History of ethnicity in China
Early historyThroughout much of recorded Chinese history, there was little attempt by Chinese authors to separate the concepts of nationality, culture, and ethnicity. Those outside of the reach of imperial control and dominant patterns of Chinese culture were thought of as separate groups of people regardless of whether they would today be considered as a separate ethnicity. The self-conceptualization of Han Chinese, Han largely revolved around this center-periphery cultural divide. Thus, the process of Sinicization throughout history had as much to do with the spreading of imperial rule and culture as it did with actual ethnic migration. This understanding persisted (with some change in the Qing under the import of Western ideas) up until the Communists took power in 1949. Their understanding of minorities had been heavily influenced by the Soviet models of Joseph Stalin—as has been the case for the neighbouring Communist regimes of Vietnam and Laos—and the Soviet definition of minorities did not map cleanly onto this Chinese historical understanding. Soviet thinking about minorities was that a nation was made up of those with a common language, historical culture, and territory. Each nation of these people then had the theoretical right to secede from a proposed federated government. This differed from the previous way of thinking mainly in that instead of defining all those under imperial rule as Chinese, the nation (as defined as a space upon which power is projected) and ethnicity (the identity of the governed) were now separate; being under central rule no longer automatically meant being defined as Chinese. The Soviet model as applied to China gave rise to the autonomous regions in China; these areas were thought to be their own nations that had theoretical autonomy from the central government. During World War II, the American Asiatic Association published an entry in the 40th volume of their academic journal, ''Asia'', concerning the problem of whether Islam in China, Chinese Muslims were Chinese or a separate 'ethnic minority', and the factors which led to either classification. It tackled the question of why Muslims who were Chinese were considered a different race from other Chinese, and the separate question of whether all Muslims in China were united into one race. The first problem was posed with a comparison to Chinese Buddhists, who were not considered a separate race. It concluded that the reason Chinese Muslims were considered separate was because of different factors like religion, culture, military feudalism, and that considering them a "racial minority" was wrong. It also came to the conclusion that the Japanese military spokesman was the only person who was propagating the false assertion that Chinese Muslims had "racial unity", which was disproved by the fact that Muslims in China were composed of multitudes of different races, separate from each other as were the "Germans and English", such as the Mongol Hui of Hezhou, Salar Hui of Qinghai, and Chan Tou Hui of Turkistan. The Japanese were trying to spread the lie that Chinese Muslims were one race, in order to propagate the claim that they should be separated from China into an "independent political organization."
Distinguishing nationalities in the PRCEarly documents of the People's Republic of China (PRC), such as the 1982 constitution, followed the Soviet Union, Soviet practice of identifying 'Nationalities (ethnic affiliations), nationalities' in the sense of ethnic groups (the concept is not to be confused with state citizenship).Moseley, George. "China's Fresh Approach to the National Minority Question." ''The China Quarterly''. The Chinese term (), borrowed from Japanese during the Republican period, translates this Soviet concept. The English translation (common in official documents) of 'nationality' again follows Soviet practice; in order to avoid confusion, however, alternative phraseology such as 'ethnicity' or 'ethnic group' is often used. Since the Anthropology, anthropological concept of ''ethnicity'' does not precisely match the Chinese or Soviet concepts (which, after all, are defined and regulated by the state), some scholars use the neologism ''zuqun'' (, 'ethnic group') to unambiguously refer to ethnicity. After 1949, a team of social scientists was assembled to enumerate the various ''mínzú''. An immediate difficulty was that identities "on the ground" did not necessarily follow logically from things like shared languages or cultures; two neighboring regions might seem to share a common culture, and yet insist on their distinct identities. Since this would lead to absurd results—every village could hardly send a representative to the National People's Congress—the social scientists attempted to construct coherent groupings of minorities using language as the main criterion for differentiation. Thus some villages with very different cultural practices and histories were lumped together under the same ethnonym. For example, the "Zhuang people, Zhuang" ethnic group largely served as a catch-all for various hill villages in Guangxi province. The actual census taking of who was and was not a minority further eroded the neat differentiating lines the social scientists had drawn up. Individual ethnic status was often awarded based on family tree histories. If one had a father (or mother, for ethnic groups that were considered Matrilineality, matrilineal) that had a surname considered to belong to a particular ethnic group, then one was awarded the coveted minority status. This had the result that villages that had previously thought of themselves as homogenous and essentially Han were now divided between those with ethnic identity and those without. The team of social scientists that assembled the list of all the ethnic groups also described what they considered to be the key differentiating attributes between each group, including culture, custom, and language. The center then used this list of attributes to select representatives of each group to perform on television and radio in an attempt to reinforce the government's narrative of China as a multi-ethnic state and to prevent the culture of the minority ethnic groups from assimilating by the Han and the rest of the world. However, with the development of modern technology, these attempts brought little effect. In fact, many of those labeled as specific minorities bore no relationship to the music, clothing, and other practices presented with images and representations of "their people" in the media. Under this process, 39 ethnic groups were recognized by the First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, first national census in 1954. This further increased to 54 by the Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, second national census in 1964, with the Lhoba group added in 1965. The last change was the addition of the Jino people in 1979, bringing the number of recognized ethnic groups to the current 56.
Reform and opening upHowever, as China Chinese economic reform, opened up and reformed post-1979, many Han acquired enough money to begin to travel. One of the favorite travel experiences of the wealthy was visits to minority areas, to see the exotic rituals of the minority peoples. Responding to this interest, many minority entrepreneurs, despite themselves perhaps never having grown up practicing the dances, rituals, or songs themselves, began to cater to these tourists by performing acts similar to what the older generation or the local residents told. In this way, the groups of people named Zhuang people, Zhuang or other named minorities have begun to have more in common with their fellow co-ethnics, as they have adopted similar self-conceptions in response to the economic demand of consumers for their performances. After the breakup of Yugoslavia and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there was a shift in official conceptions of minorities in China: rather than defining them as 'nationalities', they became 'ethnic groups'. The difference between 'nationality' and 'ethnicity', as Uradyn Erden-Bulag describes it, is that the former treats the minorities of China as societies with "a fully functional division of labor," history, and territory, whereas the latter treats minorities as a "category" and focuses on their maintenance of boundaries and their self-definition in relation to the majority group. These changes are reflected in uses of the term () and its translations. The official journal ''Minzu Tuanjie'' changed its English name from ''Nationality Unity'' to ''Ethnic Unity'' in 1995. Similarly, the Central University for Nationalities changed its name to Minzu University of China. Scholars began to prefer the term ''zuqun'' (, 'ethnic group') over ''minzu''. The Chinese model for identifying and categorizing ethnic minorities established at the founding of the PRC followed the Soviet model, drawing inspiration from Joseph Stalin's 1953 'four commons' criteria to identify ethnic groups: "(1) a distinct language; (2) a recognized indigenous homeland or common territory; (3) a common economic life; and (4) a strong sense of identity and distinctive customs, including dress, religion and foods." The categorization of 55 minority groups was a major step forward from denial of the existence of different ethnic groups in China which had been the policy of Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yet-Sen's Nationalist government that came to power in 1911, which also engaged in the common use of derogatory names to refer to minorities (a practice officially abolished in 1951). However, the Communist Party's categorization was also rampantly criticized since it reduced the number of recognized ethnic groups by eightfold, and today the ''wei shibie menzu'' (literally 'undistinguished ethnic groups') total more than 730,000 people. These groups include Geija, Khmu, Kucong, Mang, Deng, Sherpas, Bajia, Yi and Youtai (Jewish). The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is continuing the mass imprisonment of Uyghurs, Uyghyrs in the Xinjiang internment camps, under General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping's Xi Jinping Administration, administration.
Ethnic groupsChina is officially composed of 56 ethnic groups (55 minorities plus the dominant Han). However, some of the ethnic groups as classified by the PRC government contain, within themselves, diverse groups of people. Various groups of the Miao people, Miao minority, for example, speak different dialects of the Hmong–Mien languages, Tai–Kadai languages, and Chinese language, Chinese, and practice a variety of different cultural customs. Whereas in many nations a citizen's minority status is defined by their self-identification as an ethnic minority, in China minority nationality (''xiaoshu minzu'') is fixed at birth, a practice that can be traced to the foundation of the PRC, when the Communist Party commissioned studies to categorize and delineate groups based on research teams' investigation of minorities' social history, economic life, language and religion in China's different regions. The degree of variation between ethnic groups is not consistent. Many ethnic groups are described as having unique characteristics from other minority groups and from the dominant Han, but there are also some that are very similar to the Han majority group. Most Hui Chinese are indistinguishable from Han Chinese except for the fact that they practice Islam, and most Manchu people, Manchu are considered to be largely assimilated into dominant Han society. China's official 55 minorities are located primarily in the south, west, and north of China. Only Tibet Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region have a majority population of official minorities, while all other Provinces of the People's Republic of China, provinces, Direct-controlled municipality of the People's Republic of China, municipalities and Autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China, regions of China have a Han majority. In Beijing itself, the Han ethnic composition makes up nearly 96% of the total population, while the ethnic minority total is 4.31%, or a population of 584,692 (as of 2008). Much of the dialog within China regarding minorities has generally portrayed minorities as being further behind the Han in progress toward modernization and modernity. Minority groups are often portrayed as rustic, wild, and antiquated. As the government often portrays itself as a benefactor of the minorities, those less willing to assimilate (despite the offers of assistance) are portrayed as masculine, violent, and unreasonable. Groups that have been depicted this way include the Tibetan people, Tibetans, Uyghurs and the Mongol people, Mongols. Groups that have been more willing to assimilate (and accept the help of the government) are often portrayed as feminine and sexual, including the Miao people, Miao, Tujia people, Tujia and the Dai people, Dai. Taiwanese aborigines include 16 ROC-government recognized tribes which, as mentioned above, the PRC government lumps together as the "Gaoshan" people. They include: the Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Hla’alua, Kanakanavu, Kavalan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiat, Sakizawa, Sakizaya, Seediq, Taiwan, Thao, Truku, Tsou & Yami tribes. These groupings were made by Japanese anthropologists on the basis of language and culture, and do not necessarily reflect the felt sense of identity of the people involved, let alone their political organization; however, the categories have taken on increasing importance over time. A few groups—primarily plains-dwelling (''pingpu'')—were ultimately de-recognized by Taiwan's Nationalist government (among them the Siraya people), ostensibly for being insufficiently distinct from Han Chinese; some activists have been lobbying for their re-recognition. Government recognition as an aborigine is otherwise made on the basis of documented blood descent (from both parents), not culture. The number of officially-recognized Taiwanese aborigines is estimated at 530,000, or 2.3% of Taiwan's population. There is currently a political discussion over whether to establish official territories for recognized tribes, and if so what their rights and boundaries should be. At the same time, many aborigines have migrated to the cities. It has been estimated that some 85% of all Taiwanese people have some degree of aboriginal ancestry. Since Han Chinese settlers in Taiwan were disproportionately male, a large number of them married aboriginal women, whose presence may have gone unrecorded due to assimilation and a Confucian emphasis on the patriline.
DemographicsThe largest ethnic group, Han, according to a 2005 sampling, constitute about 91.9% of the total population. The next largest ethnic groups in terms of population include the Zhuang people, Zhuang (18 million), Manchu (15 million), Hui people, Hui (10 million), Miao people, Miao (9 million), Uyghurs, Uyghur (8 million), Yi people, Yi (7.8 million), Tujia people, Tujia (8 million), Ethnic Mongols in China, Mongols (5.8 million), Tibetan people, Tibetans (5.4 million), Buyei (3 million), Yao people, Yao (3.1 million), and Ethnic Koreans in China, Koreans (2.5 million). Minority populations have grown fast due to their being unaffected by the One Child Policy.
List of ethnic groupsEthnic minorities with low populations (fewer than 100,000 individuals) were not taken into account here. Ethnic Hans * Beijing Hans * Chonqing Hans * Gan Chinese-speaking people, Gan Hans * Gansu Hans * Guizhou Hans * Hainan Hans * Hakka people, Hakka Hans * Hebei Hans * Heilongjian Hans * Henan Hans * Hubei Hans * Jiaoliao Hans * Jilin & Liaoning Hans * Lower Yangtze Hans * Min Chinese speakers, Min Hans * Shaanxi Hans * Shandong Hans * Shanxi Hans * Sichuan Hans * Taiwan Hans * Tianjin Hans * Wu Chinese-speaking people, Wu Hans * Xiang Hans * Cantonese people, Yue Hans * Yunnan Hans Ethnic minorities * Bai people, Bai * Koreans in China, Chinese Koreans * Dai people, Dai * Dong people, Dong * Evenk people, Evenki * Hani people, Hani * Hui people, Hui * Jingpo people, Jingpo * Kazakhs * Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyz * Lahu people, Lahu * Hlai people, Li * Lisu people, Lisu * Manchus * Maonan people, Maonan * Miao people, Miao * Taiwanese indigenous people * Tajiks * Tibetans * Tujia people, Tujia * Uyghurs * Wa people, Wa * Yao people, Yao * Yi people, Yi * Zhuang people, Zhuang *Mongol subgroups :* Buryats :* Chinese Mongols :* Daurs :* Khalka Mongols :* Oirat Mongols :* Sartuul Mongols
Undistinguished ethnic groups"Undistinguished" ethnic groups are ethnic groups that have not been officially recognized or classified by the central government. The group numbers more than 730,000 people, and would constitute the twentieth most populous ethnic group of China if taken as a single group. The vast majority of this group is found in Guizhou, Guizhou Province. These "undistinguished ethnic groups" do not include groups that have been controversially classified into existing groups. For example, the Mosuo are officially classified as Nakhi people, Naxi, and the Chuanqing are classified as who are of foreign origin are classified using yet another separate label: "foreigners naturalized into the Chinese citizenship" (). However, if a newly naturalized citizen already belongs to a recognized existing group among the 56 ethnic groups, then he or she is classified into that ethnic group rather than the special label.
Guarantee of rights and interestsThe Constitution of the People's Republic of China, PRC's Constitution and laws guarantee equal rights to all ethnic groups in China and help promote ethnic minority groups' economic and cultural development One notable preferential treatment ethnic minorities enjoy was their exemption from the population growth control of the One-Child Policy. But according to an investigative report by The Associated Press published at 28 June 2020, the Chinese government is taking draconian measures to slash birth rates among Uighurs and other minorities as part of a sweeping campaign to curb its Muslim population, even as it encourages some of the country's Han majority to have more children. While individual women have spoken out before about forced birth control, the practice is far more widespread and systematic than previously known, according to an AP investigation based on government statistics, state documents and interviews with 30 ex-detainees, family members and a former detention camp instructor. The campaign over the past four years in the far west region of Xinjiang is leading to what some experts are calling a form of "demographic genocide". Additionally, ethnic minorities enjoy other special exemptions which vary by province- these include lower tax thresholds and lower required scores for entry into university. The use of these measures to raise ethnic minorities' human capital is seen by the central government as important for improving the economic development of ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities are represented in the National People's Congress as well as governments at the Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Province level, provincial and Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Prefecture level, prefectural levels. Some ethnic minorities in China live in what are described as Autonomous entities of China, ethnic autonomous areas. These "regional autonomies" guarantee ethnic minorities the freedom to use and develop their ethnic languages, and to maintain their own cultural and social customs. In addition, the PRC government has provided preferential economic development and aid to areas where ethnic minorities live. Furthermore, the Chinese government has allowed and encouraged the involvement of ethnic minority participation in the party. Even though ethnic minorities in China are granted specific rights and freedoms, many ethnic minorities still have headed towards the urban life in order to obtain a well paid job. Minorities have widely benefited from China's minimum livelihood guarantee program (known as the ''dibao'') a programme introduced nationwide in 1999 whose number of participants had reached nearly twenty million by 2012. The nature of the selection process entails that the programme's providers be proactive and willing in seeking out impoverished prospective participants, as opposed to more comprehensive welfare schemes such as the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme (URBMI), which is universally implemented. As such, the selection process for participants in the ''dibao'' programme has generated a perception among observers of the scheme that this programme have been used to mitigate dissent and neutralize any threat to the government that could lead to unrest- including negative performance evaluations of local officials.
Religions and their most common affiliations* Chinese Buddhism, Buddhism/Taoism — the Miao people, Miao (minority), Lisu people, Lisu (minority), Bai people, Bai, Bulang, Dai people, Dai, Jinuo, Vietnamese people, Jing, Jingpo people, Jingpo, Mongol, Manchu, Nakhi people, Naxi (including Mosuo), Nu people, Nu, Tai peoples, Tai, Tibetan people, Tibetan, Zhuang people, Zhuang (minority), Yi people, Yi (minority), and Yugur ("Yellow Uyghurs"). *Chinese Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Christianity — the Russians *Islam in China, Islam — the Hui people, Hui, Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Dongxiang people, Kyrgyz people, Salar people, Salar, Tajiks of Xinjiang, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Bonans, and Tatars. * Judaism — Kaifeng Jews *Protestantism in China, Protestant Christianity — the Lisu people, Lisu (70%; see Lisu Church) * Shamanism/Animism — Daur people, Daur, Ewenkis, Oroqen people, Oroqen, Hezhen, and Derung.
See also* Affirmative action in China * Han Chinese subgroups * China National Ethnic Song and Dance Ensemble * Chinese nationality law * Demographics of the People's Republic of China and Demographics of Taiwan, Taiwan * Demographics of China#Population density and distribution, Demographics of China * Ethnic groups in Chinese history * Ethnic issues in China * Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese * Human rights in China * List of China administrative regions by ethnic group * List of endangered languages in China * List of ethnic groups in China * Minzu University of China, a university in Beijing designated for ethnic minorities. * Secession in China * Sinocentrism * Taiwanese aborigines * Unrecognized ethnic groups in China * Zhonghua minzu
Further reading* Tang, Wenfang and He, Gaochao.