1.1 General 1.2 7 Luminaries, Big Dipper, 3 Enclosures, 28 Mansions 1.3 Codes 1.4 Time system 1.5 Week 1.6 Month 1.7 Solar year and solar term 1.8 Civil year
1.8.1 Estimate the Chinese date 1.8.2 Graphical representation 1.8.3 Age recognition in China 1.8.4 Birthday issue 1.8.5 Year number system
1.9 Phenology 1.10 Festivals
2.1 Earlier Chinese calendars 2.2 Ancient Chinese calendars
2.3 Modern Chinese calendars
2.3.1 Shíxiàn calendar 2.3.2 Current Chinese calendar 2.3.3 Proposals to optimize the Chinese calendar
2.4 Other practices
3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links
The calendar has a year, month and date frame. The key elements are
the day, synodic month and solar year. The
day, the time based on the earth's rotation. In the Chinese calendar,
a day starts from midnight.
month, the time is based on the obliquity of the moon path. In the
Chinese calendar, a month starts from the dark moon. A month is about
29 17/32 days.
date, the day number in a month. Days are numbered in sequence from 1
to 29 or 30.
year, the time based on the earth's revolution. In the Chinese
calendar, a year starts from the vernal commence (or the winter
solstice). A year is about 365 31/128 days.
zodiac, 1/12 year, 30° ecliptic. A zodiac is about 30 7/16 days. The
zodiac in the
7 Luminaries, Big Dipper, 3 Enclosures, 28 Mansions
The movements of the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
The distance between Mercury and the sun is within 30°, which is the
sun's height at chenshi, so Mercury is called the "chen star"
Central (Three Enclosures): Purple Forbidden (紫微), Supreme Palace (太微), Heavenly Market (天市) Eastern mansions: 角, 亢, 氐, 房, 心, 尾, 箕; Southern mansions: 井, 鬼, 柳, 星, 张, 翼, 轸; Western mansions: 奎, 娄, 胃, 昴, 毕, 参, 觜; Northern mansions: 斗, 牛, 女, 虚, 危, 室, 壁
The moon moves about one mansion per day; the 28 mansions are thus used to count days too. In the Tang Dynasty, Yuan Tiangang (袁天罡) matched the 28 mansions, seven luminaries and yearly animal signs, yielding combinations such as “horn-wood-flood dragon” (角木蛟). Codes Several coding systems are used for some special circumstances in order to avoid ambiguity, such as continuous day or year count.
The heavenly stems is a decimal system. The earthly branches is a duodecimal system. The earthly branches are used to mark the shí and climate terms usually. There's a different pattern for earthly branches, which is called as 12 characters of jian, chu and others (建除十二字; jianchu 12 zi). The 12 characters sequence from the first day with the same branch as the month (first Yinri of Zheng, first Maori of Ery, ...). The 12 characters must be used to count the days of the solar month. The stem-branches is a sexagesimal system. The heavenly stems and earthly branches match together and form stem-branches. The stem-branches are used to mark the continuous day and year. The stem-branches order may calculate with the stems order and branches order. sb=6s-5b (if less than 10, add 50) The unit digit of the stem-branches order is the stems order; the unit digit minus twice the tens digit is the branches order (if less than 2, add 10) The five phases are used to match the stems, branches, and stem-branches. And the Yin-yang are used to match the stems, branches, and stem-branches too, odd-yang, even-yin.
Coding system in
Stem-branches Heaven stems Earthly branches
Wuxin Stem-branch Wuxin
Wuxin Branch -shí -yuè
metal 1z 97 73
15 91 79
wood 1 jiǎ 甲 19:12 yig 1 wood yín 寅 4:00 ZNY
20 08 84
26 02 8x
2 yǐ 乙 21:36 erg 2 mǎo 卯 6:00 ERY
fire 31 19
5z 37 13
55 fire 3 bǐng 丙 0:00 sag 3 soil chén 辰 8:00 SNY
60 48 24
66 4 dīng 丁 2:24 sig 4 fire sì 巳 10:00 SIY
95 71 59
9z 77 soil 5 wù 戊 4:48 wug 5 wǔ 午 12:00 WUY
06 82 6x
00 88 6 jǐ 己 7:12 morn 6 soil wèi 未 14:00 LUY
3z 17 93
35 11 99 metal 7 gēng 庚 9:36 ante 7 metal shēn 申 16:00 QIY
40 28 04
46 22 0x 8 xīn 辛 12:00 noon 8 yǒu 酉 18:00 BAY
soil 75 51 39
7z 57 33
water 9 rén 壬 14:24 post 9 soil xū 戌 20:00 JUY
86 62 4x
80 68 44
0 guì 癸 16:48 eve 10 water hài 亥 22:00 SHY
11 zǐ 子 00:00 SYY
0 soil chǒu 丑 02:00 LAY
Explanatory Chart for Chinese time
Main article: Chinese Traditional Time System In Modern China, people use the Western hour-minute-second system to divide time. In Ancient China, people used the shi-ke system to divide the time during the day and the geng-dian system to divide the time during the night.. For example:
The Chinese standard time is 14:26:58, or 62:12 (p.Wesh 2 ke).
In the Chinese calendar, the day begins at midnight and ends at the next midnight, but people tend to regard the days as beginning at dawn.
24 hours system
In Han Dynasty, a day is divided into 24 hours, and the 15 active o'clocks (6:00-20:00) are named as: dawn (晨明), daybreak (朏明), morning (旦明), earlier breakfast (蚤食), later breakfast (宴食), ante noon (隅中), noon (正中), short shadow (少还), drum time (铺时), long shadow (大还), higher setting (高舂), lower setting(下舂), sunset (县东), dusk (黄昏), rest time (定昏)
A day is divided into 100 centidays by kes (the scales), or into 12 dual-hours by 12 shis, which are named with 12 earthly branches.
In the earlier stage, the time expression is sss initial, sss 1 ke,..., sss 8 ke, such as wush 3 ke (the third ke after wush) After Tang dynasty, the time expression is a.sss initial, a.sss 1 ke,..., a.sss 4 ke, p.sss initial, p.sss 1 ke,..., p.sss 4 ke, such as a.wush 3 ke (the third ke of wush), p.yinsh 4 ke (the fourth ke after yinsh) For the calendar convenience, A day is divided into 6000 fens. 1 centiday = 60 fens, 1 fen = 14.4 seconds.
A day is divided into 10 decidays by gengs (The midnight is sang, and each deciday is divided by 5 dians (points).
The time expression is ggg, ggg 1 point,..., ggg 5 point, such as sang 2 point (the second point after sang).
Among a year, the night length is inconstant. At 35°N, it is about 60% at the winter solstice, and about 40% at the summer solstice. So, the night gengs starts from a time between dawn and yig, and end at a time between wug and morn
At pre-Qin and Qin-Han, a day was divided into 16 parts from the cock time (3:00; 4:15 / sig 1 point 50 fen). The 16-parts system is established for calendar convenience, for: A season is about 91 days and 5 parts, and a solar month is about 30 days and 7 parts. A couple of months is about 59 days and a part.
For more information on the adaption of seven-day week, see Names of
the days of the week § East_Asian_tradition.
For more information on the ten-day week, see Decans.
The Chinese appear to have adopted the seven-day week from the
Hellenistic system by the 4th century, although by which route is not
entirely clear. It was again transmitted to China in the 8th century
by Manichaeans, via the country of Kang (a Central Asian polity near
Samarkand).[b][c] It is the most predominantly used system in
Other than the seven-day week system, in ancient China, the days were
grouped into 10-day weeks with the stems, 12-day weeks with the
branches, or 9/10-day weeks (旬; xún) with the date in the month.
The ten-day week was used in antiquity (reportedly as early as in the
Bronze Age Xia dynasty). In modern time, it is still used in
counting special days including Three Fu Days (三伏).
The law during the
The 12-months-cycle is 30,29,30,29,30,29,30,29,30,29,30,29 The 13-months-cycle is 30,29,30,29,30,29,30,29,30,29,30,29,30
In different ages, the calendar use different major cycle, which
contains several 12-months-cycles and 13-months-cycle. The synodic
A month with 30 days is called a long month (大月), and a month with 29 days is called a short month (小月). The days of the month are numbered beginning with 1, and in Chinese the day's number is always written with two characters, such as Chūyī (初一) for 1, Shíwǔ (十五) for 15, and Niànsān (廿三) for 23. As a convention, the days of the month are numbered with the 60 stem-branches in the history books. For example: Tiansheng 1st year, Eryue, Dingsiri, Set the portrait of the Great Chris and Pope in the Hongqing Palace of the southern capital. - Volume ix: Biographic Sketches of Pope Ren, History of Song Dynasty.
Because astronomical observation is used to determine month length,
date of the
The first day of each month is the dark moon. In the 7th or 8th day of each month, the first quarter moon is visible in the afternoon and early evening. In the 15th or 16th day of each month, the full moon is visible all night. In the 22nd or 23rd day of each month, the last quarter moon is visible late at night and in the morning.
As the beginning of every month is determined by the time when the new
moon occur, thus other countries who have adopted the calendar and use
time standard that are different from China to calculate their own
version of the calendar could result in deviation. For instance, the
first new moon in the year 1968 in
The intercalary months (1862 to 2108)
0th 3rd 6th 9th ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
0th 3rd 6th 9th
Leap 7/8 6/5 4 3/2 Leap 10 7/6 5 4/3
1862~ 8 5 4
1870~ 10 6 5 3
1881~ 7 5 4 2 1889~
6 5 3
1900~ 8 5 4 2 1908~
6 5 2
1919~ 7 5 4 2 1927~
6 5 3
1938~ 7 6 4 2 1946~
7 5 3
1957~ 8 6 4 3 1965~
7 5 4
1976~ 8 6 4
1984~ 10 6 5 3
1995~ 8 5 4 3 2003~
7 5 4
2014~ 9 6 4 2 2022~
6 5 3
2033~ 11 6 5 2 2041~
7 5 3
2052~ 8 6 4 3 2060~
7 5 4
2071~ 8 6 4 3 2079~
7 5 4
2090~ 8 6 4 2 2098~
7 5 4
FTC 小寒 First Term of Cold Season STC 大寒 Second Term of Cold Season VC 立春 Vernal commence LTC 雨水 Last Term of Cold Season (惊蛰) FT R惊蛰 First Term of Rainy Season (雨水) VE 春分 Vernal Equinox STR 清明 Second Term of Rainy Season (谷雨) LTR 谷雨 Last Term of Rainy Season (清明) SC 立夏 Summer commence FTG 小满 First Term of Growing Season STG 芒种 Second Term of Growing Season SS 夏至 Summer Solstice FTH 小暑 First Term of Hot Season STH 大暑 Second Term of Hot Season AC 立秋 Autumn Commence LTH 处暑 Last Term of Hot Season FTD 白露 First Term of Dew Season AE 秋分 Autumn Equinox STD 寒露 Second Term of Dew Season LTD 霜降 Last Term of Dew Season WC 立冬 Winter Commence FTS 小雪 First Term of Snowy Season STS 大雪 Second Term of Snowy Season WS 冬至 Winter Solstice
WS 0 18:44
0 8 14:53 FTC 15 11:55 STC 30 5:23
1 38 8:06 VC 44 23:34 LTC 59 19:31
2 67 22:58 FTR 74 17:32 VE 89 18:28
3 97 10:57 STR 104 22:17 LTR 120 5:26
4 126 20:16 SC 135 15:30 FTG 151 4:30
5 156 3:44 STG 166 19:36 SS 182 12:24
6 185 10:30 FTH 198 5:50 STH 213 23:15
i 214 17:45
AC 229 15:39
7 244 2:30 LTH 245 6:20 FTD 260 18:38
8 273 13:29 AE 276 4:01 STD 291 10:22
9 303 3:11 LTD 306 13:26 WC 321 13:37
10 332 19:42 FTS 336 11:04 STS 351 6:32
ws 362 14:30 WS 366 0:27
In general, there are 11 or 12 complete months and 2 incomplete months, which contains the winter solstice, in a solar year. The 11 mid-climates except the winter solstice are in the 11 or 12 complete months. The first month without a mid-climate is the leap month. The complete months except the intercalary month, queues up from 0 to 10, and the incomplete months follows this queue, to be 11. The intercalary follows the queue number before by rule. Civil year The civil year starts from the first spring month (1), and ends at the last winter month (0/0i). The first and last month is called as Zhēngyuè (正月, capital month) and Làyuè (臘月; 腊月, sacrificial month), and the other month is called according to the queue number (except that the 0th month is Shi'eryue, if the Layue is a leap month). There are 12 or 13 months in each year. The years with 12 months, or 353~355 days, are common years. The years with 13 months, or 383~385 days, are long years. Years were numbered after the reign title in Ancient China, but the reign title was no longer used after the founding of PRC in 1949. People use the stem-branches to demarcate the years. For example, the year from February 8, 2016 to January 27, 2017 is a Bǐngshēnnían, 12 months or 354 days long. To Encode the date in the Chinese calendar, the flag of the intercalary month should be considered. For example, Run Liuyue 6, Dingyounian: 408-6i-06 (Timestamp: 40806106) In Tang Dynasty, the earthly branches are used to mark the months for about 150 days (Dec, 761~May, 762).[e] At that time, the year starts from the month with Winter Solstice, and the month from Zhengyue to Layue are named as: Yinyue, Maoyue, Chenyue, Siyue, Wuyue, Weiyue, Shenyue Youyue, Xuyue, Haiyue, Ziyue, and Chouyue. Estimate the Chinese date
A month in the
A typical graphical representation of the
The color of the cattle head marks the stem (five phases) of the year, If the cattle mouth is closed, it is a yin year; if the cattle mouth open, it is a yang year, The color of the cattle body marks the branch of the year. The color of the cattle tail marks the stem (five phases) of the vernal commence. If the cattle tail is on the left, vernal commence is a yang day; if the cattle tail is on the right, vernal commence is a yin day, The color of the cattle knee and shin marks the branch of the vernal commence. if the cowherd stand ahead the cattle, the vernal commence is 5+ days ahead the spring festival; if the cowherd stand behind the cattle, the vernal commence is 5+ days behind the spring festival; otherwise the bias between spring festival and vernal commence is within 5 days.
Age recognition in China Main article: East Asian age reckoning In China, age for official use is based on the Gregorian calendar. For traditional use, age is based on the Chinese calendar. For the first year from the birthday, the child is considered one year old. After each New Year's Eve, add one year. "Ring out the old age and ring in the new one (辭舊迎新; 辞旧迎新; cíjiù yíngxīn)" is the literary express of New Year Ceremony. For example, if one's birthday is Làyuè 29th 2013, he is 2 years old at Zhēngyuè 1st 2014. On the other hand, people say months old instead of years old, if someone is too young. It is that the age sequence is "1 month old, 2 months old, ... 10 months old, 2 years old, 3 years old...". After the actual age (實歲; 实岁) was introduced into China, the Chinese traditional age was referred to as the nominal age (虛歲; 虚岁). Divided the year into two halves by the birthday in the Chinese calendar,[f] the nominal age is 2 older than the actual age in the first half, and the nominal age is 1 older than the actual age in the second half (前半年前虛兩歲，後半年虛一歲; 前半年前虚两岁，后半年虚一岁).[g] Birthday issue Just as it is awkward to define the birthday of someone born on the 29th of February in the Gregorian calendar, special rules are used for birthdays or other anniversaries during the intercalary month or on the 30th day.
If someone was born in an intercalary month (except intercalary Shi'eryue), his birthday is in the common month (the month before the intercalary month). If someone was born in Shi'eryue, and Layue is the intercalary Shi'eryue, his birthday is in Layue (the last month of a year). If someone was born at 30th day of a month, his birthday is the last day of the month, i.e. the 30th day if that exists, or the 29th day if it does not.
Year number system
Main article: Chinese era name In the Ancient China, years were numbered from 1, beginning from the next year after a new emperor ascended the throne or the current emperor announced a new era name. The first reign title was Jiànyuán (建元; "era establishment", from 140 BCE), and the last reign title was Xuāntǒng (宣統; 宣统, from 1908 CE). The era system was abolished in 1912 CE, after which the Current Era or Republican era was used. The epoch of the Current Era is just the same as the era name of Emperor Ping of Han, Yuánshí (元始; "era beginning").
The 60 stem-branches were used to mark the date continually from Shang
Dynasty. Before Han Dynasty, people knew the orbital period of Jupiter
is about 4332 days, which is about 12*361 days. So, the orbital period
Continuous year numbering
Occasionally, nomenclature similar to that of the Christian era has been used, such as
Anno Huángdì (黄帝紀年), referring to the beginning of the reign
of the Yellow Emperor, 2698+AD=AH
Anno Yáo (唐尧紀年), referring to the beginning of the reign of
Emperor Yao, 2156+AD=AY
Anno Gònghé (共和紀年), referring to the beginning of the Gonghe
No reference date is universally accepted.
On January 2, 1912,
There is an epoch for each version of the Chinese calendar, which is called Lìyuán (曆元; 历元). The epoch is the optimal origin of the calendar, and it is a Jiǎzǐrì, the first day of a lunar month, and the dark moon and solstice are just at the midnight (日得甲子夜半朔旦冬至). And tracing back to a perfect day, such as that day with the magical star sign, there's a supreme epoch (Chinese: 上元; pinyin: shàngyuán). The continuous year based on the supreme epoch is shàngyuán jīnián (上元積年; 上元积年). More and more factors were added into the supreme epoch, and the shàngyuán jīnián became a huge number. So, the supreme epoch and shàngyuán jīnián were neglected from the Shòushí calendar.
Year in cycle s,b Gānzhī (干支) Year of the... CE AR HYSN AH Begins
27 7,3 gēngyín (庚寅) Metal Tiger 2010 99 0712-0927 4707 February 14
28 8,4 xīnmǎo (辛卯) Metal Rabbit 2011 100 0712-0928 4708 February 3
29 9,5 rénchén (壬辰) Water Dragon 2012 101 0712-0929 4709 January 23
30 10,6 guǐsì (癸巳) Water Snake 2013 102 0712-0930 4710 February 10
31 1,7 jiǎwǔ (甲午) Wood Horse 2014 103 0712-1001 4711 January 31
32 2,8 yǐwèi (乙未) Wood Goat 2015 104 0712-1002 4712 February 19
33 3,9 bǐngshēn (丙申) Fire Monkey 2016 105 0712-1003 4713 February 8
34 4,10 dīngyǒu (丁酉) Fire Rooster 2017 106 0712-1004 4714 January 28
35 5,11 wùxū (戊戌) Earth Dog 2018 107 0712-1005 4715 February 16
36 6,12 jǐhài (己亥) Earth Pig 2019 108 0712-1006 4716 February 5
1 As of the beginning of the Chinese year. AR=Anno the Republic of China 2 Timestamp according to Huángjíjīngshì, as a format of Huìyùn-Shìnián. 3 Huángdì era, using an epoch (year 1) of 2697 BC. Subtract 60 if using an epoch of 2637 BC. Add 1 if using an epoch of 2698 BC. Phenology
The plum rains season is the rainy season during the late spring and early summer. The plum rains season starts on the first Bǐngrì after the Corn on Ear, and ends on the first Wèirì after the Moderate Heat. The Sanfu days are the three sections from the first Gēng-day after the summer solstice. The first section is 10 days long, and named the fore fu (初伏; chūfú). The second section is 10 or 20 days long, and named the mid fu (中伏; zhōngfú). The last section is 10 days long from the first Gēng-day after autumn commences, and named the last fu (末伏; mòfú). The Shujiu cold days are the nine sections from the winter solstice. Each section is 9 days long. The shǔjǐu are the coldest days, and named with an ordinal number, such as Sìjǐu (四九).
Festivals In the Sinosphere, the traditional festivals are calculated using the date or solar terms, and are considered auspicious.
Traditional festivals in the Sinosphere
Festival English Define Original Define (Han Dynasty) Date of the following... Remark
Major traditional festivals on fixed date
臘日/腊日 Lari 0008 Sacrifice Day Làyuè 8 The third Xuri (戌) after the Winter Solstice 2017-01-05
小年 Xiaonian 0023/0024 Preliminary Eve Làyuè 23/24 23-officers, 24-civilians, 25-monks, for convenience 2017-01-20 2017-01-21 the cleanup day before New Year's Week
除夕 Chuxi 0100 New Year's Eve the last day of the year, Làyuè 29 or 30 2017-01-27 a statutory holiday
春節/春节 Chunjie 0101 New Year's Day The first day of the year, Zhēngyuè 1 2017-01-28 a statutory holiday
上元 Shangyuan 0115 Shangyuan Zhēngyuè 15 The first full moon of the year 2017-02-11 Also called as Yuanxiao (the night of the first full moon), an annual carnival in ancient China
上巳 Shangsi 0303 Outing Festival Sānyuè 3 The first Siri (巳) of Sanyue 2017-03-30 a version of Qingmin Festival, The origin of Thailand water splashing festival
佛誕/佛诞 Fodan 0408 Buddha's Birthday Sìyuè 8
2017-05-03 a statutory holiday in Hong Kong SAR
端午 Duanwu 0505 Dragon Boat Festival Wǔyuè 5 The First Wuri (午) of Wuyue 2017-05-30 a statutory holiday
七夕 Qixi 0707 Star Festival Qīyuè 7
2017-08-28 Ingenuity Maiden's Day
中元 Zhongyuan 0715 Ghost Festival Qīyuè 15 The full moon at the mid-year 2017-09-05 the worship of ancestors
中秋 Zhongqiu 0815 Mid-Autumn Festival Bāyuè 15 The full moon at the mid-autumn 2017-10-04 Reunion Day, a statutory holiday
重陽/重阳 Chongyang 0909 Climbing Festival Jiǔyuè 9
2017-10-28 Regarded as Elder's Day in China a statutory holiday in Hong Kong SAR
十月朝 Shiyue Chao 1001 Shiyue Worship Shíyuè 1 The New Year's Day of Qin Calendar 2017-11-18 Issue Royal calendar (almanac) for the following year.
下元 Xiayuan 1015 Spirit Festival Shíyuè 15 The first full moon in Qin calendar 2017-12-02 the worship of worthy
Major traditional festivals on solar term
立春 Lichun Beginning of Spring The day that Spring commences about February 4 Zhēngyuè 8 (February 3) The day of the Stimulation of Agriculture
寒食 Hanshi Cold Food Festival the 105th day after the Winter Solstice about April 4 Sānyuè 7, 2017 (April 3) The fast before the worship of ancestors at Qingming Festival.
清明 Qingming Qingming Festival The day of the solar term of Bright and Clear about April 5 Sānyuè 8, 2017 (April 4) The day of the worship of ancestors, a statutory holiday
冬至 Dongzhi Winter Solstice The day of the Winter Solstice about December 21 Shíyīyuè 5, 2017 (December 22) The node of the solar years
春社/秋社 Chunshe/Qiushe Spring/Autumn Pray the fifth Wùrì (戊) after Spring/Autumn Commences March 21 September 23 a version of Spring/Autumn equinox
The traditional business festivals
開市/开市 Kaishi 0105 Opening Day Zhēngyuè 5 In the old days, merchants used to open their stores from Zhēngyuè 5, and host a prayer service on that day. God of Wealth's Day, which the prayer service is called God of Wealth is Welcome.
頭牙/尾牙 头牙/尾牙 Touya & Weiya 0202/0016 First/Last Thanksgiving Èryuè 2 / Làyuè 16 In the Ancient China, business owners hosted the Yaji rites (Chinese: 牙祭; pinyin: Yaji) at the 2nd and 16th day of each month from Eryue to Layue, to reward the local guardian god and their employees. The First/Last Thanksgiving rite is held on Èryue 2/Làyuè 16.
History Earlier Chinese calendars Before the Zhou dynasty, the Chinese calendars used a solar calendar.
The History of Chinese Calendar
According to Ancient Chinese literature, the first version was the
five-phases calendar (五行曆; 五行历), which came from the tying
knots culture. In the five-phases calendar, a year was divided into
five phases which were expressed by five ropes. Each rope was folded
into halves, and the day in the corner was the capital day (行御).
They're three sections in each halves, and the Chinese Character of
phase is the pictograph of the rope of the tying knots. The ten
half-ropes were arranged into a row, and a man shape was engraved by
the ropes. The part of man shape derived into 10 heaven stems. The
days in each sections were recorded with 12 earthly branches. So, in
the five-phases calendar, a year is fives phases or ten months, and a
phase is six sections or 73 days. The remainder of each phases are
marked in the Hetu, which is found in Song Dynasty.
The second version is the four-seasons calendar (四時八節曆;
四时八节历). In the four-seasons calendar, the days were counting
by ten, and three ten-days weeks were built into a month. There were
12 months in a year, and a week were intercalated in the hot month. In
the age of four-seasons calendar, the 10 heaven stems and 12 earthly
branches were used to mark days synchronously.
The third version is the balanced calendar (調曆; 调历) a year was
defined into 365.25 days, and the month was defined into 29.5 days.
And after each 16 months, a half-month was intercalated. There
half-months were merged into months later, and the archetype of the
The epoch of the Lu's calendar (魯曆; 鲁历) is the winter solstice of a Gēngzǐ year.
Spring and Autumn period
Jin issued the Xia's calendar (夏曆; 夏历), with a year beginning
of the day with the nearest darkmoon to the Vernal Commences. The
epoch of Xia's calendar is the Vernal Commences of a Bǐngyíng year.
Qin issued the Zhuanxu's calendar (顓頊曆; 颛顼历), with a year
beginning of the day with the nearest darkmoon to the Winter
Commences. The epoch of Zhuanxu's calendar is the Winter Commences of
a Yǐmǎo year.
Song resumed the Yin's calendar (殷曆; 殷历), with a year
beginning of the day with the darkmoon after the Winter Solstice. The
epoch of Yin's calendar is the
These six calendars are called as the six ancient calendars
(古六曆; 古六历), and are the quarter remainder calendars
(四分曆; 四分历; sìfēnlì). The months of these calendars
begin on the day with the darkmoon, and there are 12 or 13 month
within a year. The intercalary month is placed at the end of the year,
and called as 13th month.
The modern version of the Zhuanxu's calendar is the Chinese Qiang
calendar and Chinese Dai calendar, which are the calendar of
In the Dàmíng
Modern Chinese calendars
The baseline is Chinese Standard Time rather than
Proposals to optimize the Chinese calendar
To optimize the Chinese calendar, astronomers have released many
proposed changes. A typical proposal was released by Gao Pingzi
(高平子; 1888-1970), a Chinese astronomer who was one of the
founders of Purple Mountain Observatory. In his proposal, the month
numbers are calculated before the dark moons and the solar terms were
rounded to the day. Under his proposal, the month numbers are the same
Time portal China portal History of Imperial China portal
Culture of China Dates in Chinese East Asian age reckoning Festivals of Korea Guo Shoujing, an astronomer tasked with calendar reform during the 13th century List of festivals in Vietnam Public holidays in China Sexagenary cycle Chinese Traditional Time System Chinese Traditional Date and Time
^ The traditional
^ The Chinese encyclopaedia
Cohen, Alvin (2012). "Brief Note: The Origin of the
2000-year Chinese-Western calendar converter From 1 AD to 2100 AD.
Useful for historical studies. To use, put the western year 年 month
月day 日in the bottom row and click on 執行.
Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar The Structure of the Chinese Calendar
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