The Dongfeng 5, or DF5 for short, (Chinese: 东风5) is a diesel-electric locomotive used by China Railways in the People's Republic of China. It has been in production since 1976 and is still produced as of 2006 by several local companies. It is the most common road switcher in China and is used for mainline freight and road switching services. A small number are also in service with the Korean State Railway in North Korea.


In 1975, to meet a need for new and more powerful road switchers, the Tangshan Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works, the Dalian Locomotive Works and the Dalian Locomotive Research Institute began a cooperative development effort on a new engine based on the 16V240ZJ diesel engine used in the Dongfeng 4, to be used in the development of a new locomotive, the DF5.

By the end of 1975, the Tangshan and Dalian plants completed a successful trial of the first Model 8240Z inline 8-cylinder diesel engine, including a variety of performance tests and a 100-hour reliability test; the 8240Z was essentially half of a 16V240ZJ, producing 1,230 kilowatts (1,650 hp). In January 1976, the first DF5, DF5 0001, was rolled out at Tangshan. The DF5 has many features in common with the DF4, such as the bogies, the electrical system and other major components. DF5 0001 subsequently underwent testing at Fengtai West Station yard, which provided data for further enhancements to improve the performance and reliability of the locomotive.

On 26 July 1976, the day before the Tangshan earthquake, the second unit, DF5 0002, was completed.[1] The factory was severely damaged in the quake, and over 1,700 employees were killed; despite this, less than two months later, in September 1976 the second unit left the factory, and production work resumed. Between the end of 1976 and 1979, a temporary facility was erected at the Tangshan plant, where 25 DF5s were then produced. This early batch of DF5s has since been nicknamed "Earthquake." By 1981, the Tangshan plant had produced 32 locomotives of the type.

The units produced after the earthquake suffered from relatively poor quality of the main components, the poor matching of the turbocharger with the diesel engine, poor performance and other problems. To further improve the DF5, the Ministry of Railways halted the production of DF5s at Tangshan, the Dalian Locomotive Works began work on redesigning the locomotive and the 8240Z diesel engine.

In 1983, the Dalian works redesigned the 8-cylinder inline 8240Z, turning it into a V8 with equal performance, designated 8240ZJ; in 1984, the first Dalian-built unit, DF5 1001, left the factory and was assigned to the Jinan locomotive depot for service testing. The redesigned locomotive not only eliminated the excessive vibration and other shortcomings, but improved significantly upon the initial and continuous tractive effort.[2]

By an order of the Industrial Development Bureau of the Ministry of Railways, the improved DF5 was ordered into full serial production at the Qingdao Sifang Locomotive Works.[3]

From 1994, new DF5s were built with the improved 8240ZJC engine, producing 1,320 kilowatts (1,770 hp); a total of 251 were built (numbers 1701 to 1951). In 1989, Sifang produced 26 units for operation along the Sino-Soviet border. Of these, eleven (numbers 4001 to 4011) were built for operation on Russian-gauge track (1,524 millimetres (5 ft 0 in)), the remaining 25 (numbers 5001-5015) were for standard-gauge use. These are assigned to the locomotive depots at Ürümqi, Jining and Mudanjiang.[3]

In 2001, Sifang developed a much improved version of the DF5 that addressed many of the problems associated with the previous types. By 2006, 132 locomotives of the new design had been built (numbers 1952 to 2083).

As of 2006, Tangshan, Dalian and Sifang have produced over 1,100 locomotives of class DF5 between them.

Running Numbers Quantity Builder Build Years Remarks Photo
0001-0032 32 Tangshan 1976-1981
DF5 0007 at the Beijing Railway Museum
1001 1 Dalian 1984
1002-1700 699 Sifang 1984-1994
DF5 1134
1701-1951 251 Sifang 1994-2001 8240ZJC diesel engine
DF5 1765 at Xinjin
1952-2083 132 Sifang 2001-2006 Improved DF5
DF5 2025 at Nanchang
4001-4011 11 Sifang 1989-1991 Broad-gauge border type
5001-5015 15 Sifang 1989-1991 Standard-gauge border type
6001-6005 5 Dalian 1991 For Liaoning Jinxi Natural Gas Chemical Plant

Preserved Units

North Korea

내연101 at P'yŏngyang Central Station.

At least eight units have been delivered second-hand to the Korean State Railway, where they work on local passenger and freight as well as shunting duties around North Korea, including at P'yŏngyang and Namyang.[4] They are numbered 내연101 to 내연108 (내연 = Naeyŏn, "internal combustion") and retain the blue and white China Railways livery.


  1. ^ "《走遍中国》——百年工业重地:唐山". 中国中央电视台. 2006-07-26. 
  2. ^ 李炳华 (1995). "东风4系列机车的研制与发展". 《内燃机车》. 大连: 大连机车研究所. 253: 4–17. ISSN 1003-1820. 
  3. ^ a b 四方機車車輛廠史志編纂委員會 (1996). 《四方机车车辆厂志 (1900-1993)》. 
  4. ^ Kokubu, Hayato, 将軍様の鉄道 (Shōgun-sama no Tetsudō), ISBN 978-4-10-303731-6

External links