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The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli[1]) from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
chīlli Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈt͡ʃiːli] ( listen)) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[2] They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico.[3] After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced.[4] China
China
is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.

Contents

1 History 2 Production 3 Species and cultivars 4 Intensity

4.1 Common peppers 4.2 Notable hot chili peppers

5 Uses

5.1 Culinary uses 5.2 Ornamental plants 5.3 Psychology 5.4 Medicinal 5.5 Pepper spray 5.6 Crop defense 5.7 Food defense

6 Nutritional value 7 Spelling and usage 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Pottery that tested positive for Capsicum
Capsicum
sp. residues excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico
Mexico
dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE)

Chili peppers have been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BCE. The most recent research shows that chili peppers were domesticated more than 6000 years ago in Mexico, in the region that extends across southern Puebla
Puebla
and northern Oaxaca
Oaxaca
to southeastern Veracruz,[5] and were one of the first self-pollinating crops cultivated in Mexico, Central and parts of South America.[6] Peru is considered the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity because it is a center of diversification where varieties of all five domesticates were introduced, grown, and consumed in pre-Columbian times. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum
Capsicum
peppers are consumed. Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms: ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. eximium, C. cardenasii, C. eshbaughii, and C. caballeroi landraces; and arivivis with small elongated fruits including C. baccatum var. baccatum and C. chacoense varieties.[7] Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because they, like black pepper of the Piper genus known in Europe, have a spicy, hot taste unlike other foodstuffs. Upon their introduction into Europe, chilies were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries. Christian monks experimented with the culinary potential of chili and discovered that their pungency offered a substitute for black peppercorns.[8]

Red Cubanelle
Cubanelle
chili peppers

Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Indigenous people shared them with travelers.[9][10] Diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus' second voyage to the West Indies
West Indies
in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain
Spain
and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. The spread of chili peppers to Asia was most likely a natural consequence of its introduction to Portuguese traders[verification needed] (Lisbon was a common port of call for Spanish ships sailing to and from the Americas) who, aware of its trade value, would have likely promoted its commerce in the Asian spice trade routes then dominated by Portuguese and Arab traders.[11] It was introduced in India
India
by the Portuguese towards the end of 15th century.[12] Today chilies are an integral part of South Asian
South Asian
and Southeast Asian cuisines. The chili pepper features heavily in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, which was the site of a Portuguese colony (e.g., vindaloo, an Indian interpretation of a Portuguese dish). Chili peppers journeyed from India,[13] through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where they became the national spice in the form of paprika. An alternate, although not so plausible account (no obvious correlation between its dissemination in Asia and Spanish presence or trade routes), defended mostly by Spanish historians, was that from Mexico, at the time a Spanish colony, chili peppers spread into their other colony the Philippines
Philippines
and from there to India, China, Indonesia. To Japan, it was brought by the Portuguese missionaries in 1542, and then later, it was brought to Korea. In 1995 archaeobotanist Hakon Hjelmqvist published an article in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift claiming there was evidence for the presence of chili peppers in Europe in pre-Columbian times.[14] According to Hjelmqvist, archaeologists at a dig in St Botulf in Lund
Lund
found a Capsicum
Capsicum
frutescens in a layer from the 13th century. Hjelmqvist thought it came from Asia. Hjelmqvist also said that Capsicum
Capsicum
was described by the Greek Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(370–286 BCE) in his Historia Plantarum, and in other sources. Around the first century CE, the Roman poet Martialis
Martialis
(Martial) mentioned "Piperve crudum" (raw pepper) in Liber XI, XVIII, allegedly describing them as long and containing seeds (a description which seems to fit chili peppers - but could also fit the long pepper, which was well known to ancient Romans). Production[edit]

Green chili production – 2014

Country (millions of tonnes)

 China

16.1

 Mexico

2.7

 Turkey

2.1

 Indonesia

1.9

 India

1.5

 Spain

1.1

 United States

0.9

World

33.2

Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[4]

In 2014, world production of fresh green chillies and peppers was 33.2 million tonnes, led by China
China
with 48% of the global total.[4] Global production of dried chillies and peppers was about nine times less than for fresh production, led by India
India
with 32% of the world total.[4] Species and cultivars[edit] See also: List of Capsicum
Capsicum
cultivars

Thai pepper, similar in variety to the African birdseye, exhibits considerable strength for its size

The five domesticated species of chili peppers are as follows:

Capsicum
Capsicum
annuum, which includes many common varieties such as bell peppers, wax, cayenne, jalapeños, chiltepin, and all forms of New Mexico
Mexico
chile. Capsicum
Capsicum
frutescens, which includes malagueta, tabasco and Thai peppers, piri piri, and Malawian Kambuzi Capsicum
Capsicum
chinense, which includes the hottest peppers such as the naga, habanero, Datil and Scotch bonnet Capsicum
Capsicum
pubescens, which includes the South American rocoto peppers Capsicum
Capsicum
baccatum, which includes the South American aji peppers

Though there are only a few commonly used species, there are many cultivars and methods of preparing chili peppers that have different names for culinary use. Green and red bell peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum, immature peppers being green. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano (which when dried is referred to as ancho), New Mexico, serrano, and other cultivars. Peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings: bell peppers, sweet peppers, and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them. Intensity[edit]

A display of hot peppers and a board explaining the Scoville scale
Scoville scale
at a Houston, Texas, grocery store

The substances that give chili peppers their pungency (spicy heat) when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids.[15][16] The quantity of capsaicin varies by variety, and on growing conditions. Water stressed peppers usually produce stronger pods. When a habanero plant is stressed, for example low water, the concentration of capsaicin increases in some parts of the fruit.[17] When peppers are consumed, capsaicin binds with pain receptors in the mouth and throat, potentially evoking pain via spinal relays to the brainstem and thalamus where heat and discomfort are perceived.[18] The intensity of the "heat" of chili peppers is commonly reported in Scoville heat units (SHU). Historically, it was a measure of the dilution of an amount of chili extract added to sugar syrup before its heat becomes undetectable to a panel of tasters; the more it has to be diluted to be undetectable, the more powerful the variety, and therefore the higher the rating.[19] The modern method is a quantitative analysis of SHU using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to directly measure the capsaicinoid content of a chili pepper variety. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, and crystalline-to-waxy solid at room temperature, and measures 16,000,000 SHU. Common peppers[edit]

Red Bhut Jolokia and green bird's eye chilies

A wide range of intensity is found in commonly used peppers:

Bell pepper 0 SHU

New Mexico
Mexico
green chile 0 - 70,000 SHU

Fresno, jalapeño 3,500-10,000 SHU

Cayenne 30,000-50,000 SHU

Piri piri 50,000-100,000 SHU

Habanero, Scotch bonnet, bird's eye 100,000–350,000 SHU[20]

Notable hot chili peppers[edit] Some of the world's hottest chili peppers are:

Wales

Dragon's Breath

2.4M SHU[21]

United States

Carolina Reaper

2.2M SHU[22]

Trinidad

Trinidad moruga scorpion

2.0M SHU[23]

India

Bhut jolokia
Bhut jolokia
(Ghost pepper)

1.58M SHU[24]

Trinidad

Trinidad Scorpion Butch T

1.463M SHU[25]

England

Naga Viper

1.4M SHU[26]

England

Infinity chili

1.2M SHU[27]

Uses[edit] Culinary uses[edit]

Smoke-dried chipotle

Chilies at a market in India

Sambal
Sambal
is the name for chili pastes in Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean cuisine

Thai curry
Thai curry
pastes contain large amounts of chilies

Chili pepper
Chili pepper
pods, which are berries, are used fresh or dried. Chilies are dried to preserve them for long periods of time, which may also be done by pickling. Dried chilies are often ground into powders, although many Mexican dishes including variations on chiles rellenos use the entire chili. Dried whole chilies may be reconstituted before grinding to a paste. The chipotle is the smoked, dried, ripe jalapeño. Many fresh chilies such as poblano have a tough outer skin that does not break down on cooking. Chilies are sometimes used whole or in large slices, by roasting, or other means of blistering or charring the skin, so as not to entirely cook the flesh beneath. When cooled, the skins will usually slip off easily. The leaves of every species of Capsicum
Capsicum
are edible. Though almost all other Solanaceous crops have toxins in their leaves, chili peppers do not.[citation needed] The leaves, which are mildly bitter and nowhere near as hot as the fruit, are cooked as greens in Filipino cuisine, where they are called dahon ng sili (literally "chili leaves"). They are used in the chicken soup tinola.[28] In Korean cuisine, the leaves may be used in kimchi.[29] In Japanese cuisine, the leaves are cooked as greens, and also cooked in tsukudani style for preservation. Chili is a staple fruit in Bhutan. Bhutanese call this crop ema (in Dzongkha) or solo (in Sharchop). The ema datsi recipe is entirely made of chili mixed with local cheese. In India, most households always keep a stock of fresh hot green chilies at hand, and use them to flavor most curries and dry dishes. It is typically lightly fried with oil in the initial stages of preparation of the dish. Some states in India, such as Rajasthan, make entire dishes only by using spices and chilies.[citation needed] Chilies are present in many cuisines. Some notable dishes other than the ones mentioned elsewhere in this article include:

Arrabbiata sauce
Arrabbiata sauce
from Italy is a tomato-based sauce for pasta always including dried hot chilies. Puttanesca sauce is tomato-based with olives, capers, anchovy and, sometimes, chilies. Paprikash from Hungary uses significant amounts of mild, ground, dried chilies, known as paprika, in a braised chicken dish. Chiles en nogada
Chiles en nogada
from the Puebla
Puebla
region of Mexico
Mexico
uses fresh mild chilies stuffed with meat and covered with a creamy nut-thickened sauce. Curry
Curry
dishes usually contain fresh or dried chillies. Kung pao chicken
Kung pao chicken
(Mandarin Chinese: 宫保鸡丁 gōng bǎo jī dīng) from the Sichuan
Sichuan
region of China
China
uses small hot dried chilies briefly fried in oil to add spice to the oil then used for frying. Mole poblano
Mole poblano
from the city of Puebla
Puebla
in Mexico
Mexico
uses several varieties of dried chilies, nuts, spices, and fruits to produce a thick, dark sauce for poultry or other meats. Nam phrik
Nam phrik
are traditional Thai chili pastes and sauces, prepared with chopped fresh or dry chilies, and additional ingredients such as fish sauce, lime juice, and herbs, but also fruit, meat or seafood. 'Nduja, a more typical example of Italian spicy specialty, from the region of Calabria, is a soft pork sausage made "hot" by the addition of the locally grown variety of jalapeño chili. Paprykarz szczeciński
Paprykarz szczeciński
is a Polish fish paste with rice, onion, tomato concentrate, vegetable oil, chili pepper powder and other spices. Sambal
Sambal
terasi or sambal belacan is a traditional Indonesian and Malay hot condiment made by frying a mixture of mainly pounded dried chillies, with garlic, shallots, and fermented shrimp paste. It is customarily served with rice dishes and is especially popular when mixed with crunchy pan-roasted ikan teri or ikan bilis (sun-dried anchovies), when it is known as sambal teri or sambal ikan bilis. Various sambal variants existed in Indonesian archipelago, among others are sambal badjak, sambal oelek, sambal pete (prepared with green stinky beans) and sambal pencit (prepared with unripe green mango). Som tam, a green papaya salad from Thai and Lao cuisine, traditionally has, as a key ingredient, a fistful of chopped fresh hot Thai chili, pounded in a mortar.

Fresh or dried chilies are often used to make hot sauce, a liquid condiment—usually bottled when commercially available—that adds spice to other dishes. Hot sauces are found in many cuisines including harissa from North Africa, chili oil from China
China
(known as rāyu in Japan), and sriracha from Thailand. Capsaicin
Capsaicin
is also the primary component in pepper spray, a less-than-lethal weapon. Ornamental plants[edit] The contrast in colour and appearance makes chili plants interesting to some as a purely decorative garden plant.

Black pearl pepper: small cherry-shaped fruits and dark brown to black leaves

Black pearl pepper

Black Hungarian pepper: green foliage, highlighted by purple veins and purple flowers, jalapeño-shaped fruits [30] Bishop's crown
Bishop's crown
pepper, Christmas bell pepper: named for its distinct three-sided shape resembling a red bishop’s crown or a red Christmas bell[31]

Psychology[edit] Psychologist Paul Rozin suggests that eating chilies is an example of a "constrained risk" like riding a roller coaster, in which extreme sensations like pain and fear can be enjoyed because individuals know that these sensations are not actually harmful. This method lets people experience extreme feelings without any risk of bodily harm.[32] Medicinal[edit] Capsaicin, the chemical in chili peppers that makes them hot, is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays, and dermal patches to relieve pain.[33] Pepper spray[edit] Main article: Pepper spray Capsaicin
Capsaicin
extracted from chilies is used in pepper spray as an irritant, a form of less-lethal weapon. Crop defense[edit] Conflicts between farmers and elephants have long been widespread in African and Asian countries, where elephants nightly destroy crops, raid grain houses, and sometimes kill people. Farmers have found the use of chilies effective in crop defense against elephants. Elephants do not like capsaicin, the chemical in chilies that makes them hot. Because the elephants have a large and sensitive olfactory and nasal system, the smell of the chili causes them discomfort and deters them from feeding on the crops. By planting a few rows of the pungent fruit around valuable crops, farmers create a buffer zone through which the elephants are reluctant to pass. Chilly-Dung Bombs are also used for this purpose. They are bricks made of mixing dung and chili, and are burned, creating a noxious smoke that keeps hungry elephants out of farmers' fields. This can lessen dangerous physical confrontation between people and elephants.[34] Food defense[edit] Birds do not have the same sensitivity to capsaicin, because it targets a specific pain receptor in mammals. Chili peppers are eaten by birds living in the chili peppers' natural range, possibly contributing to seed dispersal and evolution of the protective capsaicin in chili peppers.[35] Nutritional value[edit]

Peppers, hot chili, red, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 166 kJ (40 kcal)

Carbohydrates

8.8 g

Sugars 5.3 g

Dietary fiber 1.5 g

Fat

0.4 g

Protein

1.9 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv. beta-Carotene

(6%) 48 μg

(5%) 534 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(39%) 0.51 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(173%) 144 mg

Minerals

Iron

(8%) 1 mg

Magnesium

(6%) 23 mg

Potassium

(7%) 322 mg

Other constituents

Water 88 g

Capsaicin 0.01g – 6 g

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

While red chilies contain large amounts of vitamin C (table), other species contain significant amounts of provitamin A beta-carotene.[36] In addition, peppers are a rich source of vitamin B6 (see table). Spelling and usage[edit] The three primary spellings are chili, chile and chilli, all of which are recognized by dictionaries.

Chili is widely used in historically Anglophone regions of the United States[37] and Canada.[38] However, it is also commonly used as a short name for chili con carne (literally "chili with meat"). Most versions are seasoned with chili powder, which can refer to pure dried, ground chili peppers, or to a mixture containing other spices. Chile
Chile
is the most common Spanish spelling in Mexico
Mexico
and several other Latin American countries,[39] as well as some parts of the United States and Canada, which refers specifically to this plant and its fruit. In the Southwest United States
United States
(particularly New Mexico), chile also denotes a thick, spicy, un-vinegared sauce made from this fruit, available in red and green varieties, and served over the local food, while chili denotes the meat dish. The plural is chile or chiles. Chilli was the original Romanization
Romanization
of the Náhuatl language
Náhuatl language
word for the fruit (chīlli) and is the preferred British spelling according to the Oxford English Dictionary, although it also lists chile and chili as variants.[40] Chilli (and its plural chillies) is the most common spelling in Australia, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore and South Africa.[41][42]

The name of the plant is almost certainly unrelated to that of Chile, the country, which has an uncertain etymology perhaps relating to local place names.[43] Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
are some of the Spanish-speaking countries where chilies are known as ají, a word of Taíno origin. Though pepper originally referred to the genus Piper, not Capsicum, the latter usage is included in English dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(sense 2b of pepper) and Merriam-Webster.[44] The word pepper is also commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of chili plants and their fruits. Gallery[edit]

The habanero pepper

Immature chilies in the field

The Black Pearl cultivar

Cubanelle
Cubanelle
peppers

Scotch bonnet
Scotch bonnet
chili peppers in a Caribbean
Caribbean
market

Chili peppers drying in Kathmandu, Nepal

Removing veins and seeds from dried chilies in San Pedro Atocpan

Dried chili pepper flakes and fresh chilies

Chili pepper
Chili pepper
dip in a traditional restaurant in Amman, Jordan

Dried Thai bird's eye chilies

Green chilies

Guntur chilli
Guntur chilli
drying in the sun, Andhra Pradesh, India

Sundried chilli at Imogiri, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

New Mexico
Mexico
chiles dried on the plant in Mesilla, New Mexico

Chili pepper
Chili pepper
wine from Virginia

See also[edit]

Food portal

Chili grenade, a type of weapon made with chili peppers Dragon's Breath (chili pepper) Hatch, New Mexico, known as the " Chile
Chile
Capital of the World" History of chocolate, which the Mayans drank with ground chili peppers Peppersoup Ristra, an arrangement of dried chili pepper pods Sweet chili sauce, a condiment for adding a sweet, mild heat taste to food Taboo food and drink, which in some cultures includes chili peppers

References[edit]

^ Dasgupta, Reshmi R (8 May 2011). "Indian chilli displacing jalapenos in global cuisine – The Economic Times". The Times Of India.  ^ "HORT410. Peppers – Notes". Purdue University
Purdue University
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Retrieved 20 October 2009. Common name: pepper. Latin name: Capsicum
Capsicum
annuum L. ... Harvested organ: fruit. Fruit varies substantially in shape, pericarp thickness, color and pungency.  ^ Kraft, KH; Brown, CH; Nabhan, GP; Luedeling, E; Luna Ruiz, Jde J; Coppens; d'Eeckenbrugge, G; Hijmans, RJ; Gepts, P (4 December 2013). "Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum
Capsicum
annuum, in Mexico". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (17): 6165–6170. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308933111. PMC 4035960 . PMID 24753581. Retrieved 4 November 2016.  ^ a b c d "Chili production in 2014; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity/Chillies and Peppers, Green and Dried from pick lists". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.  ^ "Birthplace of the domesticated chili pepper identified in Mexico" Eurekalert April 21, 2014 ^ Bosland, P.W. (1998). "Capsicums: Innovative uses of an ancient crop". In J. Janick. Progress in new crops. Arlington, VA: ASHS Press. pp. 479–487. Retrieved 23 December 2010.  ^ van Zonneveld M, Ramirez M, Williams D, Petz M, Meckelmann S, Avila T, Bejarano C, Rios L, Jäger M, Libreros D, Amaya K, Scheldeman X (2015). "Screening genetic resources of Capsicum
Capsicum
peppers in their primary center of diversity in Bolivia and Peru". PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0134663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134663. PMC 4581705 . PMID 26402618.  ^ " Chile
Chile
Pepper Glossary". Thenibble.com. August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2010.  ^ Heiser Jr., C.B. (1976). N.W. Simmonds, ed. Evolution of Crop Plants. London: Longman. pp. 265–268.  ^ Eshbaugh, W.H. (1993). J. Janick and J.E. Simon, ed. New Crops. New York: Wiley. pp. 132–139.  ^ Collingham, Elizabeth (February 2006). Curry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-09-943786-4.  ^ N.Mini Raj; K.V.Peter E.V.Nybe (1 January 2007). Spices. New India Publishing. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-81-89422-44-8.  ^ Robinson, Simon (14 June 2007). "Chili Peppers: Global Warming". www.time.com. Retrieved 23 October 2013.  ^ Hjelmqvist, Hakon. "Cayennepeppar från Lunds medeltid". Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, vol 89. pp. 193–.  ^ S Kosuge, Y Inagaki, H Okumura (1961). Studies on the pungent principles of red pepper. Part VIII. On the chemical constitutions of the pungent principles. Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi (J. Agric. Chem. Soc.), 35, 923–927; (en) Chem. Abstr. 1964, 60, 9827g. ^ (ja) S Kosuge, Y Inagaki (1962) Studies on the pungent principles of red pepper. Part XI. Determination and contents of the two pungent ^ Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Medina-Lara, Fátima; Minero-García, Yereni; Zamudio-Moreno, Enid; Guzmán-Antonio, Adolfo; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel (1 March 2011). "Water Deficit Affects the Accumulation of Capsaicinoids in Fruits of Capsicum chinense Jacq". HortScience. 46 (3): 487–492. ISSN 0018-5345.  ^ O'Neill, J; Brock, C; Olesen, A. E.; Andresen, T; Nilsson, M; Dickenson, A. H. (2012). "Unravelling the Mystery of Capsaicin: A Tool to Understand and Treat Pain". Pharmacological Reviews. 64 (4): 939–971. doi:10.1124/pr.112.006163. PMC 3462993 . PMID 23023032.  ^ "History of the Scoville Scale FAQS". Tabasco.Com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.  ^ " Chile
Chile
Pepper Heat Scoville Scale". Homecooking.about.com. Retrieved 14 April 2013.  ^ http://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/nature/the-hottest-chilli-in-the-world-was-created-in-wales-accidentally.aspx ^ "Confirmed: Smokin Ed's Carolina Reaper
Carolina Reaper
sets new record for hottest chilli". Guinness World Records. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2014.  ^ "Trinidad Moruga Scorpion wins hottest pepper title" Retrieved 11 May 2013 ^ Joshi, Monika (11 March 2012). " Chile
Chile
Pepper Institute studies what's hot". Your life. USA Today. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012.  ^ "Aussies grow world's hottest chilli" Retrieved 12 April 2011 ^ "Title of world's hottest chili pepper stolen - again". The Independent. London. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.  ^ Henderson, Neil (19 February 2011). ""Record-breaking" chilli is hot news". BBC News. Retrieved 20 February 2011.  ^ [1] Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived 14 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chilies as Ornamental Plants, Seedsbydesign Archived 15 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bishop's crown
Bishop's crown
pepper, image, cayennediane ^ Paul Rozin1 and Deborah Schiller, Paul; Schiller, Deborah (1980). "The nature and acquisition of a preference for chili pepper by humans". Motivation and Emotion. 4 (1): 77–101. doi:10.1007/BF00995932.  ^ Fattori, V; Hohmann, M. S.; Rossaneis, A. C.; Pinho-Ribeiro, F. A.; Verri, W. A. (2016). "Capsaicin: Current Understanding of Its Mechanisms and Therapy of Pain and Other Pre-Clinical and Clinical Uses". Molecules. 21 (7): 844. doi:10.3390/molecules21070844. PMID 27367653.  ^ Mott, Maryann. "Elephant Crop Raids Foiled by Chili Peppers, Africa Project Finds". National Geographic. Retrieved 23 October 2013.  ^ Tewksbury, J. J.; Nabhan, G. P. (2001). "Directed deterrence by capsaicin in chilies". Nature. 412 (6845): 403–404. doi:10.1038/35086653. PMID 11473305.  ^ Rodríguez-Burruezo, A; González-Mas Mdel, C; Nuez, F (2010). "Carotenoid composition and vitamin a value in ají ( Capsicum
Capsicum
baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. Pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region". Journal of Food Science. 75 (8): S446–53. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01795.x. PMID 21535519.  ^ "chili" from Merriam-Webster; other spellings are listed as variants, with "Chili" identified as "chiefly British" ^ The Canadian Oxford Dictionary lists chili as the main entry, and labels chile as a variant, and chilli as a British variant. ^ Heiser, Charles (August 1990). Seed To Civilization: The Story of Food. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-79681-0.  ^ "Definition for chilli – Oxford Dictionaries Online (World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012.  ^ "Fall in exports crushes chilli prices in Guntur". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012.  ^ "Chilli, Capsicum
Capsicum
and Pepper are spicy plants grown for the pod. Green chilli is a culinary requirement in any Sri Lankan household". Sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 21 April 2012.  ^ "Chili or Pepper?". Chilipedia.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013.  ^ "va=pepper – Definition from the Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Online Dictionary". M-w.com. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 

External links[edit]

Look up chili in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Chilli Pepper

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Capsicum.

WildChilli.EU All about Wild Chili's / Capsicums / Peppers Plant Cultures: Chilli pepper botany, history and uses The Chile
Chile
Pepper Institute of New Mexico
Mexico
State University Capsicums: Innovative Uses of an Ancient Crop Chilli: La especia del Nuevo Mundo (Article from Germán Octavio López Riquelme about biology, nutrition, culture and medical topics. In Spanish) The Hot Pepper List List of chilli pepper varieties ordered by heat rating in Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

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Houttuynia cordata
(giấp cá) Hyssop Jimbu Kinh gioi (Vietnamese balm) Kkaennip Lavender Lemon balm Lemon grass Lemon myrtle Lemon verbena Limnophila aromatica
Limnophila aromatica
(rice-paddy herb) Lovage Marjoram Mint Mugwort Mitsuba Oregano Parsley Perilla Rosemary Rue Sage Savory Sanshō leaf Shiso Sorrel Tarragon Thyme Woodruff

Spices

Aonori
Aonori
(ground seaweed) Ajwain Allspice Amchoor (mango powder) Anise

star

Asafoetida Camphor Caraway Cardamom

black

Cassia Celery
Celery
powder Celery
Celery
seed Charoli Chenpi Cinnamon Clove Coriander
Coriander
seed Cubeb Cumin

Nigella sativa Bunium persicum

Deulkkae Dill /  Dill
Dill
seed Fennel Fenugreek

blue

Fingerroot (krachai) Galangal

greater lesser

Garlic Ginger Aromatic ginger (kencur) Golpar Grains of Paradise Grains of Selim Horseradish Juniper berry Kokum Korarima Dried lime Liquorice Litsea cubeba Mace Mango-ginger Mastic Mahleb Mustard

black brown white

Nigella (kalonji) Njangsa Nutmeg Pomegranate
Pomegranate
seed (anardana) Poppy seed Radhuni Rose Saffron Salt Sarsaparilla Sassafras Sesame Shiso
Shiso
seeds / berries Sumac Tamarind Tonka bean Turmeric Uzazi Vanilla Voatsiperifery Wasabi Yuzu
Yuzu
zest Zedoary Zereshk Zest

Peppers

Alligator Brazilian Chili

Cayenne Paprika

Long Peruvian Sichuan
Sichuan
(huājiāo) Japanese pricklyash Tasmanian Peppercorn (black / green / white)

Mixtures

Adjika Advieh Baharat Beau monde seasoning Berbere Bouquet garni Buknu Chaat masala Chaunk Chili powder Cinnamon
Cinnamon
sugar Crab boil Curry
Curry
powder Doubanjiang Douchi Duqqa Fines herbes Five-spice powder Garam masala Garlic
Garlic
powder Garlic
Garlic
salt Gochujang Harissa Hawaij Herbes de Provence Idli podi Jamaican jerk spice Khmeli suneli Lemon pepper Mitmita Mixed spice Montreal steak seasoning Mulling spices Old Bay Seasoning Onion powder Panch phoron Persillade Powder-douce Pumpkin pie spice Qâlat daqqa Quatre épices Ras el hanout Recado rojo Sharena sol Shichimi Tabil Tandoori masala Vadouvan Yuzukoshō Za'atar

Lists and related topics

Lists of herbs and spices

Culinary Australian Bangladeshi Indian Pakistani

Related topics

Chinese herbology Herbal tea Ma

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