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Chinese Communist victory

Major combat ended, but no armistice or peace treaty signed Small pockets of insurgency continued through the 1960s

Territorial changes

Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
takeover of mainland China
China
and Hainan People's Republic of China
China
established in mainland China Government of the Republic of China
China
relocated to Taiwan

Belligerents

1927–36; 1946–47

 Republic of China

Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army

Supported by:

United States Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(1934-1936)[citation needed]

1927–36

Communist Party

Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army Chinese Soviet Republic
Chinese Soviet Republic
(1931–37)

Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet
Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet
(1931–34)

Fujian People's Government
Fujian People's Government
(1933–34)

Supported by:

 Soviet Union Communist International

1947–49

 Republic of China

Kuomintang Republic of China
China
Armed Forces

Supported by:

 United States

1946–49

Communist Party

Pre-PLA troops and militia People's Liberation Army

East Turkestan Republic (1944–46)

Ili National Army

Supported by:

 Soviet Union

1949–61

Republic of China

Republic of China
China
Armed Forces

Nationalist loyalist guerrillas, militias and regular troops left in Mainland China
Mainland China
and Burma

Supported by:

 United States

1949–61

 People's Republic of China

People's Liberation Army

Supported by:

 Soviet Union

Commanders and leaders

Chiang Kai-shek

Bai Chongxi Chen Cheng Li Zongren Yan Xishan He Yingqin Hu Zongnan Gu Zhutong Wei Lihuang Du Yuming  Sun Li-jen Fu Zuoyi  Liu Chih Xue Yue Wang Yaowu Tang Enbo Huang Baitao † Zhang Lingfu † Zhang Xueliang Feng Yuxiang
Feng Yuxiang
(Until 1930)

Mao Zedong

Zhu De Peng Dehuai Zhou Enlai Lin Biao Liu Bocheng He Long Chen Yi Luo Ronghuan Xu Xiangqian Nie Rongzhen Ye Jianying Deng Xiaoping Su Yu Chen Geng Wang Jiaxiang Ye Ting † Bo Gu † Li De Zhang Guotao
Zhang Guotao
(Until 1936)

Strength

4,300,000 (June 1946)[4][5] 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949)

1,200,000 (July 1945)[5] 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949)

Casualties and losses

c. 1.5 million (1948–49)[6] c. 250,000 (1948–49)[6]

1945–49: c. 6 million (including civilians)[6] 1928-37: c. 7 million (including civilians) [7] 1945-49: c. 2.5 million (including civilians) [8]

c. 8 million casualties total

v t e

Chinese Civil War

Major engagements in bold

Shanghai
Shanghai
massacre

Uprisings Autumn Harvest Baise Guangzhou Nanchang

Encirclement Campaigns First

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Second

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Third

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu

Ningdu uprising

Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Fourth

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu Soviet

Fifth

v. Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Soviet Hubei-Henan-Anhui

Long March

Luding Bridge

Intermission

Wannan

Opening Campaign Yetaishan S. Jiangsu Baoying Yongjiazhen Tianmen Linyi Wuhe Yinji Huaiyin-Huai'an Xinghua Dazhongji Lingbi Zhucheng Lishi Pingdu Taixing Shangdang Wuli Xiangshuikou Rugao Weiguangnuan Shicun Operation Beleaguer Houmajia Handan Pacification of NE China Shaobo Gaoyou Tangguo Houma 1st Siping 2nd Siping North China
China
Plain S. Tongpu Railway Datong Jining Longhai Dapu Ruhuang Dingtao Linfu Zhengtai Datong-Puzhou Huaiyin–Huai'an Yan'an Kalgan Lüliang Linjiang Guanzhong Beitashan S. Baoding Niangziguan Tang'erli Menglianggu Summer 1947, NE China Heshui 3rd Siping N. Baoding Nanlin Meridian Ridge N. Daqing River Autumn 1947, NE China Mt. Funiu Winter 1947, NE China

Gongzhutun

Phoenix Peak W. Tai'an Jingzhong Linfen Zhouzhang Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Yanzhou Shangcai Liaoshen

Changchun Jinzhou Tashan

Jinan Taiyuan Huaihai

Shuangduiji

Jiulianshan Pingjin

Tianjin

Bandits Suppression N.China C.S.China E.China Dabieshan NW.China Wupin SW.China Longquan N.Canton NE.Guizhou Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan W.Hunan Shiwandashan Liuwandashan W.Guangxi

Shanghai Lanzhou Ningxia Nanchuan Guangxi

Bobai

Chengdu Bamianshan Tianquan Yiwu KMT insurgency 1950-58 Burma- China
China
border

Island campaigns Quemoy Denbu Nan'ao Hainan
Hainan
Island Dongshan Wanshan Nanpeng Nanri Nanpeng Dalushan Dongshan Yijiangshan Dachen Dong-Yin

Chinese Civil War

Traditional Chinese 國共內戰

Simplified Chinese 国共内战

Literal meaning Kuomintang-Communist Civil War

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Guó-Gòng Nèizhàn

Wu

Romanization gho-gon-ne-tsan

Yue: Cantonese

Jyutping gwok3 gung6 noi6 zin3

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ kok-kiōng lāi-chiàn

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Politics portal

v t e

The Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China
China
and the Communist Party of China
China
(CPC). Although particular attention is paid to the four years of Chinese Communist Revolution
Revolution
from 1945 to 1949, the war actually started in August 1927, with the White Terror at the end of Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, and essentially ended when major hostilities between the two sides ceased in 1950.[9] The conflict took place in two stages: the first between 1927 and 1937, and the second from 1946 to 1950, with the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937–1945 separating them. The war marked a major turning point in modern Chinese history, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China
China
and establishing the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 and forced the Republic of China
China
(ROC) to retreat to Taiwan. It resulted in a lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait, with the ROC in Taiwan
Taiwan
and the PRC on mainland China
China
with both officially claiming to be the legitimate government of all China. The war represented an ideological split between the communist CPC and the nationalist KMT. Conflict continued intermittently until late 1937, when the two parties came together to form the Second United Front to counter the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
threat and to prevent the country from crumbling. Full-scale civil war in China
China
resumed in 1946, a year after the end of hostilities with the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in September 1945. Four years later came the cessation of major military activity, with the newly founded People's Republic of China controlling mainland China
China
(including the island of Hainan), and the Republic of China's jurisdiction restricted to Taiwan, Penghu, Quemoy, Matsu and several outlying islands. As of 2018[update] no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, and the debate continues as to whether the civil war has legally ended.[10] Relations between both sides, officially called the Cross-Strait relations, have been hindered by military threats and political and economic pressure, particularly over Taiwan's political status, with both governments officially adhering to the One-China policy. The PRC still actively claims Taiwan
Taiwan
as part of its territory and continues to threaten the ROC with a military invasion if the ROC officially declares independence by changing its name to and gaining international recognition as the "Republic of Taiwan". The ROC, for its part, claims mainland China, and both parties continue the fight over diplomatic recognition. As of 2018[update] the war as such occurs on the political and economic fronts in the relations without actual military action. However, the two separate governments in China
China
have close economic ties.[11]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
and KMT-CPC split

2 Communist insurgency (1927–1937) 3 Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945) 4 Immediate post-war clashes (1945–1946) 5 Resumed fighting (1946–1949)

5.1 Background and disposition of forces 5.2 Outbreak of war 5.3 Fighting subsides

6 Aftermath

6.1 Political fallout

7 Reasons for the Communist victory 8 Atrocities 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Background[edit]

History of the Republic of China
China
(ROC)

1912–1949 Mainland rule

Xinhai Revolution Provisional Gov't Beiyang Government Northern Expedition Shanghai
Shanghai
massacre Chinese Civil War Nationalist Government Second Sino-Japanese War Nanking Massacre

Constitutional government

1945–present Taiwan

Retrocession of Taiwan February 28 Incident White Terror Korean War First Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis Vietnam War Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis Project National Glory Three Noes Lieyu massacre Third Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis Anti-Secession Law 100th anniversary Sunflower Student Movement 2015 Ma–Xi meeting 2017 Summer Universiade

History of

China the PRC (1949–present) Taiwan
Taiwan
(geographical) Taipei Kaohsiung Beiping

Culture Economy Education Geography Politics

Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

v t e

Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, emerged from the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
as the leader of the Republic of China.

Following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, China
China
fell into a brief period of civil war before Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
assumed the presidency of the newly formed Republic of China.[11] The administration became known as the Beiyang Government, with its capital in Peking. After the death of Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
in 1916, the following years were characterized by the power struggle between different cliques in the former Beiyang Army. In the meantime, the Kuomintang, led by Sun Yat-sen, created a new government in Guangzhou to resist the rule of Beiyang Government
Beiyang Government
through a series of movements. Sun's efforts to obtain aid from the Western countries were ignored, thus he turned to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1921. For political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Communist Party of China, which would eventually found the People's Republic of China. Thus the struggle for power in China
China
began between the KMT and the CPC. In 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai
Shanghai
pledged Soviet assistance to China's unification.[12] The Sun-Joffe Manifesto was a declaration of cooperation among the Comintern, KMT and CPC.[12] Comintern
Comintern
agent Mikhail Borodin arrived in China
China
in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front.[5] In 1923, Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants from his Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
days, for several months of military and political study in the Soviet capital Moscow.[13] By 1924, Chiang became the head of the Whampoa Military Academy, and rose to prominence as Sun's successor as head of the KMT.[13] The Soviets provided the academy with much educational material, organization and equipment, including munitions.[13] They also provided education in many of the techniques for mass mobilization. With this aid, Sun was able to raise a dedicated "army of the party," with which he hoped to defeat the warlords militarily. CPC members were also present in the academy, and many of them became instructors, including Zhou Enlai, who was made a political instructor.[14] Communist members were allowed to join the KMT on an individual basis.[12] The CPC itself was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925.[15] As of 1923, the KMT had 50,000 members.[15] However, after Sun died in 1925, the KMT split into left- and right-wing movements. KMT members worried that the Soviets were trying to destroy the KMT from inside using the CPC. The CPC then began movements in opposition of the Northern Expedition, passing a resolution against it at a party meeting. Then, in March 1927, the KMT held its second party meeting where the Soviets helped pass resolutions against the Expedition and curbing Chiang's power. Soon, the KMT would be clearly divided. Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
and KMT-CPC split[edit]

NRA soldiers marching

In early 1927, the KMT-CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CPC and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the KMT government from Guangzhou
Guangzhou
to Wuhan, where communist influence was strong.[15] However, Chiang and Li Zongren, whose armies defeated warlord Sun Chuanfang, moved eastward toward Jiangxi. The leftists rejected Chiang's demand to eliminate Communist influence within KMT and Chiang denounced them for betraying Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People by taking orders from the Soviet Union. According to Mao Zedong, Chiang's tolerance of the CPC in the KMT camp decreased as his power increased.[16] On April 7, Chiang and several other KMT leaders held a meeting, during which they proposed that Communist activities were socially and economically disruptive and had to be undone for the Nationalist revolution to proceed. On April 12, in Shanghai, many Communist members in the KMT were purged through hundreds of arrests and executions[17] on the orders of General Bai Chongxi. The CPC referred to this as the April 12 Incident or Shanghai
Shanghai
Massacre.[18] This incident widened the rift between Chiang and Wang Jingwei, another warlord who controlled the city of Wuhan. Eventually, the left wing of the KMT also expelled CPC members from the Wuhan
Wuhan
government, which in turn was toppled by Chiang Kai-shek. The KMT resumed its campaign against warlords and captured Beijing
Beijing
in June 1928.[19] Soon, most of eastern China
China
was under the control of the Nanjing
Nanjing
central government, which received prompt international recognition as the sole legitimate government of China. The KMT government announced, in conformity with Sun Yat-sen, the formula for the three stages of revolution: military unification, political tutelage, and constitutional democracy.[20] Communist insurgency (1927–1937)[edit]

Communist insurgency (1927–1937)

Second National Revolutionary War (Mainland China)

Traditional Chinese 第二次國內革命戰爭

Simplified Chinese 第二次国内革命战争

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Dìèrcì Guónèi Gémìng Zhànzhēng

NRA troops firing artillery at Communist forces

Main article: Encirclement Campaigns On 1 August 1927, the Communist Party launched an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist government in Wuhan. This conflict led to the creation of the Red Army.[1][21] On August 4, the main forces of the Red Army left Nanchang
Nanchang
and headed southwards for an assault on Guangdong. Nationalist forces quickly reoccupied Nanchang
Nanchang
while the remaining members of the CPC in Nanchang
Nanchang
went into hiding.[1] A CPC meeting on August 7 confirmed the objective of the party is to seize the political power by force, but the CPC was quickly suppressed the next day on August 8 by the Nationalist government in Wuhan
Wuhan
led by Wang Jingwei. On August 14, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
announced his temporary retirement, as the Wuhan
Wuhan
faction and Nanjing
Nanjing
faction of the Kuomintang were allied once again with common goal of suppressing the Communist Party after the earlier split.[citation needed] Attempts were later made by the CPC to take the cities of Changsha, Shantou
Shantou
and Guangzhou. The Red Army consisting of mutinous former National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
(NRA) soldiers as well as armed peasants established control over several areas in southern China.[21] KMT forces continued to attempt to suppress the rebellions.[21] Then, in September, Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
was forced out of Wuhan. September also saw an unsuccessful armed rural insurrection, known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising, led by Mao Zedong.[22] Borodin then returned to the USSR in October via Mongolia. In November, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
went to Shanghai and invited Wang to join him. On December 11, the CPC started the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising, establishing a soviet there the next day, but lost the city by December 13 to a counter-attack under the orders of General Zhang Fakui. On December 16, Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
fled to France. There were now three capitals in China: the internationally recognized republic capital in Beijing, the CPC and left-wing KMT at Wuhan
Wuhan
and the right-wing KMT regime at Nanjing, which would remain the KMT capital for the next decade.[23][24] This marked the beginning of a ten-year armed struggle, known in mainland China
China
as the "Ten-Year Civil War" (十年内战) which ended with the Xi'an Incident
Xi'an Incident
when Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
was forced to form the Second United Front
Second United Front
against invading forces from Japan. In 1930 the Central Plains War
Central Plains War
broke out as an internal conflict of the KMT. It was launched by Feng Yuxiang, Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
and Wang Jingwei. The attention was turned to root out remaining pockets of Communist activity in a series of five encirclement campaigns.[25] The first and second campaigns failed and the third was aborted due to the Mukden Incident. The fourth campaign (1932–1933) achieved some early successes, but Chiang's armies were badly mauled when they tried to penetrate into the heart of Mao's Soviet Chinese Republic. During these campaigns, KMT columns struck swiftly into Communist areas, but were easily engulfed by the vast countryside and were not able to consolidate their foothold. Finally, in late 1934, Chiang launched a fifth campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Soviet region with fortified blockhouses.[26] Unlike previous campaigns in which they penetrated deeply in a single strike, this time the KMT troops patiently built blockhouses, each separated by about five miles, to surround the Communist areas and cut off their supplies and food sources.[26] In October 1934 the CPC took advantage of gaps in the ring of blockhouses (manned by the forces of a warlord ally of Chiang Kai-shek's, rather than regular KMT troops) and broke out of the encirclement. The warlord armies were reluctant to challenge Communist forces for fear of losing their own men and did not pursue the CPC with much fervor. In addition, the main KMT forces were preoccupied with annihilating Zhang Guotao's army, which was much larger than Mao's. The massive military retreat of Communist forces lasted a year and covered what Mao estimated as 12,500 km (25,000 Li); it became known as the Long March.[27] The Long March
Long March
was a military retreat taken on by the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
to evade the pursuit or attack of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
army. It consisted of a series of marches, during which numerous Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. Over the course of the march from Jiangxi
Jiangxi
the First Front Army, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Chiang Kai Shek's troops as their stronghold was in Jiangxi. The Communists, under the command of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and Zhou Enlai, "escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed over 9,000 kilometers over 370 days". The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China
China
by traveling west, and then northwards towards Shaanxi. "In November 1935, shortly after settling in northern Shaanxi, Mao officially took over Zhou Enlai's leading position in the Red Army. Following a major reshuffling of official roles, Mao became the chairman of the Military Commission, with Zhou and Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
as vice-chairmen." This marked Mao's position as the pre-eminent leader of the Party, with Zhou in second position to him.[citation needed] The march ended when the CPC reached the interior of Shaanxi. Zhang Guotao's army, which took a different route through northwest China, was largely destroyed by the forces of Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and his Chinese Muslim allies, the Ma clique. Along the way, the Communist army confiscated property and weapons from local warlords and landlords, while recruiting peasants and the poor, solidifying its appeal to the masses. Of the 90,000–100,000 people who began the Long March
Long March
from the Soviet Chinese Republic, only around 7,000–8,000 made it to Shaanxi.[28] The remnants of Zhang's forces eventually joined Mao in Shaanxi, but with his army destroyed, Zhang, even as a founding member of the CPC, was never able to challenge Mao's authority. Essentially, the great retreat made Mao the undisputed leader of the Communist Party of China. The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
used Khampa troops—who were former bandits—to battle the Communist Red Army as it advanced and to undermine local warlords who often refused to fight Communist forces to conserve their own strength. The KMT enlisted 300 "Khampa bandits" into its Consolatory Commission military in Sichuan, where they were part of the effort of the central government to penetrate and destabilize local Han warlords such as Liu Wenhui. The government was seeking to exert full control over frontier areas against the warlords. Liu had refused to battle the Communists in order to conserve his army. The Consolatory Commission forces were used to battle the Red Army, but they were defeated when their religious leader was captured by the Communists.[29] In 1936, Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
and Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
grew closer, with Zhang even suggesting that he join the CPC. However, this was turned down by the Comintern
Comintern
in the USSR. Later on, Zhou persuaded Zhang and Yang Hucheng, another warlord, to instigate the Xi'an Incident. Chiang was placed under house arrest and forced to stop his attacks on the Red Army, instead focusing on the Japanese threat.

The situation in China
China
in 1929: After the Northern Expedition, the KMT had direct control over east and central China, while the rest of China
China
proper as well as Manchuria
Manchuria
was under the control of warlords loyal to the Nationalist government.

Map showing the communist-controlled Soviet Zones of China
China
during and after the encirclement campaigns.

Route(s) taken by Communist forces during the Long March.

A Communist leader addressing survivors of the Long March.

Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945)[edit] Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War

Japanese occupation (red) of eastern China
China
near the end of the war, and Communist bases (striped)

During Japan's invasion and occupation of Manchuria
Manchuria
Chiang Kai-shek, who saw the CPC as a greater threat, refused to ally with them to fight against the Imperial Japanese Army. Chiang preferred to unite China
China
by eliminating the warlords and CPC forces first. He believed that he was still too weak to launch an offensive to chase out Japan and that China
China
needed time for a military build-up. Only after unification would it be possible for the KMT to mobilize a war against Japan. So he would rather ignore the discontent and anger among Chinese people at his policy of compromise with the Japanese, and ordered KMT generals Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
and Yang Hucheng
Yang Hucheng
to carry out suppression of the CPC; however, their provincial forces suffered significant casualties in battles with the Red Army.ref On 12 December 1936, the disgruntled Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
and Yang Hucheng conspired to kidnap Chiang and force him into a truce with the CPC. The incident became known as the Xi'an Incident.[30] Both parties suspended fighting to form a Second United Front
Second United Front
to focus their energies and fighting against the Japanese.[30] In 1937 Japan
Japan
launched its full-scale invasion of China
China
and its well-equipped troops overran KMT defenders in northern and coastal China. The alliance of CPC and KMT was in name only.[31] Unlike the KMT troops, CPC shunned conventional warfare and instead engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Japanese. The level of actual cooperation and coordination between the CPC and KMT during World War II was at best minimal.[31] In the midst of the Second United Front, the CPC and the KMT were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e., areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by Japanese puppet governments such as Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and the Reorganized National Government of China).[31] The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when clashes between Communist and KMT forces intensified. In December 1940 Chiang demanded that the CPC's New Fourth Army
New Fourth Army
evacuate Anhui
Anhui
and Jiangsu Provinces due to its provocation and harassment of KMT forces in this area. Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army
New Fourth Army
commanders complied. In 1941 they were ambushed by KMT forces during their evacuation, which led to several thousand deaths.[32] It also ended the Second United Front, which had been formed earlier to fight the Japanese.[32] Despite the intensified clashes between the CPC and KMT, countries such as the US and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
attempted to prevent a disastrous civil war. After the New Fourth Army
New Fourth Army
incident, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent special envoy Lauchlin Currie
Lauchlin Currie
to talk with Chiang Kai-shek and KMT party leaders to express their concern regarding the hostility between the two parties, with Currie stating that the only ones to benefit from a civil war would be the Japanese. In 1941 the Soviet Union, with its closer alliance to the CPC, also sent an imperative telegram to Mao warning that the civil war would also make the situation easier for the Japanese military. Due to the international community's efforts, there was a temporary and superficial peace. In 1943 Chiang attacked the CPC with the propaganda piece China's Destiny, which questioned the CPC's power after the war, while the CPC strongly opposed Chiang's leadership and referred to his regime as fascist in an attempt to generate a negative public image. Both leaders knew that a deadly battle had begun between themselves.[33] In general, developments in the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
were to the advantage of the CPC, as its guerrilla war tactics had won them popular support within the Japanese-occupied areas, while the KMT's had to defend the country against the main Japanese campaigns to take over the country, since it was the legal Chinese government, and this proved costly to Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and his troops. In 1944 Japan launched its last major offensive, Operation Ichi-Go, against the KMT that resulted in the severe weakening of Chiang's forces.[34] Also, the CPC suffered fewer losses through their guerrilla tactics. By the end of the war, the Red Army had grown to more than 1.3 million members, with a separate militia of over 2.6 million members. About one hundred million people lived in CPC-controlled zones. Immediate post-war clashes (1945–1946)[edit] Under the terms of the Japanese unconditional surrender dictated by the United States, Japanese troops were ordered to surrender to KMT troops and not to the CPC, which was present in some of the occupied areas.[35] In Manchuria, however, where the KMT had no forces, the Japanese surrendered to the Soviet Union. Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
ordered the Japanese troops to remain at their post to receive the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
and not surrender their arms to the Communists.[35] The first post-war peace negotiation was attended by both Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
in Chongqing
Chongqing
from 28 August 1945 and concluded on 10 October 1945 with the signing of Double Tenth Agreement.[36] Both sides stressed the importance of a peaceful reconstruction, but the conference did not produce any concrete results.[36] Battles between the two sides continued even as peace negotiations were in progress, until the agreement was reached in January 1946. However, large campaigns and full-scale confrontations between the CPC and Chiang's troops were temporarily avoided. In the last month of World War II
World War II
in East Asia, Soviet forces launched the huge Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation to attack the Japanese 2 million strong Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
in Manchuria
Manchuria
and along the Chinese-Mongolian border.[37] This operation destroyed the fighting capability of Japan's Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
in just 3 weeks and left the USSR occupying all of Manchuria
Manchuria
by the end of the war in a total power vacuum of local Chinese forces. Consequently, the 700,000 Japanese troops stationed in the region surrendered. Later in the year Chiang Kai-shek realized that he lacked the resources to prevent a CPC takeover of Manchuria
Manchuria
following the scheduled Soviet departure.[38] He therefore made a deal with the Russians to delay their withdrawal until he had moved enough of his best-trained men and modern material into the region; however, the Russians refused permission for the Nationalist troops to traverse its territory. KMT troops were then airlifted by the US to occupy key cities in North China, while the countryside was already dominated by the CPC. On 15 November 1945, an offensive began with the intent of preventing the CPC from strengthening its already strong base.[39] The Soviets spent the extra time systematically dismantling the extensive Manchurian industrial base (worth up to $2 billion) and shipping it back to their war-ravaged country.[38] Yang Kuisong, a Chinese historian, said that in 1945–46, during the Soviet Red Army
Soviet Red Army
Manchurian campaign, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin commanded Marshal Rodion Malinovsky
Rodion Malinovsky
to give Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
most Imperial Japanese Army weapons that were captured.[40] Chiang Kai-shek's forces pushed as far as Chinchow (Jinzhou) by 26 November 1945, meeting with little resistance. This was followed by a Communist offensive on the Shantung (Shandong) Peninsula that was largely successful, as all of the peninsula, except what was controlled by the US, fell to the Communists.[39] The truce fell apart in June 1946 when full-scale war between CPC and KMT forces broke out on June 26. China
China
then entered a state of civil war that lasted more than three years.[41] Resumed fighting (1946–1949)[edit]

Resumed fighting (1946–1949)

Third National Revolutionary War (Mainland China)

Traditional Chinese 第三次國內革命戰爭

Simplified Chinese 第三次国内革命战争

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Dìsāncì Guónèi Gémìng Zhànzhēng

War of Liberation (mainland China)

Traditional Chinese 解放戰爭

Simplified Chinese 解放战争

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng

Wu

Romanization chia-fhon-tsan-zen

Yue: Cantonese

Jyutping gaai2 fong3 zin3 zang1

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ kái-hòng chiàn-cheng

Anti-Communist Counter-insurgency War (Taiwan)

Traditional Chinese 反共戡亂戰爭

Simplified Chinese 反共戡乱战争

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Fǎngòng Kānluàn Zhànzhēng

Chinese People's Liberation War (mainland China)

Traditional Chinese 中國人民解放戰爭

Simplified Chinese 中国人民解放战争

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng

Shangdang Campaign
Shangdang Campaign
(1945)

Map showing Three Campaigns during Chinese civil war

Main article: Chinese Communist Revolution Background and disposition of forces[edit] By the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the power of the Communist Party grew considerably. Their main force grew to 1.2 million troops, backed with additional militia of 2 million, totalling 3.2 million troops. Mao was very pleased with the force and decided to go on full rampage against the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
which he viewed as 'western lapdogs' that will sell out the country when requested by the Americans. Their "Liberated Zone" in 1945 contained 19 base areas, including one-quarter of the country's territory and one-third of its population; this included many important towns and cities. Moreover, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
turned over all of its captured Japanese weapons and a substantial amount of their own supplies to the Communists, who received Northeastern China
China
from the Soviets as well.[42] In March 1946, despite repeated requests from Chiang, the Soviet Red Army under the command of Marshal Malinovsky continued to delay pulling out of Manchuria
Manchuria
while Malinovsky secretly told the CPC forces to move in behind them, which led to full-scale war for the control of the Northeast. These favorable conditions also facilitated many changes inside the Communist leadership: the more radical hard-line faction who wanted full military bloodshed and warfare to take-over China
China
finally gained the upper hand and defeated the careful opportunists.[43] Prior to giving control to Communist leaders, on March 27 Soviet diplomats requested a joint venture of industrial development with the Nationalist Party in Manchuria.[44] Although General Marshall stated that he knew of no evidence that the CPC was being supplied by the Soviet Union, the CPC was able to utilize a large number of weapons abandoned by the Japanese, including some tanks, but it was not until large numbers of well-trained KMT troops began surrendering and joining the Communist forces that the CPC was finally able to master the hardware.[45][46] However, despite the disadvantage in military hardware, the CPC's ultimate trump card was its land reform policy. The CPC continued to make the irresistible promise in the countryside to the massive number of landless and from hunger starving peasants that by fighting for the CPC they would be given their own land to grow crops once the victory was won.[47]

Nationalist warplanes being prepared for an air raid on Communist bases

This strategy enabled the CPC to access an almost unlimited supply of manpower for both combat and logistical purposes, despite suffering heavy casualties throughout many of the war's campaigns, man power continued to pour in massively. For example, during the Huaihai Campaign alone the CPC was able to mobilize 5,430,000 peasants to fight against the KMT forces.[48] After the war with the Japanese ended, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
quickly moved KMT troops to newly liberated areas to prevent Communist forces from receiving the Japanese surrender.[42] The US airlifted many KMT troops from central China
China
to the Northeast (Manchuria). President Harry Truman was very clear about what he described as "using the Japanese to hold off the Communists". In his memoirs he writes:

It was perfectly clear to us that if we told the Japanese to lay down their arms immediately and march to the seaboard, the entire country would be taken over by the Communists. We therefore had to take the unusual step of using the enemy as a garrison until we could airlift Chinese National troops to South China
China
and send Marines to guard the seaports. — President Truman[49]

Using the pretext of "receiving the Japanese surrender", business interests within the KMT government occupied most of the banks, factories and commercial properties, which had previously been seized by the Imperial Japanese Army.[42] They also conscripted troops at a brutal pace from the civilian population and hoarded supplies, preparing for a resumption of war with the Communists. These hasty and harsh preparations caused great hardship for the residents of cities such as Shanghai, where the unemployment rate rose dramatically to 37.5%.[42] The US strongly supported the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
forces. About 50,000 US soldiers were sent to guard strategic sites in Hupeh and Shandong. The US equipped and trained KMT troops, and transported Japanese and Koreans back to help KMT forces to occupy liberated zones as well as to contain Communist-controlled areas.[42] American aid included substantial amounts of mostly surplus military supplies; loans were made to the KMT.[50] Within less than two years after the Sino-Japanese War, the KMT had received $4.43 billion from the US—most of which was military aid.[42] Outbreak of war[edit]

Situation in 1947

Situation in the fall of 1948

Situation in the winter of 1948 and 1949

Situation in April to October 1949

As postwar negotiations between the Nationalist government in Nanjing and the Communist Party failed, the civil war between these two parties resumed. This stage of war is referred to in mainland China and Communist historiography as the "War of Liberation" (Chinese: 解放战争; pinyin: Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng). On 20 July 1946, Chiang Kai-shek launched a large-scale assault on Communist territory in North China
China
with 113 brigades (a total of 1.6 million troops).[42] This marked the first stage of the final phase in the Chinese Civil War. Knowing their disadvantages in manpower and equipment, the CPC executed a "passive defense" strategy. It avoided the strong points of the KMT army and was prepared to abandon territory in order to preserve its forces. In most cases the surrounding countryside and small towns had come under Communist influence long before the cities. The CPC also attempted to wear out the KMT forces as much as possible. This tactic seemed to be successful; after a year, the power balance became more favorable to the CPC. They wiped out 1.12 million KMT troops, while their strength grew to about two million men.[42]

The PLA enters Beijing
Beijing
in the Pingjin Campaign

In March 1947 the KMT achieved a symbolic victory by seizing the CPC capital of Yan'an.[51] The Communists counterattacked soon afterwards; on 30 June 1947 CPC troops crossed the Yellow River and moved to the Dabie Mountains
Dabie Mountains
area, restored and developed the Central Plain. At the same time, Communist forces also began to counterattack in Northeastern China, North China
China
and East China.[42] By late 1948, the CPC eventually captured the northern cities of Shenyang
Shenyang
and Changchun
Changchun
and seized control of the Northeast after suffering numerous setbacks while trying to take the cities, with the decisive Liaoshen Campaign.[52] The New 1st Army, regarded as the best KMT army, was forced to surrender after the CPC conducted a brutal six-month siege of Changchun
Changchun
that resulted in more than 150,000 civilian deaths from starvation.[53] The capture of large KMT units provided the CPC with the tanks, heavy artillery and other combined-arms assets needed to execute offensive operations south of the Great Wall. By April 1948 the city of Luoyang fell, cutting the KMT army off from Xi'an.[54] Following a fierce battle, the CPC captured Jinan
Jinan
and Shandong province on 24 September 1948. The Huaihai Campaign
Huaihai Campaign
of late 1948 and early 1949 secured east-central China
China
for the CPC.[52] The outcome of these encounters were decisive for the military outcome of the civil war.[52] The Pingjin Campaign
Pingjin Campaign
resulted in the Communist conquest of northern China. It lasted 64 days, from 21 November 1948, to 31 January 1949.[55] The PLA suffered heavy casualties while securing Zhangjiakou, Tianjin along with its port and garrison at Dagu and Beiping.[55] The CPC brought 890,000 troops from the northeast to oppose some 600,000 KMT troops.[54] There were 40,000 CPC casualties at Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou
alone. They in turn killed, wounded or captured some 520,000 KMT during the campaign.[55] After achieving decisive victory at Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin campaigns, the CPC wiped out 144 regular and 29 non-regular KMT divisions, including 1.54 million veteran KMT troops, which significantly reduced the strength of Nationalist forces.[42] Stalin initially favored a coalition government in postwar China, and tried to persuade Mao to stop the CPC from crossing the Yangtze and attacking the KMT positions south of the river.[56] Mao rejected Stalin's position and on 21 April, Communist began the Yangtze River Crossing Campaign. On 23 April they captured the KMT's capital, Nanjing.[27] The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing
Chongqing
until November 25, and then Chengdu
Chengdu
before retreating to Taiwan
Taiwan
on December 10. By late 1949 the People's Liberation Army was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet
Tibet
was left. In addition, the Ili Rebellion
Rebellion
was a Soviet-backed revolt by the Second East Turkestan Republic against the KMT from 1944–49, as the Mongolians in the People's Republic were in a border dispute with the Republic of China. A Chinese Muslim Hui cavalry regiment, the 14th Tungan Cavalry, was sent by the Chinese government to attack Mongol and Soviet positions along the border during the Pei-ta-shan Incident.[57][58] The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
made several last-ditch attempts to use Khampa troops against the Communists in southwest China. The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
formulated a plan in which three Khampa divisions would be assisted by the Panchen Lama to oppose the Communists.[59] Kuomintang
Kuomintang
intelligence reported that some Tibetan tusi chiefs and the Khampa Su Yonghe controlled 80,000 troops in Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet. They hoped to use them against the Communist army.[60]

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949.

Fighting subsides[edit]

The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing
Nanjing
(Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), then to Chongqing
Chongqing
(Chungking), Chengdu
Chengdu
(Chengtu) and finally, Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.

On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
with its capital at Beiping, which was renamed back to the former name Beijing. Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and approximately two million Nationalist soldiers retreated from mainland China
China
to the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
in December after the PLA advanced into the Sichuan province. Isolated Nationalist pockets of resistance remained in the area, but the majority of the resistance collapsed after the fall of Chengdu
Chengdu
on 10 December 1949, with some resistance continuing in the far south.[61] A PRC attempt to take the ROC-controlled island of Quemoy was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou, halting the PLA advance towards Taiwan.[62] In December 1949, Chiang proclaimed Taipei
Taipei
the temporary capital of the Republic of China
China
and continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority in China.

Communist conquest of Hainan
Hainan
Island in 1950

The Communists' other amphibious operations of 1950 were more successful: they led to the Communist conquest of Hainan
Hainan
Island in April 1950, capture of Wanshan Islands off the Guangdong coast (May–August 1950), Zhoushan Island
Zhoushan Island
off Zhejiang
Zhejiang
(May 1950).[63] Aftermath[edit]

Monument in memory of the crossing of the Yangtze in Nanjing

Main article: Cross-Strait relations See also: Political status of Taiwan Most observers expected Chiang's government to eventually fall to the imminent invasion of Taiwan
Taiwan
by the People's Liberation Army, and the US was initially reluctant in offering full support for Chiang in their final stand. US President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
announced on 5 January 1950 that the United States
United States
would not engage in any dispute involving the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait, and that he would not intervene in the event of an attack by the PRC.[64] The situation quickly changed after the onset of the Korean War
Korean War
in June 1950. This led to changing political climate in the US, and President Truman ordered the United States
United States
Seventh Fleet to sail to the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
as part of the containment policy against potential Communist advance.[65] In June 1949 the ROC declared a "closure" of all mainland China
China
ports and its navy attempted to intercept all foreign ships. The closure was from a point north of the mouth of Min River in Fujian
Fujian
to the mouth of the Liao River
Liao River
in Liaoning.[66] Since mainland China's railroad network was underdeveloped, north-south trade depended heavily on sea lanes. ROC naval activity also caused severe hardship for mainland China
China
fishermen.

"Forget not that you are in Jǔ"--a rock in Quemoy Island with Chiang Kai-shek's calligraphy signifying the retaking of one's homeland

After losing mainland China, a group of approximately 3,000 KMT Central soldiers retreated to Burma
Burma
and continued launching guerrilla attacks into south China
China
during the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Islamic Insurgency
Insurgency
in China
China
(1950–1958) and Campaign at the China– Burma
Burma
Border. Their leader, Gen. Li Mi, was paid a salary by the ROC government and given the nominal title of Governor of Yunnan. Initially, the US supported these remnants and the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
provided them with military aid. After the Burmese government appealed to the United Nations in 1953, the US began pressuring the ROC to withdraw its loyalists. By the end of 1954 nearly 6,000 soldiers had left Burma
Burma
and General Li declared his army disbanded. However, thousands remained, and the ROC continued to supply and command them, even secretly supplying reinforcements at times to maintain a base close to China. After the ROC complained to the United Nations
United Nations
against the Soviet Union for violating the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance to support the CPC, the UN General Assembly Resolution 505 was adopted on 1 February 1952, condemning the Soviet Union. Though viewed as a military liability by the US, the ROC viewed its remaining islands in Fujian
Fujian
as vital for any future campaign to defeat the PRC and retake mainland China. On 3 September 1954, the First Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis began when the PLA started shelling Quemoy and threatened to take the Dachen Islands in Zhejiang.[66] On 20 January 1955, the PLA took nearby Yijiangshan Island, with the entire ROC garrison of 720 troops killed or wounded defending the island. On January 24 of the same year, the United States
United States
Congress passed the Formosa Resolution authorizing the President to defend the ROC's offshore islands.[66] The First Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits crisis ended in March 1955 when the PLA ceased its bombardment. The crisis was brought to a close during the Bandung conference.[66] The Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis began on 23 August 1958 with air and naval engagements between PRC and ROC forces, leading to intense artillery bombardment of Quemoy (by the PRC) and Amoy (by the ROC), and ended on November of the same year.[66] PLA patrol boats blockaded the islands from ROC supply ships. Though the US rejected Chiang Kai-shek's proposal to bomb mainland China
China
artillery batteries, it quickly moved to supply fighter jets and anti-aircraft missiles to the ROC. It also provided amphibious assault ships to land supplies, as a sunken ROC naval vessel was blocking the harbor. On September 7 the US escorted a convoy of ROC supply ships and the PRC refrained from firing. The Third Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis in 1995–96 escalated tensions between both sides when the PRC tested a series of missiles not far from Taiwan, although, arguably, Beijing
Beijing
ran the test to shift the 1996 presidential election vote in favor of the KMT, already facing a challenge from the opposition Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
which did not agree with the "One China
China
Policy" shared by the CPC and KMT.[67] Political fallout[edit] Main articles: China
China
and the United Nations
United Nations
and United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly Resolution 2758 On 25 October 1971, the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly admitted the PRC and expelled the ROC, which had been a founding member of the United Nations
United Nations
and was one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. Representatives of Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
refused to recognise their accreditations as representatives of China
China
and left the assembly. Recognition for the People's Republic of China
China
soon followed from most other member nations, including the United States.[citation needed] By 1984 PRC and ROC began to de-escalate their diplomatic relations with each other, and cross-straits trade and investment has been growing ever since. The state of war was officially declared over by the ROC in 1991.[68] Despite the end of the hostilities, the two sides have never signed any agreement or treaty to officially end the war. According to Mao Zedong, there were three ways of "staving off imperialist intervention in the short term" during the continuation of the Chinese Revolution. The first was through a rapid completion of the military takeover of the country, and through showing determination and strength against "foreign attempts at challenging the new regime along its borders". The second was by "formalising a comprehensive military alliance with the Soviet Union", which would dedicate Soviet power to directly defending China
China
against its enemies; this aspect became extensively significant given the backdrop of the start of the Cold War. And finally the regime had to "root out its domestic opponents : the heads of secret societies, religious sects, independent unions, or tribal and ethic organisations." By destroying the basis of domestic reaction, Mao believed a safer world for the Chinese revolution to spread in would come into existence.[69] Under the new ROC president Lee Teng-hui, the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion
Rebellion
was renounced in May 1991, thus ending the chances of the Kuomintang's conquest to retake the mainland. With the election in 2000 of Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
candidate Chen Shui-bian, a party other than the KMT gained the presidency for the first time in Taiwan. The new president did not share the Chinese nationalist ideology of the KMT and CPC. This led to tension between the two sides, although trade and other ties such as the 2005 Pan-Blue visit continued to increase. Since the election of President Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
(KMT) in 2008, significant warming of relations has resumed between Taipei
Taipei
and Beijing, with high-level exchanges between the semi-official diplomatic organizations of both states such as the Chen-Chiang summit series. Although the Taiwan
Taiwan
straits remain a potential flash point, regular direct air links were established in 2009.[11] Reasons for the Communist victory[edit]

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Historian Odd Arne Westad
Odd Arne Westad
says the Communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and also because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China. Furthermore, his party was weakened in the war against the Japanese. Meanwhile, the Communists targeted different groups, such as peasants, and brought them to its corner.[70] Chiang wrote in his diary in June 1948 that the KMT had failed not because of external enemies but because of rot from within.[71] The USSR generally supported Chiang's forces. Stalin distrusted Mao, tried to block him from leadership as late as 1942, and worried that Mao would become an independent rival force in world communism.[72] Strong American support for the Nationalists was hedged with the failure of the Marshall Mission, and then stopped completely mainly because of KMT corruption [73] (such as the notorious Yangtze Development Corporation [74] controlled by H.H. Kung
H.H. Kung
and T. V. Soong's family) [75] and KMT's military setback in Northeast China. Communist land reform policy promised poor peasants farmland from their landlords, ensuring popular support for the PLA. The main advantage of the Chinese Communist Party was the "extraordinary cohesion" within the top level of its leadership. These skills were not only secured from defections that came about during difficult times but also coupled with "communications and top level debates over tactics". A big addition to this was the charismatic style of leadership of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
which created a "unity of purpose" and a "unity of command" which the KMT lacked majorly. Apart from that the CPC had mastered the manipulation of local politics to their benefit, this was also derived from their propaganda skills that had also been decentralised successfully. By "portraying their opponents as enemies of all groups of Chinese" and itself as "defenders of the nation" and people (given the backdrop of the war with Japan).[76] In the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
after 1945, the economy in the ROC areas collapsed because of hyperinflation and the failure of price controls by the ROC government and financial reforms; the Gold Yuan devaluated sharply in late 1948 [77] and resulted in the ROC government losing the support of the cities' middle classes. In the meantime, the Communists continued their relentless land reform (land redistribution) programs to win the support of the population in the countryside. Atrocities[edit] During the war both the Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.[78] Benjamin Valentino has estimated atrocities in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
resulted in the death of between 1.8 million and 3.5 million people between 1927 and 1949. Atrocities include deaths from forced conscription and massacres.[79][better source needed] See also[edit]

War portal China
China
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

List of wars involving the People's Republic of China

Notes[edit]

^ The conflict did not have an official end date. However, historians generally agree that the war subsided after the fall in May 1950 of Hainan
Hainan
and the Zhoushan archipelago, the KMT's last major strongholds near the mainland.[3]

References[edit]

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China
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(Harvard University Press), p 134. ^ Lynch, Michael Lynch. Clausen, Søren. [2003] (2003). Mao. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21577-3. ^ a b Manwaring, Max G. Joes, Anthony James. [2000] (2000). Beyond Declaring Victory and Coming Home: The Challenges of Peace and Stability operations. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-96768-9. pg 58 ^ a b Zhang, Chunhou. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [2002] (2002). Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. Lexington books. ISBN 0-7391-0406-3. p 65, p 58 ^ Bianco, Lucien. Bell, Muriel. [1971] (1971). Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915–1949. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0827-4. pg 68 ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Kourney to the West. Volume 67 of Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 52. ISBN 0-415-58264-4. Retrieved 2011-12-27. A force of about 300 soldiers was organized and augmented by recruiting local Khampa bandits into the army. The relationship between the Consolatory Commission and Liu Wenhui
Liu Wenhui
seriously deteriorated in early 1936, when the Norla Hutuktu  ^ a b Ye, Zhaoyan Ye, Berry, Michael. [2003] (2003). Nanjing
Nanjing
1937: A Love Story. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12754-5. ^ a b c Buss, Claude Albert. [1972] (1972). Stanford Alumni Association. The People's Republic of China
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and the Cold War. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-807-84932-4. ^ Lary, Diana. [2007] (2007). China's Republic. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84256-5. ^ a b Zarrow, Peter Gue. [2005] (2005). China
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in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36447-7. pg 338. ^ a b Xu, Guangqiu. [2001] (2001). War Wings: The United States
United States
and Chinese Military Aviation, 1929–1949. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32004-7. pg 201. ^ Bright, Richard Carl. [2007] (2007). Pain and Purpose in the Pacific: True Reports of War. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4251-2544-1. ^ a b Lilley, James. China
China
hands : nine decades of adventure, espionage, and diplomacy in Asia , PublicAffairs, New York, 2004 ^ a b Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945–1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5.  ^ D 杨奎松《读史求实》:苏联给了林彪东北野战军多少现代武器 Archived September 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hu, Jubin. [2003] (2003). Projecting a Nation: Chinese National Cinema Before 1949. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-610-7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nguyễn Anh Thái (chief author); Nguyễn Quốc Hùng; Vũ Ngọc Oanh; Trần Thị Vinh; Đặng Thanh Toán; Đỗ Thanh Bình (2002). Lịch sử thế giới hiện đại (in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh City: Giáo Dục Publisher. pp. 320–322. 8934980082317.  ^ Michael M Sheng, Battling Western Imperialism, Princeton University Press, 1997, p.132 – 135 ^ Liu, Shiao Tang (1978). Min Kuo Ta Shih Jih Chih. 2. Taipei: Zhuan Chi Wen Shuan. p. 735.  ^ New York Times, 12 January 1947, p44. ^ Zeng Kelin, Zeng Kelin jianjun zishu (General Zeng Kelin Tells his story), Liaoning
Liaoning
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Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage, and Diplomacy in Asia. ISBN 1-58648-136-3. ^ a b c Westad, Odd Arne. [2003] (2003). Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4484-X. p 192-193. ^ Pomfret, John. Red Army Starved 150,000 Chinese Civilians, Books Says. Associated Press; The Seattle Times. 2009-10-02. URL:http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19901122&slug=1105487. Accessed: 2009-10-02. (Archived by WebCite at https://www.webcitation.org/5kEN5bTlE?url=http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date%3D19901122%26slug%3D1105487 ^ a b Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21473-4. ^ a b c Finkelstein, David Michael. Ryan, Mark A. McDevitt, Michael. [2003] (2003). Chinese Warfighting: The PLA Experience Since 1949. M.E. Sharpe. China. ISBN 0-7656-1088-4. p. 63. ^ Donggil Kim, "Stalin and the Chinese Civil War." Cold War
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Summary of Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
1946-1949 Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
1945–1950 "Armored Car Like Oil Tanker Used by Chinese" Popular Mechanics, March 1930 article and photo of armoured train of Chinese Civil War Topographic maps of China
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v t e

Chinese Civil War

Principal belligerents and campaigns

Nationalist Party /  Republic of China
China
( National Revolutionary Army → Republic of China
China
Armed Forces)

Communist Party /  People's Republic of China
China
( Red Army → 8th Route Army, N4A, etc. → People's Liberation Army)

Pre-1945 Post-1945 Current issues

1924 First United Front

1927 Shanghai
Shanghai
massacre Nanchang
Nanchang
uprising Autumn Harvest Uprising Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising

1929 Sino-Soviet conflict

1930–1934 Encirclement Campaigns

1931–1934 Chinese Soviet Republic

1933–1934 Fujian
Fujian
People's Government

1934–1936 Long March

1936 Xi'an Incident

1937–1946 Second United Front

1945 Chongqing
Chongqing
Negotiations

1945 Double Tenth Agreement

1946 Jiaochangkou Incident

1945–1949 Operation Beleaguer

1946–1949 Revolution

1948 SS Kiangya
SS Kiangya
Incident

1948 Liaoshen Campaign

1948–1949 Huaihai Campaign

1948–1949 Pingjin Campaign

1949 Taiping Steamer Incident

1949 Yangtze River Crossing Campaign

1950–1958 Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Islamic insurgency

1950 Hainan
Hainan
Island Campaign

1950 Wanshan Archipelago Campaign

1950 Battle of Chamdo

1951 Incorporation of Tibet

1955 First Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis

1958 Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis (Jinmen Crisis)

1960–1961 China– Burma
Burma
border

1996 Third Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis

2005–present Pan-Blue visits

Political status of Taiwan Tibetan Government-in-Exile Chinese unification Hong Kong independence
Hong Kong independence
movement Inner Mongolian independence movement Manchurian independence movement Taiwan
Taiwan
independence movement Tibetan independence movement East Turkestan independence movement Cross-Strait relations

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution
Revolution
of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait
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Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution
Revolution
of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

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Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution
Revolution
(Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution
Revolution
of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

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Foreign policy

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Ideologies

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Communism

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Organizations

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Propaganda

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Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
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Cold War
II

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