastic crop. Chios was able to make a substantial contribution to the imperial treasury while at the same time maintaining only a light level of taxation. The Ottoman government regarded it as one of the most valuable provinces of the Empire.

MODERN PERIOD

Further information: Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
, Chios Massacre , and Chian diaspora

When the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
broke out, the island's leaders were reluctant to join the revolutionaries, fearing the loss of their security and prosperity. However, in March 1822, several hundred armed Greeks from the neighbouring island of Samos
Samos
landed in Chios. They proclaimed the Revolution and launched attacks against the Turks, at which point islanders decided to join the struggle.

Ottomans landed a large force on the island consequently and put down the rebellion. The Ottoman massacre of Chios
Chios
expelled, killed, or enslaved the inhabitants of the island. It wiped out whole villages, and affected the Mastichochoria area, the mastic growing villages in the south of the island. It triggered negative public reaction in Western Europe, as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
, and in the writing of Lord Byron and Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
.

In 1881, an earthquake , estimated as 6.5 on the moment magnitude scale , damaged a large portion of the island's buildings and resulted in great loss of life. Reports of the time spoke of 5,500–10,000 fatalities.

Meanwhile, Chios
Chios
during this time emerges as the motherland of the modern Greek shipping industry. Indicatively, in 1764, Chios
Chios
had 6 vessels with 90 sailors on record, in 1875 there were 104 ships with over 60,000 registered tonnes in 1889 were recorded 440 sailing ships of various types with 3,050 sailors. The dynamic development of Chian shipping in the 19th century is further attested by the various shipping related services that were present in the island during this time, such as the creation of the shipping insurance companies Chiaki Thalssoploia (Χιακή Θαλασσοπλοϊα), Dyo Adelfai (Δυο Αδελφαί), Omonoia (Ομονοια), the shipping bank Archangelos (Αρχάγγελος) (1863). The boom of Chian shipping took place with the successful transition from sailing vessels to steam. To this end, Chian ship owners were supported by the strong diaspora presence of Chian merchants, the connections they had developed with the financing centers of the time (Istanbul, London), the establishment in London of shipping businessmen, the creation of shipping academies in Chios
Chios
and the expertise of Chian personnel on board.

Chios
Chios
rejoined the rest of independent Greece
Greece
after the First Balkan War (1912). The Greek Navy liberated Chios
Chios
in November 1912 in a hard fought but brief amphibious operation. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
recognized Greece's annexation of Chios
Chios
and the other Aegean islands by the Treaty of London (1913)
Treaty of London (1913)
.

Although Greece
Greece
was neutral the island was occupied by the British during World War I.They landed on 17 February 1916.This may have been due to the island's proximity to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the city of İzmir in particular.

It was affected by the population exchanges after the Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922 , the incoming Greek refugees settling in Kastro (previously Turkish) and in new settlements hurriedly built south of Chios
Chios
Town.

The island saw some local violence during the Greek Civil War setting neighbour against neighbour. This ended when the final band of communist fighters was trapped and killed in the orchards of Kambos and their bodies driven through the main town on the back of a truck. In March 1948, the island was used as an internment camp for female political detainees (communists or relatives of guerillas) and their children, who were housed in military barracks near the town of Chios. Up to 1300 women and 50 children were housed in cramped and degrading conditions, until March 1949 when the camp was closed and the inhabitants moved to Trikeri .

The production of mastic was threatened by the Chios
Chios
forest fire that swept the southern half of the island in August 2012 and destroyed some mastic groves .

DEMOGRAPHICS

According to the 2011 census, Chios
Chios
has a permanent resident population of 52,674.

GOVERNMENT

View of Oinousses

The present municipality Chios
Chios
was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 8 former municipalities, that became municipal units:

* Agios Minas * Amani * Chios (town) * Ionia * Kampochora * Kardamyla * Mastichochoria * Omiroupoli

ECONOMY

Bottles of mastika drink of Chios.

COMMERCE

The local merchant shipping community transports several locally grown products including mastic , olives , figs , wine, mandarins , and cherries .

CUISINE

Local specialities of the island include:

* kordelia * malathropita * sfougato * mamoulia (dessert) * masourakia (dessert) * mastichato (drink)

CULTURE

Adamantios Korais
Adamantios Korais
public library of Chios
Chios
town.

* Nea Moni
Nea Moni
is a monastery with fine mosaics from Constantine IX 's reign and a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. * An ancient inscription (at Chios
Chios
Archaeological Museum) from a fifth-century funerary monument for Heropythos the son of Philaios, traced his family back over fourteen generations to Kyprios at the tenth century BC, before there were any written records in Greece.

Forts

* Castle of Chios , a Byzantine fort built in the 10th century

* St. George's church

Museums

* Chios Byzantine Museum * Archaeological Museum of Chios

Traditions

* The town of Vrontados is home to a unique Easter celebration, where competing teams of locals gather at the town's two (rival) churches to fire tens of thousands of homemade rockets at the other church's bell tower while the Easter service is going on inside the churches, in what has become known as rouketopolemos .

Sports

* F.C. Lailapas ( Chios
Chios
town)

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece
Greece

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Chios
Chios
is twinned with:

* Brezno , Slovakia
Slovakia
* Dinant
Dinant
, Belgium
Belgium
* Ermoupoli , Greece
Greece
* Genoa
Genoa
, Italy
Italy
(since 1985) * Guiyang
Guiyang
, China
China
* Ortona
Ortona
, Italy
Italy
* Polykastro , Greece
Greece

NOTABLE NATIVES AND INHABITANTS

A native of Chios
Chios
is known in English as a Chian, or a Chioti.

ANCIENT

Bupalus and Athenis , sons of Archermus

* Homer
Homer
(8th century BC), poet. See-History of the Pelopennesian War, by Thucydides, section 3.104.5, wherein Thucydides quotes Homer's self-reference: "A blind old man of Scio's rocky isle." * Oenopides (c. 490 – c. 420 BC), mathematician and geometer * Hippocrates of Chios
Hippocrates of Chios
(c. 470 – c. 410 BC), notable mathematician, geometer and astronomer * Theopompus of Chios
Chios
(378 – c. 320 BC), rhetorical historian * Erasistratus
Erasistratus
of Chios
Chios
(304–250 BC), pioneering anatomist, royal physician and founder of the ancient medical school of Alexandria, who discovered the linking between organs through the systems of veins, arteries and nerves * Aristo of Chios (c. 260 BC), Stoic philosopher * Claudia Metrodora (c. 54–68 AD), public benefactor

MEDIEVAL

Leo Allatius
Leo Allatius

* Saint Markella (14th century), martyr and saint of the Orthodox church * Matrona of Chios (* 15th century, † before 1455), saint of the Orthodox church * Andrea Bianco (15th century), Genoese cartographer resided on Chios * In 1982, Ruth Durlacher hypothesised that Chios
Chios
was Christopher Columbus 's birthplace. Columbus himself said he was from the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
, which included the island of Chios
Chios
at the time. Columbus was friendly with a number of Chian Genoese families, referenced Chios
Chios
in his writings and used the Greek language
Greek language
for some of his notes. 'Columbus' remains a common surname on Chios. Other common Greek spellings are: Kouloumbis and Couloumbis. * Francisco Albo (16th century), pilot of Magellan expedition, the first circumnavigation of the Earth * Leo Allatius
Leo Allatius
(Leone Allacci) (c. 1586–1669), Greek Catholic scholar and theologian

MODERN

* Athanasios Parios (1722–1813), Greek hieromonk and notable theologian, philosopher, educator, and hymnographer of his time * Macarius of Corinth (1731–1805), metropolitan bishop of Corinth, mystic and spiritual theological writer * Nikephoros of Chios (ca. 1750–1821), abbot of Nea Moni monastery, theological writer and orthodox saint * Alexandros Kontostavlos (1789–1865), politician * Amvrosios Skaramagas (1790–1864), merchant * George Colvocoresses (1816–1872), military officer * Mustapha Khaznadar (1817–1878), was Prime Minister of the Beylik of Tunis * Michel Emmanuel Rodocanachi (1821–1901), trader and banker of London * Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople (1833–?) * Ralli Brothers (18th–19th century), founders of major 19th century trading enterprise * Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha
(1819–1893), Ottoman Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
* Namık Kemal
Namık Kemal
(1840–1888), one of the principal founders of modern Turkish literature, served as a sub-prefect (exiled in practical terms) of Chios
Chios
from 1886 to his death on the island in 1888 * Osman Hamdi Bey
Osman Hamdi Bey
(1842–1910), Ottoman painter, archaeologist * George I. Zolotas (1845–1906), local historian of the island and director of the high school of Chios; wrote a five volume History of Chios
Chios
in Greek language * Ioannis Psycharis (1854–1929), philologist, descented from Chios * Konstantinos Amantos (1874–1960), Byzantine scholar, professor at the University of Athens, member of the Athens
Athens
Academy * Kostia Vlastos (1883–1967), banker * John D. Chandris (1890–1942), Greek shipowner * Stavros Livanos (1891–1963), shipping magnate * Philip Pandely Argenti (1891–1974), member of an old Chian aristocratic family, greatest historian of the island, wrote more than a dozen historical portrayals of the island of Chios * Ioannis Despotopoulos (1903–1992), architect * Kostas Perrikos (1905–1943), Greek Resistance figure, leader of PEAN * Costas M. Lemos (1910–1995), Greek shipowner * Adamantios Lemos (1916–2006), actor * Anthony J. Angelicoussis (1918–1989), Greek shipowner * Andreas Papandreou
Andreas Papandreou
(1919–1996), politician, Prime Minister of Greece * Anthony J. Chandris (1924–1984), Greek shipowner * Mikis Theodorakis
Mikis Theodorakis
(1925), composer * Jani Christou (1926–1970), composer * George P. Livanos (1926–1997), Greek shipowner * Stamatios Krimigis (1938), NASA space scientist * Takis Fotopoulos (1940), political writer * Adamantios Vassilakis (1942), diplomat * Dimitris Varos (1949), author, poet, journalist * Mark Palios (1952, of Chian descent), former professional footballer and former chief executive of the English Football Association * Matthew Mirones (1956), New York politician * John Sitaras (1972), fitness professional

SEE ALSO

* Chian wine * Chian diaspora * Scio Township, Michigan

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. * ^ A B Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) * ^ "Population ">(PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015. * ^ John Boardman; C. E. Vaphopoulou-Richardson (1986). Chios: a conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984. Clarendon Press. p. v. ISBN 9780198148647 . Retrieved 30 July 2014. * ^ Δασκαλóπετρα * ^ Μαστιχοχώρια * ^ 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and their relation to tsunamis * ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Aegean Sea. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC * ^ "Chios". July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2009. * ^ Boardman, John Excavations in Chios, 1952–1955: Greek Emporio (London : British School of Archaeology at Athens; Thames and Hudson, 1967), cf. also Hood, Sinclair Excavations in Chios, 1938–1955: prehistoric Emporio and Ayio Gala (London : British School of Archaeology at Athens: Thames and Hudson, 1981–) ISBN 0-500-96017-8 * ^ Merouses, Nikos Chios. Physiko periballon & katoikese apo te neolithike epoche mechri to telos tes archaiothtas. (Chios. Natural Environment & Habitation from the Neolithic
Neolithic
Age to the end of Antiquity) pg. 80. Papyros, 2002 * ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 4 * ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 1 * ^ I.S. Lemos, The Protogeometric Aegean 2002:240, and Euboean ceramics in the Archeological Museum, noted by Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:60 note 59. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
14.1.3 * ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
1.171 * ^ Agelarakis A., "Analyses of Cremated Human Skeletal Remains Dating to the Seventh Century BC, Chios, Greece". Horos: Ena Archaeognostiko Periodiko 4 (1986): 145–153. * ^ Murray, Oswyn (1993). Early Greece
Greece
(2nd ed.). London: Fontana. p. 188. ISBN 0006862497 . * ^ A B Grant, Michael (1989). The Classical Greeks. Guild Publishing London. p.149 * ^ Herodotus, The Histories IV.15 * ^ Thucydides, Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
3.10. * ^ Merouses 2002 ch. 5, sect. 3 * ^ A translation of the decree can be viewed online * ^ Anthon, Charles A Manual of Greek Literature, p.251, 1853 * ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 41. Simon and Schuster 1989 * ^ Livy
Livy
, 44.28 * ^ "Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, BOOK XXXVI. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF STONES., CHAP. 5. (6.)—AT WHAT PERIOD MARBLE WAS FIRST USED IN BUILDINGS". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-03-26. * ^ Acts 20:15 * ^ Brownworth, Lars (2009) Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
That Rescued Western Civilization, Crown Publishers, ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5 : "...the Muslims captured Ephesus
Ephesus
in 1090 and spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and Lesbos
Lesbos
fell in quick succession." p. 233. * ^ William Miller, "The Zaccaria of Phocaea and Chios. (1275–1329.)" The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 31, 1911 (1911), pp. 42–55; doi :10.2307/624735 . * ^ Arbel, Benjamin, Bernard Hamilton, and David Jacob. Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. ISBN 0-7146-3372-0 . * ^ Chios
Chios
History Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ William St. Clair, That Greece
Greece
Might Still Be Free, The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, London, 1972, p.79. ISBN 0-19-215194-0 . * ^ "The Sephardic Community of Chios". Sephardicstudies.org. Retrieved 22 March 2009. * ^ William St. Clair, p. 79 * ^ Hellenic Genocide Events Archived 4 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine . retrieved 19 May 2008 * ^ Y. Altinok; B. Alpar B; N. Özer; C. Gazioglu (2005). "1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and their relation to tsunamis" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 5: 717–725. doi :10.5194/nhess-5-717-2005 . Retrieved 31 July 2010. * ^ Μιχαηλίδης, Σταύρος Γ. (2014). Σταύρος Γ. Λιβανός. Η Χιώτικη Ναυτιλιακή παραδοση στην κορυφή της παγκόσμιας ναυτιλίας. Χίος. * ^ "First World War.com – On This Day – 17 February 1916". www.firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. * ^ Becoming a Subject: Political Prisoners During the Greek Civil War: Polymeris Voglis, Published 2002Berghahn Books ISBN 157181308X * ^ "2011 Population Census" (PDF). HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY.

* ^ Archived 3 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ A Corpus of the Inscriptions of Chios
Chios
(IG XII 6.3) * ^ Wood, Michael (1998). In Search of the Trojan War. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: Univ of CA Press. ISBN 0-520-21599-0 . * ^ Matthew Somerville (3 July 2017). "This Insane Greek Fireworks Battle Puts Your July 4th to Shame". Narrative.ly. Retrieved 3 July 2017. * ^ Municipality of Genoa
Genoa
– Homepage. * ^ Dictionary.com * ^ Jona Lendering. " Theopompus of Chios". Livius.org. Retrieved 22 March 2009. * ^ להבין את המוח – Arthur S. Bard, Mitchell G. Bard – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. * ^ A New Theory Clarifying the Identity OF Christopher Columbus: A Byzantine Prince from Chios, Greece. by Ruth G Durlacher-Wolper 1982(Published by The New World Museum, San Salvador, Bahamas) * ^ "The Chian Federation". Chianfed.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.

FURTHER READING

* Fanny Aneroussi, Leonidas Mylonadis: The Kampos of Chios
Chios
in its Heyday: Houses and Surroundings. Translated from the Greek by Antonis Scotiniotis. (Aipos Series, no 12). Akritas Publications, Nea Smyrni 1992, ISBN 960-7006-87-9 . * Charalambos Th. Bouras: Chios. (Guides to Greece, no 4). National Bank of Greece, Athens
Athens
1974. * Charalambos Th. Bouras: Greek Traditional Architecture: Chios. Melissa, Athens
Athens
1984. * Athena Zacharou-Loutrari, Vaso Penna, Tasoula Mandala: Chios: History and Art. Translated from the Greek by Athena Dallas-Damis ... (The Monuments of Chios). The Chios
Chios
Prefecture, Chios
Chios
1989. OCLC 31423355 . * Hubert Pernot : En Pays Turc: L’île de Chios. (Dijon, Imprimerie Darantière, Rue Chabot-Charny, 65). Avec 17 mélodies populaires et 118 simili-gravures. J. Maisonneuve, Libraire-Éditeur, Paris 1903. (online) * Arnold C. Smith: The Architecture of Chios: Subsidiary Buildings, Implements and Crafts. Edited by Philip Pandely Argenti . Tison, London 1962. * Michales G. Tsankares, Alkes X. Xanthakes: Chios: hekato chronia photographies, 1850–1950. (Chios: One Hundred Years of Photographs, 1850–1950). Synolo, Athens
Athens
1996, ISBN 960-85416-4-6 . * Eleftherios Yalouris: The Archeology and Early History of Chios. (From the Neolithic