HOME
The Info List - Chile


--- Advertisement ---



Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71

Republic of Chile República de Chile  (Spanish)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: 

Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish) (English: "By Right or Might") [1]

Anthem:  National Anthem of Chile

Location of  Chile  (dark green) in South America  (grey)

Capital and largest city Santiagoa 33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667

National language Spanish

Ethnic groups (2012[2])

64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.7% Aymara 0.1% Other 0.2% Unspecified

Demonym Chilean

Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic

• President

Sebastián Piñera

• Senate President

Carlos Montes Cisternas

• President of the Chamber of Deputies

Maya Fernández

Legislature National Congress

• Upper house

Senate

• Lower house

Chamber of Deputies

Independence from Spain

• Government Junta

18 September 1810

• Declared

12 February 1818

• Recognized

25 April 1844

• Current constitution

11 September 1980

Area

• Total

756,096.3[3] km2 (291,930.4 sq mi) (37th)

• Water (%)

1.07b

Population

• 2017 census

17,574,003[4] (64th)

• Density

24/km2 (62.2/sq mi) (198th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$472.413 billion[5] (42nd)

• Per capita

$25,425[5] (53rd)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$265.224 billion[5] (38th)

• Per capita

$15,793[5] (41st)

Gini (2015)  47.7[6] high

HDI (2015)  0.847[7] very high · 38th

Currency Peso (CLP)

Time zone CLT and EASTc (UTC−3 and −5)

Drives on the right

Calling code +56

ISO 3166 code CL

Internet TLD .cl

Legislature is based in Valparaíso. Includes Easter Island
Easter Island
and Isla Sala y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica.

Chile
Chile
(/ˈtʃɪli/[8]; Spanish: [ˈtʃile]), officially the Republic of Chile
Chile
(Spanish:  República de Chile (help·info)), is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes
Andes
to the east and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. It borders Peru
Peru
to the north, Bolivia
Bolivia
to the northeast, Argentina
Argentina
to the east, and the Drake Passage
Drake Passage
in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island
Easter Island
in Oceania. Chile
Chile
also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. The arid Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
in northern Chile
Chile
contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile
Chile
expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile
Chile
is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.[9] Spain
Spain
conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche
Mapuche
who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain
Spain
in 1818, Chile
Chile
emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile
Chile
saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche
Mapuche
resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific
(1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia.[10] In the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état
1973 Chilean coup d'état
that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.[11] The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile
Chile
is today one of South America's most economically and socially stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards.[11][12] It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.[13] It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development.[14] Chile
Chile
is the only South American member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), joining in 2010. Currently it also has the lowest homicide rate in South America. Chile
Chile
is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
(CELAC).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Spanish colonization 2.3 Independence and nation building 2.4 20th century

2.4.1 Pinochet era (1973–1990)

2.5 21st century

3 Government and politics

3.1 Foreign relations 3.2 Administrative divisions 3.3 National symbols

4 Military 5 Geography, climate, and environment

5.1 Climate 5.2 Biodiversity

5.2.1 Flora and Fauna

5.3 Topography 5.4 Hydrography

6 Demographics

6.1 Ancestry and ethnicity 6.2 Religion 6.3 Languages 6.4 Education 6.5 Health

7 Economy

7.1 Agriculture 7.2 Tourism

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Transport 8.2 Telecommunications

9 Culture

9.1 Music and dance 9.2 Literature 9.3 Cuisine 9.4 Folklore

9.4.1 Mythology

9.5 Cinema 9.6 Sports 9.7 Cultural heritage

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales,[15] the Incas
Incas
called the valley of the Aconcagua
Aconcagua
"Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche
Picunche
tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.[16][17] Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley
Casma Valley
in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili.[17] Other theories say Chile
Chile
may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls";[18] from the Mapuche
Mapuche
word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends;"[19] or from the Quechua chiri, "cold",[20] or tchili, meaning either "snow"[20][21] or "the deepest point of the Earth".[22] Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile.[19][23] The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru
Peru
in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli".[19] Ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.[17] The older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile".[24] History Main article: History of Chile Early history Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago.[25] About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile. Settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón
Cueva del Milodón
and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas
Incas
briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche
Mapuche
(or Araucanians as they were known by the Spaniards) successfully resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization.[26] They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule
Battle of the Maule
was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile
Chile
ended at the Maule river.[27] Spanish colonization Main articles: Conquest of Chile
Conquest of Chile
and Colonial Chile

Lautaro, toqui and hero of the Arauco war

Pedro de Valdivia, conqueror of Chile

In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him (the Strait of Magellan) thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile. The next Europeans to reach Chile
Chile
were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru
Peru
in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting.[27] The conquest of Chile
Chile
began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago
Santiago
on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile
Chile
became part of the Spanish Empire.[27] Conquest took place gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks. A massive Mapuche
Mapuche
insurrection that began in 1553 resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements. Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. Each time the Mapuche
Mapuche
and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward. The abolition of slavery by the Spanish crown in 1683 was done in recognition that enslaving the Mapuche
Mapuche
intensified resistance rather than cowing them into submission. Despite royal prohibitions, relations remained strained from continual colonialist interference.[28] Cut off to the north by desert, to the south by the Mapuche, to the east by the Andes
Andes
Mountains, and to the west by the ocean, Chile became one of the most centralized, homogeneous colonies in Spanish America. Serving as a sort of frontier garrison, the colony found itself with the mission of forestalling encroachment by both the Mapuche
Mapuche
and Spain's European enemies, especially the British and the Dutch. Buccaneers and English adventurers menaced the colony in addition to the Mapuche, as was shown by Sir Francis Drake's 1578 raid on Valparaíso, the colony's principal port. Chile
Chile
hosted one of the largest standing armies in the Americas, making it one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions, as well as a drain on the treasury of the Viceroyalty of Peru.[19] The first general census was conducted by the government of Agustín de Jáuregui between 1777 and 1778; it indicated that the population consisted of 259,646 inhabitants: 73.5 percent of European descent, 7.9 percent mestizos, 8.6 percent indigenous peoples and 9.8 percent blacks. Francisco Hurtado, Governor of the province of Chiloé, conducted a census in 1784 and found the population consisted of 26,703 inhabitants, 64.4 percent of whom were whites and 33.5 percent of whom were natives. The Diocese of Concepción conducted a census in areas south of the Maule river
Maule river
in 1812, but did not include the indigenous population or the inhabitants of the province of Chiloé. The population is estimated at 210,567, 86.1 percent of whom were Spanish or of European descent, 10 percent of whom were indigenous and 3.7 percent of whom were mestizos, blacks and mulattos.[29] Independence and nation building See also: Chilean War of Independence, War of the Pacific, and Argentine–Chilean naval arms race

Bernardo O'Higgins, Libertador and the Supreme Director of Chile

In 1808, Napoleon's enthronement of his brother Joseph as the Spanish King precipitated the drive by the colony for independence from Spain. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand – heir to the deposed king – was formed on 18 September 1810. The Government Junta of Chile proclaimed Chile
Chile
an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy (in memory of this day, Chile
Chile
celebrates its National Day on 18 September each year). After these events, a movement for total independence, under the command of José Miguel Carrera
José Miguel Carrera
(one of the most renowned patriots) and his two brothers Juan José and Luis Carrera, soon gained a wider following. Spanish attempts to re-impose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle, including infighting from Bernardo O'Higgins, who challenged Carrera's leadership. Intermittent warfare continued until 1817. With Carrera in prison in Argentina, O'Higgins and anti-Carrera cohort José de San Martín, hero of the Argentine War of Independence, led an army that crossed the Andes
Andes
into Chile
Chile
and defeated the royalists. On 12 February 1818, Chile
Chile
was proclaimed an independent republic. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th-century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. A strong presidency eventually emerged, but wealthy landowners remained powerful.[27] Chile
Chile
slowly started to expand its influence and to establish its borders. By the Tantauco Treaty, the archipelago of Chiloé was incorporated in 1826. The economy began to boom due to the discovery of silver ore in Chañarcillo, and the growing trade of the port of Valparaíso, which led to conflict over maritime supremacy in the Pacific with Peru. At the same time, attempts were made to strengthen sovereignty in southern Chile
Chile
intensifying penetration into Araucanía and colonizing Llanquihue with German immigrants in 1848. Through the founding of Fort Bulnes
Fort Bulnes
by the Schooner Ancud
Schooner Ancud
under the command of John Williams Wilson, the Magallanes region joined the country in 1843, while the Antofagasta
Antofagasta
region, at the time part of Bolivia, began to fill with people.

The Battle of Iquique
Battle of Iquique
on 21 May 1879. The victory of Chile
Chile
in the War of the Pacific allowed its expansion into new territories.

Toward the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by the Occupation of Araucanía. The Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile
Chile
and Argentina confirmed Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan. As a result of the War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific
with Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
(1879–83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence. Chile
Chile
had joined the stand as one of the high-income countries in South America
South America
by 1870.[30] The 1891 Chilean Civil War
1891 Chilean Civil War
brought about a redistribution of power between the President and Congress, and Chile
Chile
established a parliamentary style democracy. However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards who had strong ties to foreign investors. Soon after, the country engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race with Argentina that nearly led to war. 20th century See also: Parliamentary Era in Chile, 1960 Valdivia
Valdivia
earthquake, and South American dreadnought race

Chile's Almirante Latorre dreadnought in 1921

The Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy. By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.[27] A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano
Luis Altamirano
in 1924 set off a period of political instability that lasted until 1932. Of the ten governments that held power in that period, the longest lasting was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship (although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that has often bedeviled the rest of Latin America).[31][32] By relinquishing power to a democratically elected successor, Ibáñez del Campo retained the respect of a large enough segment of the population to remain a viable politician for more than thirty years, in spite of the vague and shifting nature of his ideology. When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez del Campo to office for another six years. Jorge Alessandri
Jorge Alessandri
succeeded Ibáñez del Campo in 1958, bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term. The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.[27]

Salvador Allende

In the 1970 election, Senator Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
of the Socialist Party of Chile
Chile
(then part of the "Popular Unity" coalition which included the Communists, Radicals, Social-Democrats, dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement, and the Independent Popular Action),[27] achieved a partial majority in a plurality of votes in a three-way contest, followed by candidates Radomiro Tomic for the Christian Democrat Party and Jorge Alessandri
Jorge Alessandri
for the Conservative Party. Allende was not elected with an absolute majority, receiving fewer than 35 percent of votes. The Chilean Congress conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri, and, keeping with tradition, chose Allende by a vote of 153 to 35. Frei refused to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers' party and could not make common cause with the right wing.[33][34] An economic depression that began in 1972 was exacerbated by capital flight, plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program. Production fell and unemployment rose. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, to increase consumer spending and redistribute income downward.[35] Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment.[36][page needed] Much of the banking sector was nationalized. Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year.[36] Allende's program included advancement of workers' interests,[36][37] replacing the judicial system with "socialist legality",[38] nationalization of banks and forcing others to bankruptcy,[38] and strengthening "popular militias" known as MIR.[38] Started under former President Frei, the Popular Unity platform also called for nationalization of Chile's major copper mines in the form of a constitutional amendment. The measure was passed unanimously by Congress. As a result,[39] the Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
administration organized and inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to swiftly destabilize Allende’s government.[40] In addition, US financial pressure restricted international economic credit to Chile.[41] The economic problems were also exacerbated by Allende's public spending which was financed mostly by printing money and poor credit ratings given by commercial banks.[42] Simultaneously, opposition media, politicians, business guilds and other organizations helped to accelerate a campaign of domestic political and economical destabilization, some of which was backed by the United States.[41][43] By early 1973, inflation was out of control. The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class. On 26 May 1973, Chile’s Supreme Court, which was opposed to Allende's government, unanimously denounced the Allende disruption of the legality of the nation. Although illegal under the Chilean constitution, the court supported and strengthened Pinochet's soon-to-be seizure of power.[38][44] Pinochet era (1973–1990)

Fighter jets bombing the Presidential Palace of La Moneda during the Chilean coup of 1973

Main articles: Military government of Chile
Chile
(1973–90), Miracle of Chile, and Beagle conflict A military coup overthrew Allende on 11 September 1973. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace, Allende apparently committed suicide.[45][page needed][46][page needed] After the coup, Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
told U.S. president Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
that the United States had "helped" the coup.[47] A military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet, took control of the country. The first years of the regime were marked by human rights violations. On October 1973, at least 72 people were murdered by the Caravan of Death.[48] According to the Rettig Report
Rettig Report
and Valech Commission, at least 2,115 were killed,[49]

Augusto Pinochet

and at least 27,265[50] were tortured (including 88 children younger than 12 years old).[50] In 2011, Chile
Chile
recognized an additional 9,800 victims, bringing the total number of killed, tortured or imprisoned for political reasons to 40,018.[51] At the national stadium, filled with detainees, one of those tortured and killed was internationally known poet-singer Víctor Jara
Víctor Jara
(see "Music and Dance", below). The stadium was renamed for Jara in 2003. A new Constitution was approved by a controversial plebiscite on 11 September 1980, and General Pinochet became president of the republic for an eight-year term. After Pinochet obtained rule of the country, several hundred committed Chilean revolutionaries joined the Sandinista
Sandinista
army in Nicaragua, guerrilla forces in Argentina
Argentina
or training camps in Cuba, Eastern Europe and Northern Africa.[52] In the late 1980s, largely as a result of events such as the 1982 economic collapse[53] and mass civil resistance in 1983–88, the government gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech, and association, to include trade union and political activity.[54] The government launched market-oriented reforms with Hernán Büchi
Hernán Büchi
as Minister of Finance. Chile
Chile
moved toward a free market economy that saw an increase in domestic and foreign private investment, although the copper industry and other important mineral resources were not opened for competition. In a plebiscite on 5 October 1988, Pinochet was denied a second eight-year term as president (56% against 44%). Chileans
Chileans
elected a new president and the majority of members of a bicameral congress on 14 December 1989. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, the candidate of a coalition of 17 political parties called the Concertación, received an absolute majority of votes (55%).[55] President Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was considered a transition period. 21st century See also: 2010 Chile
Chile
earthquake

Five presidents of Chile
Chile
since Transition to democracy (1990–2018), celebrating the Bicentennial of Chile

In December 1993, Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the son of previous president Eduardo Frei Montalva, led the Concertación coalition to victory with an absolute majority of votes (58%).[56] Frei Ruiz-Tagle was succeeded in 2000 by Socialist Ricardo Lagos, who won the presidency in an unprecedented runoff election against Joaquín Lavín
Joaquín Lavín
of the rightist Alliance for Chile.[57] In January 2006, Chileans
Chileans
elected their first female president, Michelle Bachelet Jeria, of the Socialist Party, defeating Sebastián Piñera, of the National Renewal party, extending the Concertación
Concertación
governance for another four years.[58][59] In January 2010, Chileans
Chileans
elected Sebastián Piñera
Sebastián Piñera
as the first rightist President in 20 years, defeating former President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
of the Concertación, for a four-year term succeeding Bachelet. Due to term limits, Sebastián Piñera
Sebastián Piñera
did not stand for re-election in 2013, and his term expired in March 2014 resulting in Michelle Bachelet returning to office. On 27 February 2010, Chile
Chile
was struck by an 8.8 Mw earthquake, the fifth largest ever recorded at the time. More than 500 people died (most from the ensuing tsunami) and over a million people lost their homes. The earthquake was also followed by multiple aftershocks.[60] Initial damage estimates were in the range of US$15–30 billion, around 10 to 15 percent of Chile's real gross domestic product.[61]

Santiago
Santiago
skyline

Chile
Chile
achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in 2010. On 5 August 2010 the access tunnel collapsed at the San José copper and gold mine in the Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
near Copiapó
Copiapó
in northern Chile, trapping 33 men 700 metres (2,300 ft) below ground. A rescue effort organized by the Chilean government located the miners 17 days later. All 33 men were brought to the surface two months later on 13 October 2010 over a period of almost 24 hours, an effort that was carried on live television around the world.[62] Government and politics Main articles: Politics of Chile
Politics of Chile
and Law of Chile

The Palacio de La Moneda
Palacio de La Moneda
in downtown Santiago

The Palace of Justice in Santiago

The current Constitution of Chile
Constitution of Chile
was approved in a national plebiscite—regarded as "highly irregular" by some observers[63]—in September 1980, under the military government of Augusto Pinochet. It entered into force in March 1981. After Pinochet's defeat in the 1988 plebiscite, the constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the Constitution. In September 2005, President Ricardo Lagos signed into law several constitutional amendments passed by Congress. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life, granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years.[64] The Congress of Chile
Congress of Chile
has a 38-seat Senate and a 120-member Chamber of Deputies. Senators serve for eight years with staggered terms, while deputies are elected every 4 years. The last congressional elections were held on 17 November 2013, concurrently with the presidential election. The current Senate has a 21–15 split in favor of the governing coalition and 2 independents. The current lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, contains 67 members of the governing center-left coalition, 48 from the center-right opposition and 5 from small parties or independents. The Congress is located in the port city of Valparaíso, about 140 kilometres (87 miles) west of the capital, Santiago.

National Congress building in Valparaíso

Chile's congressional elections are governed by a binomial system that, for the most part, rewards the two largest representations equally, often regardless of their relative popular support. Parties are thus forced to form wide coalitions and, historically, the two largest coalitions ( Concertación
Concertación
and Alianza) split most of the seats. Only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second place coalition by a margin of more than 2-to-1 does the winning coalition gain both seats, which tends to lock the legislature in a roughly 50–50 split. Chile's judiciary is independent and includes a court of appeal, a system of military courts, a constitutional tribunal, and the Supreme Court of Chile. In June 2005, Chile
Chile
completed a nationwide overhaul of its criminal justice system.[65] The reform has replaced inquisitorial proceedings with an adversarial system more similar to that of the United States. In the 2001 congressional elections, the conservative Independent Democratic Union (UDI) surpassed the Christian Democrats for the first time to become the largest party in the lower house. In the 2005 parliamentary election, both leading parties, the Christian Democrats and the UDI lost representation in favor of their respective allies Socialist Party (which became the biggest party in the Concertación block) and National Renewal in the right-wing alliance. In the 2009 legislative elections in Chile, the Communist Party won 3 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time in 30 years (the Communist Party was not allowed to exist as such during the dictatorship). Chileans
Chileans
voted in the first round of presidential elections on 17 November 2013. None of the nine presidential candidates got more than 50 percent of the vote. As a result, the top two candidates, center-left Nueva Mayoría
Nueva Mayoría
coalition's Michelle Bachelet
Michelle Bachelet
and center-right Alianza coalition's Evelyn Matthei, competed in a run-off election on 15 December 2013, which Bachelet won. This was Chile's sixth presidential election since the end of the Pinochet era. All six have been judged free and fair. The president is constitutionally barred from serving consecutive terms. Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Chile

State of Chile’s international relations in the world:   Chile   Country with diplomatic relations and Chilean embassy in the country.   Country with diplomatic relations and an embassy in Chile, but no Chilean embassy.   Country with diplomatic relations but without ambassadors.   Country with no diplomatic relations currently.

Since the early decades after independence, Chile
Chile
has always had an active involvement in foreign affairs. In 1837 the country aggressively challenged the dominance of Peru's port of Callao
Callao
for preeminence in the Pacific trade routes, defeating the short-lived alliance between Peru
Peru
and Bolivia, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836–39) in the War of the Confederation. The war dissolved the confederation while distributing power in the Pacific. A second international war, the War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific
(1879–83), further increased Chile's regional role, while adding considerably to its territory.[19] During the 19th century, Chile's commercial ties were primarily with Britain, a nation that had a major influence on the formation of the Chilean navy. The French influenced Chile's legal and educational systems and had a decisive impact on Chile, through the architecture of the capital in the boom years at the turn of the 20th century. German influence came from the organization and training of the army by Prussians.[19] On 26 June 1945, Chile
Chile
participated as a founding member of the United Nations being among 50 countries that signed the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, California.[66][67][68] With the military coup of 1973, Chile
Chile
became isolated politically as a result of widespread human rights abuses.[19] Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile
Chile
has been an active participant in the international political arena. Chile
Chile
completed a 2-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council in January 2005. Jose Miguel Insulza, a Chilean national, was elected Secretary General of the Organization of American States
Organization of American States
in May 2005 and confirmed in his position, being re-elected in 2009. Chile
Chile
is currently serving on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors, and the 2007–2008 chair of the board is Chile's ambassador to the IAEA, Milenko E. Skoknic. The country is an active member of the UN family of agencies and participates in UN peacekeeping activities. It was re-elected as a member of the UN Human Rights Council in 2011 for a three-year term.[69] It was also elected to one of five non-permanent seats on the UN Security Council in 2013.[70] Chile
Chile
hosted the Defense Ministerial of the Americas
Americas
in 2002 and the APEC summit and related meetings in 2004. It also hosted the Community of Democracies ministerial in April 2005 and the Ibero-American Summit in November 2007. An associate member of Mercosur
Mercosur
and a full member of APEC, Chile
Chile
has been a major player in international economic issues and hemispheric free trade.[27] The Chilean Government has diplomatic relations with most countries. It settled all its territorial disputes with Argentina
Argentina
during the 1990s except for part of the border at Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Chile
Chile
and Bolivia
Bolivia
severed diplomatic ties in 1978 over Bolivia's desire to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
it lost to Chile
Chile
in 1879–83 War of the Pacific. The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level.[27] Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of Chile In 1978 Chile
Chile
was administratively divided into regions,[71] and in 1979 subdivided into provinces and these into communes.[72][73] In total the country has 15 regions,[74][75] 54 provinces and 348 communes.[76] Each region is designated by a name and a roman numeral assigned from north to south, although in the case of Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan Region is not used. The creation of two new regions in 2007, Arica
Arica
and Parinacota (XV) and Los Ríos (XIV), made this numbering lose its original meaning.

Administrative divisions of Chile

№ Region[71][74][75] Population[4] Area (km²)[3] Density Capital Administrative map

XV Arica
Arica
y Parinacota 224 548 16 873,3 13,40 Arica

Arica
Arica
and Parinacota (XV)

Tarapacá (I)

Antofagasta
Antofagasta
(II)

Atacama (III)

Coquimbo
Coquimbo
(IV)

Valparaíso
Valparaíso
(V)

Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan (RM)

O'Higgins (VI)

Maule (VII)

Biobío (VIII)

Araucanía (IX)

Los Ríos (XIV)

Los Lagos (X)

Aysén (XI)

Magallanes (XII)

Antarctic Territory (Claimed)

I Tarapacá 324 930 42 225,8 7,83 Iquique

II Antofagasta 599 335 126 049,1 4,82 Antofagasta

III Atacama 285 363 75 176,2 3,81 Copiapó

IV Coquimbo 742 178 40 579,9 18,67 La Serena

V Valparaíso 1 790 219 16 396,1 110,75 Valparaíso

RM Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan 7 036 792 15 403,2 461,77 Santiago

VI Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins 908 545 16 387 54,96 Rancagua

VII Maule 1 033 197 30 296,1 34,49 Talca

VIII Biobío 2 018 803 37 068,7 54,96 Concepción

IX Araucanía 938 626 31 842,3 30,06 Temuco

XIV Los Ríos 380 181 18 429,5 20,88 Valdivia

X Los Lagos 823 204 48 583,6 17,06 Puerto Montt

XI Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo 102 317 108 494,4 0,95 Coyhaique

XII Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica 165 593 132 297,2(1) 1,26 Punta Arenas

Chile 17 373 831 756 102,4(2) 23,24 Santiago

(1) Including the Chilean Antarctic Territory, its surface reaches 1 382 554,8 km² (2) Including the Chilean Antarctic Territory, its surface reaches 2 006 360 km²

National symbols The national flower is the copihue (Lapageria rosea, Chilean bellflower), which grows in the woods of southern Chile. The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: the condor (Vultur gryphus, a very large bird that lives in the mountains) and the huemul ( Hippocamelus
Hippocamelus
bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer). It also has the legend Por la razón o la fuerza (By reason or by force). The flag of Chile
Chile
consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence. The flag of Chile
Chile
is similar to the Flag of Texas, although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. However, like the Texan flag, the flag of Chile
Chile
is modeled after the Flag of the United States.[77] Military Main article: Military of Chile The Armed Forces of Chile
Chile
are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense. The president has the authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces.[27] The commander in chief of the Chilean Army
Chilean Army
is General Humberto Oviedo Arriagada.[78][79] The Chilean Army
Chilean Army
is 45,000 strong and is organized with an Army headquarters in Santiago, six divisions throughout its territory, an Air Brigade in Rancagua, and a Special
Special
Forces Command in Colina. The Chilean Army
Chilean Army
is one of the most professional and technologically advanced armies in Latin America.[27] Admiral Julio Leiva Molina directs around 25,000-person Chilean Navy,[80] including 2,500 Marines. Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants (frigates). Those ships are based in Valparaíso.[81] The Navy operates its own aircraft for transport and patrol; there are no Navy fighter or bomber aircraft. The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano.[27][82] Air Force General (four star) Jorge Rojas Ávila heads the 12,500 strong Chilean Air Force. Air assets are distributed among five air brigades headquartered in Iquique, Antofagasta, Santiago, Puerto Montt, and Punta Arenas. The Air Force also operates an airbase on King George Island, Antarctica. The Air Force took delivery of the final two of ten F-16s, all purchased from the U.S., in March 2007 after several decades of U.S. debate and previous refusal to sell. Chile
Chile
also took delivery in 2007 of a number of reconditioned Block 15 F-16s from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of F-16s purchased from the Dutch.[27] After the military coup in September 1973 the Chilean national police (Carabineros) were incorporated into the Defense Ministry. With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry. Gen. Gustavo González Jure is the head of the national police force of 40,964[83] men and women who are responsible for law enforcement, traffic management, narcotics suppression, border control, and counter-terrorism throughout Chile.[27]

Leopard 2A4
Leopard 2A4
of the Chilean Army

Karel Doorman-class frigate
Karel Doorman-class frigate
of the Chilean Navy

F-16 Fighting Falcon of the Chilean Air Force

Geography, climate, and environment

Great-Far North Northern Zone Central Zone Southern Zone Austral Zone

Natural regions of Chile.

Main article: Geography
Geography
of Chile See also: Natural regions of Chile
Natural regions of Chile
and Environmental issues in Chile A long and narrow coastal Southern Cone
Southern Cone
country on the west side of the Andes
Andes
Mountains, Chile
Chile
stretches over 4,300 km (2,670 mi) north to south, but only 350 km (217 mi) at its widest point east to west.[84] This encompasses a remarkable variety of climates and landscapes. It contains 756,950 square kilometres (292,260 sq mi) of land area. It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Excluding its Pacific islands and Antarctic claim, Chile
Chile
lies between latitudes 17° and 56°S, and longitudes 66° and 75°W. Chile
Chile
is among the longest north-south countries in the world. If one considers only mainland territory, Chile
Chile
is unique within this group in its narrowness from east to west, with the other long north-south countries (including Brazil, Russia, Canada, and the United States, among others) all being wider from east to west by a factor of more than 10. Chile
Chile
also claims 1,250,000 km2 (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica
Antarctica
as part of its territory (Chilean Antarctic Territory). However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, of which Chile
Chile
is a signatory.[85] It is the world's southernmost country that is geographically on the mainland.[86] Chile
Chile
controls Easter Island
Easter Island
and Sala y Gómez
Sala y Gómez
Island, the easternmost islands of Polynesia, which it incorporated to its territory in 1888, and Robinson Crusoe Island, more than 600 km (370 mi) from the mainland, in the Juan Fernández Islands. Also controlled but only temporarily inhabited (by some local fishermen) are the small islands of San Ambrosio and San Felix. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean.[87] The northern Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area is also the historical center from which Chile
Chile
expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. Southern Chile
Chile
is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. The Andes
Andes
Mountains are located on the eastern border. Climate Main article: Climate
Climate
of Chile

Chile
Chile
map of Köppen climate classification.

The diverse climate of Chile
Chile
ranges from the world's driest desert in the north—the Atacama Desert—through a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
in the center, humid subtropical in Easter Island, to an oceanic climate, including alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south.[11] According to the Köppen system, Chile
Chile
within its borders hosts at least ten major climatic subtypes. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autumn (March to May), winter (June to August), and spring (September to November). Biodiversity Main article: Wildlife of Chile The flora and fauna of Chile
Chile
are characterized by a high degree of endemism, due to its particular geography. In continental Chile, the Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
in the north and the Andes
Andes
mountains to the east are barriers that have led to the isolation of flora and fauna. Add to that the enormous length of Chile
Chile
(over 4,300 km (2,672 mi)) and this results in a wide range of climates and environments that can be divided into three general zones: the desert provinces of the north, central Chile, and the humid regions of the south. Flora and Fauna The native flora of Chile
Chile
consists of relatively fewer species compared to the flora of other South American countries. The northernmost coastal and central region is largely barren of vegetation, approaching the most absolute desert in the world.[88] On the slopes of the Andes, in addition to the scattered tola desert brush, grasses are found. The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos, the Chilean pine, the southern beeches and the copihue, a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower.[88] In southern Chile, south of the Biobío River, heavy precipitation has produced dense forests of laurels, magnolias, and various species of conifers and beeches, which become smaller and more stunted to the south. [89] The cold temperatures and winds of the extreme south preclude heavy forestation. Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile
Chile
(in Patagonia). Much of the Chilean flora is distinct from that of neighboring Argentina, indicating that the Andean barrier existed during its formation.[89] Some of Chile's flora has an Antarctic origin due to land bridges which formed during the Cretaceous ice ages, allowing plants to migrate from Antarctica
Antarctica
to South America.[90] Just over 3,000 species of fungi are recorded in Chile,[91][92] but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile
Chile
is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.[93] Although the amount of available information is still very small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to Chile, and 1995 species have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the country.[94] Chile's geographical isolation has restricted the immigration of faunal life, so that only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found. Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found.[88] There are many species of small birds, but most of the larger common Latin American types are absent. Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes.[88] Owing to the vicinity of the Humboldt Current, ocean waters abound with fish and other forms of marine life, which in turn support a rich variety of waterfowl, including several penguins. Whales are abundant, and some six species of seals are found in the area.[88]

Araucaria araucana
Araucaria araucana
trees in Conguillío National Park

Pudú
Pudú
in Chile

Chilla fox, common in the region

Andean condor
Andean condor
(Vultur gryphus), the national bird of Chile

Lycalopex culpaeus, a culpeo or Andean fox

A guanaco in northern Chile

Torres del Paine from Lake Pehoé, Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

Topography

Topographic map of Chile. To view maps based on SRTM
SRTM
topographic relief of the country, see here.

View of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
from the Chilean side.

Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama
and the Licancabur
Licancabur
Volcano

Osorno Volcano
Volcano
and the Petrohué River

Nef Glacier
Nef Glacier
and the Plomo Lake

Chile
Chile
is located along a highly seismic and volcanic zone, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, due to the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates in the South American plate. Late Paleozoic, 251 million years ago, Chile
Chile
belonged to the continental block called Gondwana. It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes. The territory would be shaped by millions of years due to the folding of the rocks, forming the current relief. The Chilean relief consists of the central depression, which crosses the country longitudinally, flanked by two mountain ranges that make up about 80% of the territory: the Andes
Andes
mountains to the east-natural border with Bolivia
Bolivia
and Argentina
Argentina
in the region of Atacama and the Coastal Range west-minor height from the Andes. Chile's highest peak is the Nevado Ojos del Salado, at 6891.3 m, which is also the highest volcano in the world. The highest point of the Coastal Range is Vicuña Mackenna, at 3114 meters, located in the Sierra Vicuña Mackenna, the south of Antofagasta. Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports. Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama. The Far North is the area between the northern boundary of the country and the parallel 26° S, covering the first three regions. It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert, the most arid in the world. The desert is fragmented by streams that originate in the area known as the pampas Tamarugal. The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia, has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama, due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time.

Ten highest peaks of Chile

Name Altitude (m)

Nevado Ojos del Salado1 6891,3

Nevado Tres Cruces1 6758

Llullaillaco1 6739

Incahuasi1 6638

Tupungato1 6565

Ata Volcano1 6501

Cerro El Muerto1 6488

Parinacota2 6342

Pomerape2 6282

Los Patos1 6239

Note:1 shared with Argentina, 2 shared with Bolivia.

To the south is the Norte Chico, extending to the Aconcagua
Aconcagua
river. Los Andes
Andes
begin to decrease its altitude to the south and closer to the coast, reaching 90 km away at the height of Illapel, the narrowest part of the Chilean territory. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression. The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys, where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand. The Central area is the most populated region of the country. The coastal plains are wide and allow the establishment of cities and ports along the Pacific. The Andes
Andes
maintains altitudes above 6000m but descend slowly starts approaching the 4000 meters on average. The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation. To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera. Patagonia
Patagonia
extends from within Reloncavi, at the height of parallel 41 ° S, to the south. During the last glaciation, this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. As a result, the intermediate depression sinks in the sea, while the coastal mountains rise to a series of archipelagos, such as Chiloé and the Chonos, disappearing in Taitao peninsula, in the parallel 47 ° S. The Andes
Andes
mountain range loses height and erosion caused by the action of glaciers has caused fjords. East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
cover large areas. The Andes, as he had done previously Cordillera de la Costa, begins to break in the ocean causing a myriad of islands and islets and disappear into it, sinking and reappearing in the Southern Antilles arc and then the Antarctic Peninsula, where it is called Antartandes, in the Chilean Antarctic Territory, lying between the meridians 53 ° W and 90 ° W. In the middle of the Pacific, the country has sovereignty over several islands of volcanic origin, collectively known as Insular Chile. Of these, we highlight the archipelago of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, which is located in the fracture zone between the Nazca plate and the Pacific plate known as East Pacific Rise. Hydrography

General Carrera lake, the largest in the country.

Ten longest rivers of Chile

Name Length (km)

Loa 440

Bío Bío 380

Baker 370

Copiapó 292

Maipo 250

Yelcho-Futaleufú 246

Maule 240

Palena 240

Toltén 231

Huasco 230

Note: All lengths exclusively through Chilean territory.

Due to the characteristics of the territory, Chile
Chile
is crossed by numerous rivers generally short in length and with low torrential flow. They commonly extend from the Andes
Andes
to the Pacific Ocean, flowing in an East to West Because of the desert, in the Norte Grande there are only short endorheic character streams, except for the river Loa, the longest in the country 440 km.[95] In the high valleys, wetland areas generate Chungará Lake, located at 4500 meters above sea level. It and the river Lauca are shared with Bolivia, as well as the Lluta. In the center-north of the country, the number of rivers that form valleys of agricultural importance increases. Noteworthy are the Elqui with 75 km[95] long, 142 km Aconcagua, Maipo with 250 km[95] and its tributary, the Mapocho with 110 km, and Maule with 240 km. Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The major lakes in this area are the artificial lake Rapel, the Colbun Maule lagoon and the lagoon of La Laja. Demographics Main article: Demographics of Chile

Population of Chile
Chile
from 1820, projected up to 2050

Chile's 2017 census reported a population of 17,574,003. Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since 1990, due to a declining birth rate.[96] By 2050 the population is expected to reach approximately 20.2 million people.[97] About 85 percent of the country's population lives in urban areas, with 40 percent living in Greater Santiago. The largest agglomerations according to the 2002 census are Greater Santiago
Santiago
with 5.6 million people, Greater Concepción with 861,000 and Greater Valparaíso
Valparaíso
with 824,000.[98] Ancestry and ethnicity Main articles: Indigenous peoples in Chile
Indigenous peoples in Chile
and Immigration to Chile

Mapuche
Mapuche
women of Tirúa

German immigrants in southern Chile

The most recent study in the Candela Project establishes that the genetic composition of Chile
Chile
is 61% of European origin, with 35% of the genome coming from Native Americans (Amerindians), and 4% coming from Africa, making Chile
Chile
a primarily mestizo country with traces of African descent present in half of the population.[99] Another genetic study conducted by the University of Brasilia
University of Brasilia
in several American countries shows a similar genetic composition for Chile, with a European contribution of 51.6%, an Amerindian (Native) contribution of 42.1%, and an African contribution of 6.3%.[100] A public health booklet from the University of Chile
University of Chile
states that 60% of the population is of Caucasian origin; "predominantly White" Mestizos are estimated to amount a total of 35%, while Native Americans (Amerindians) comprise the remaining 5%.[101] Despite the genetic considerations, many Chileans, if asked, would self-identify as White. The 2011 Latinobarómetro survey asked respondents in Chile
Chile
what race they considered themselves to belong to. Most answered "White" (59%), while 25% said "Mestizo" and 8% self-classified as "indigenous".[102] A 2002 national poll revealed that a majority of Chileans
Chileans
believed they possessed some (43.4%) or much (8.3%) "indigenous blood", while 40.3% responded that they had none.[103] The 1907 census reported 101,118 Indians, or 3.1% of the total population. Only those that practiced their native culture or spoke their native language were considered to be Indians, irrespective of their "racial purity".[104] In 2002 a census took place, directly asking the public whether they considered themselves as part of any of the eight Chilean ethnic groups, regardless of whether or not they maintained their culture, traditions and language, and 4.6 percent of the population (692,192 people) fitted that description of indigenous peoples in Chile. Of that number, 87.3% declared themselves Mapuche.[105] Most of the indigenous population shows varying degrees of mixed ancestry.[106] Chile
Chile
is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[107] It was adopted in 1989 as the International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) Convention 169. Chile
Chile
ratified it in 2008. A Chilean court decision in November 2009 considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention. The Supreme Court decision on Aymara water rights upheld rulings by both the Pozo Almonte tribunal and the Iquique
Iquique
Court of Appeals, and marks the first judicial application of ILO Convention 169 in Chile.[108] Chile
Chile
was never a particularly attractive destination for migrants, owing to its remoteness and distance from Europe.[109][110] Europeans preferred to stay in countries closer to their homelands instead of taking the long journey through the Straits of Magellan or crossing the Andes.[109] European migration did not result in a significant change in the ethnic composition of Chile, except in the region of Magellan.[111] Spaniards were the only major European migrant group to Chile,[109] and there was never large-scale immigration such as that to Argentina
Argentina
or Uruguay.[110] Between 1851 and 1924, Chile
Chile
only received 0.5% of European immigration to Latin America, compared to 46% to Argentina, 33% to Brazil, 14% to Cuba, and 4% to Uruguay.[109] However, it is undeniable that immigrants have played a significant role in Chilean society.[110] Other groups of Europeans have followed but are found in smaller numbers, like the descendants of Austrians[112] and Dutch people. Currently, these are estimated at about 50,000 people.[113] After the failed liberal revolution of 1848 in the German states,[110][114] a noticeable German immigration took place, laying the foundation for the German Chileans. Sponsored by the Chilean government to "unbarbarize" and colonize the southern region,[110] these Germans (notably the Swiss, Silesians, Alsatians and Austrians) settled mainly in Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue.[115] Descendants of different European ethnic groups often intermarried in Chile. This intermarriage and mixture of cultures and races have helped to shape the present society and culture of the Chilean middle and upper classes.[116] Due in part to its economic fortunes, Chile
Chile
has recently become a new magnet for immigrants, mostly from neighboring Argentina, Bolivia
Bolivia
and mainly Peru.[117] According to the 2002 national census, Chile's foreign-born population has increased by 75% since 1992.[118] According to an estimate by the Migration and Foreign Residency Department, 317,057 foreigners were living in Chile
Chile
as of December 2008.[119] Roughly 500,000 of Chile’s population is of full or partial Palestinian origin.[120][121] Religion Main article: Religion in Chile

Religious background in Chile
Chile
(2015)[122]

Religion

Percent

Roman Catholic

55%

None

25%

Protestant

13%

Other

7%

The Metropolitan Cathedral of Santiago

As of 2012[update], 66.6%[122] of Chilean population over 15 years of age claimed to adhere to the Roman Catholic church, a decrease from the 70%[123] reported in the 2002 census. In the same census of 2012, 17% of Chileans
Chileans
reported adherence to an Evangelical church ("Evangelical" in the census referred to all Christian denominations other than the Roman Catholic and Orthodox—Greek, Persian, Serbian, Ukrainian, and Armenian—churches, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah's Witnesses: essentially, those denominations generally still termed "Protestant" in most English-speaking lands, although Adventism
Adventism
is often considered an Evangelical denomination as well). Approximately 90% of Evangelical Christians are Pentecostal. but Wesleyan, Lutheran, Anglican, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, other Reformed, Baptist, and Methodist churches also are present amongst Chilean Evangelical churches.[124] Irreligious people, atheists, and agnostics account for around 12% of the population. By 2015, the major religion in Chile
Chile
remained Christianity (68%), with an estimated 55% of Chileans
Chileans
belonging to the Roman Catholic church, 13% to various Evangelical churches, and just 7% adhering to any other religion. Agnostics and atheist were estimated at 25% of the population.[125] The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion, and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice. The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors.[124] Church and state are officially separate in Chile. A 1999 law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment[citation needed]. Government officials attend Roman Catholic events as well as major Evangelical and Jewish ceremonies.[124] The Chilean government treats the religious holidays of Christmas, Good Friday, the Feast of the Virgin of Carmen, the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, the Feast of the Assumption, All Saints' Day, and the Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Feast of the Immaculate Conception
as national holidays.[124] Recently, the government declared October 31st, Reformation Day, to be an additional national holiday, in honor of the Evangelical churches of the country.[126][127] The patron saints of Chile
Chile
are Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel
and Saint James the Greater (Santiago).[128] In 2005, Pope Benedict XVI canonized Alberto Hurtado, who became the country's second native Roman Catholic saint after Teresa de los Andes.[129] Languages The Spanish spoken in Chile
Chile
is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.[clarification needed] Accent varies only very slightly from north to south; more noticeable are the differences in accent based on social class or whether one lives in the city or the country. That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions.[27] There are several indigenous languages spoken in Chile: Mapudungun, Quechua, Aymara and Rapa Nui. After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.[130] German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile,[131] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities. Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors
English Opens Doors
Program, the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools. Most private schools in Chile
Chile
start teaching English from kindergarten.[132] Common English words have been absorbed and appropriated into everyday Spanish speech.[133] Education Main articles: Education in Chile
Education in Chile
and List of universities in Chile

Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

University of Chile

University of Concepción

In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5. Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and 13. Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age 17. Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education. Then, they choose a branch: scientific humanistic education, artistic education, or technical and professional education. Secondary school
Secondary school
ends two years later on the acquirement of a certificate (licencia de enseñanza media).[134] Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system — the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:

city schools (colegios municipales) that are mostly free and have the worse education results, mostly attended by poor students; subsidized schools that receive some money from the government which can be supplemented by fees paid by the student's family, which are attended by mid-income students and typically get mid-level results; and entirely private schools that consistently get the best results. Many private schools charge attendance fees of 0,5 to 1 median household incomes.[135]

Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education. The higher education schools in Chile
Chile
consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities. There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile
Universidad de Chile
and Universidad Diego Portales
Universidad Diego Portales
offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.[136] Health Main article: Healthcare in Chile The Ministry of Health (Minsal) is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile. The National Health Fund (Fonasa), created in 1979, is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile. It is funded by the public. All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund. Fonasa is part of the NHSS and has executive power through the Ministry of Health (Chile). Its headquarters are in Santiago
Santiago
and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices. More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Hospitals in Chile
Chile
are mainly located in the Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan Region. Economy Main article: Economy of Chile

Chilean (blue) and average Latin American (gray) GDP
GDP
per capita (1950–2008)

The financial district in Santiago
Santiago
de Chile

Santiago
Santiago
Stock Exchange

Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world

The Central Bank of Chile
Central Bank of Chile
in Santiago
Santiago
serves as the central bank for the country. The Chilean currency is the Chilean peso
Chilean peso
(CLP). Chile
Chile
is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations,[11] leading Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.[13] Since July 2013, Chile
Chile
is considered by the World Bank as a "high-income economy".[137][138][139] Chile
Chile
has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America (ranking 7th worldwide), owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management.[140] In May 2010 Chile
Chile
became the first South American country to join the OECD.[141] In 2006, Chile
Chile
became the country with the highest nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
in Latin America.[142] Copper
Copper
mining makes up 20% of Chilean GDP
GDP
and 60% of exports.[143] Escondida
Escondida
is the largest copper mine in the world, producing over 5% of global supplies.[143] Overall, Chile
Chile
produces a third of the world’s copper.[143] Codelco, the state mining firm, competes with private ones.[143] Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile
Chile
and have more than halved poverty rates.[10][27] Chile
Chile
began to experience a moderate economic downturn in 1999. The economy remained sluggish until 2003, when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4.0% GDP growth.[144] The Chilean economy finished 2004 with growth of 6 percent. Real GDP
GDP
growth reached 5.7 percent in 2005 before falling back to 4 percent in 2006. GDP
GDP
expanded by 5 percent in 2007.[27] Faced with an international economic downturn the government announced an economic stimulus plan to spur employment and growth, and despite the global financial crisis, aimed for an expansion of between 2 percent and 3 percent of GDP
GDP
for 2009. Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.5 percent.[145] Real GDP
GDP
growth in 2012 was 5.5%. Growth slowed to 4.1% in the first quarter of 2013.[146] The unemployment rate was 6.4% in April 2013.[147] There are reported labor shortages in agriculture, mining, and construction.[146] The percentage of Chileans
Chileans
with per capita household incomes below the poverty line—defined as twice the cost of satisfying a person's minimal nutritional needs—fell from 45.1 percent in 1987 to 11.5 percent in 2009, according to government surveys.[148][149] Critics in Chile, however, argue that true poverty figures are considerably higher than those officially published.[150] Using the relative yardstick favoured in many European countries, 27% of Chileans
Chileans
would be poor, according to Juan Carlos Feres of the ECLAC.[151] As of November 2012, about 11.1 million people (64% of the population) benefit from government welfare programs,[152][clarification needed] via the "Social Protection Card", which includes the population living in poverty and those at a risk of falling into poverty.[153] The privatized national pension system (AFP) has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP.[154] Under the compulsory private pension system, most formal sector employees pay 10 percent of their salaries into privately managed funds.[27] However, by 2009, it has been reported that had been lost from the pension system to the global financial crisis.[155] Chile
Chile
has signed free trade agreements (FTAs) with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States
United States
that was signed in 2003 and implemented in January 2004.[156] Internal Government of Chile
Chile
figures show that even when factoring out inflation and the recent high price of copper, bilateral trade between the U.S. and Chile
Chile
has grown over 60 percent since then.[27] Chile's total trade with China reached US in 2006, representing nearly 66 percent of the value of its trade relationship with Asia.[27] Exports to Asia increased from US in 2005 to US in 2006, a 29.9 percent increase.[27] Year-on-year growth in imports was especially strong from a number of countries: Ecuador
Ecuador
(123.9%), Thailand (72.1%), South Korea
South Korea
(52.6%), and China (36.9%).[27] Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law. Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.[27] The Chilean Government has formed a Council on Innovation and Competition, hoping to bring in additional FDI to new parts of the economy.[27] Standard & Poor's gives Chile
Chile
a credit rating of AA-.[157] The Government of Chile
Government of Chile
continues to pay down its foreign debt, with public debt only 3.9 percent of GDP
GDP
at the end of 2006.[27] The Chilean central government is a net creditor with a net asset position of 7% of GDP
GDP
at end 2012.[146] The current account deficit was 4% in the first quarter of 2013, financed mostly by foreign direct investment.[146] 14% of central government revenue came directly from copper in 2012.[146] Agriculture Main article: Agriculture
Agriculture
in Chile

Vineyard in the Casablanca Valley

Agriculture in Chile
Agriculture in Chile
encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography, climate and geology and human factors. Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile's economy, now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounts only for 4.9% of the GDP
GDP
as of 2007[update] and employed 13.6% of the country's labor force. Some major agriculture products of Chile
Chile
includes grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans, beef, poultry, wool, fish, timber and hemp.[1] Due to its geographical isolation and strict customs policies Chile
Chile
is free from diseases such as Mad Cow Disease, fruit fly and Phylloxera. This, plus being located in the Southern Hemisphere which has quite different harvesting times from the Northern Hemisphere, and its wide range of agriculture conditions are considered Chile's main comparative advantages. However, Chile's mountainous landscape limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2.62% of the total territory. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile
Tourism in Chile
has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades. In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6 percent, generating more than 4.5 billion dollars of which 1.5 billion was attributed to foreign tourists. According to the National Service of Tourism (Sernatur), 2 million people a year visit the country. Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil
Brazil
with a growing number of Asians from South Korea
South Korea
and PR China.[158] The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama, in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.[citation needed] In Putre, also in the north, there is the Chungará Lake, as well as the Parinacota and the Pomerape
Pomerape
volcanoes, with altitudes of 6,348 m and 6,282 m, respectively. Throughout the central Andes
Andes
there are many ski resorts of international repute,[citation needed] including Portillo, Valle Nevado
Valle Nevado
and Termas de Chillán. The main tourist sites in the south are national parks (the most popular is Conguillío National Park
Conguillío National Park
in the Araucanía)[citation needed] and the coastal area around Tirúa
Tirúa
and Cañete with the Isla Mocha and the Nahuelbuta National Park, Chiloé Archipelago
Chiloé Archipelago
and Patagonia, which includes Laguna San Rafael National Park, with its many glaciers, and the Torres del Paine National Park. The central port city of Valparaíso, which is World Heritage with its unique architecture, is also popular.[citation needed] Finally, Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
is one of the main Chilean tourist destinations. For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer (December to March), and mainly in the coastal beach towns.[citation needed] Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, La Serena and Coquimbo
Coquimbo
are the main summer centers in the north, and Pucón
Pucón
on the shores of Lake Villarrica
Lake Villarrica
is the main center in the south. Because of its proximity to Santiago, the coast of the Valparaíso
Valparaíso
Region, with its many beach resorts, receives the largest number of tourists. Viña del Mar, Valparaíso's northern affluent neighbor, is popular because of its beaches, casino, and its annual song festival, the most important musical event in Latin America.[citation needed] Pichilemu
Pichilemu
in the O'Higgins Region is widely known as South America's "best surfing spot" according to Fodor's.[citation needed] In November 2005 the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.[159] Museums in Chile such as the Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts
Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts
built in 1880, feature works by Chilean artists.

Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama
in the Atacama Desert

Elqui Valley, wine and pisco region

Valparaíso

Puerto Varas

Pío XI or Brüggen Glacier

Iquique

San Pedro de Atacama

El Tatio
El Tatio
geyser fields

Viña del Mar

Conguillío National Park

Palafitos in the archipelago of Chiloé

Torres del Paine National Park

Rapa Nui National Park

Churches of Chiloé

Punta Arenas

Infrastructure Transport Main article: Transport in Chile

Mataveri International Airport
Mataveri International Airport
in Easter Island

Santiago
Santiago
Metro is South America's most extensive metro system[160]

Due to Chile's topography a functioning transport network is vital to its economy. Buses are now the main means of long distance transportation in Chile, following the decline of its railway network.[161] The bus system covers the entire country, from Arica
Arica
to Santiago
Santiago
(a 30-hour journey) and from Santiago
Santiago
to Punta Arenas
Punta Arenas
(about 40 hours, with a change at Osorno). Chile
Chile
has a total of 372 runways (62 paved and 310 unpaved). Important airports in Chile
Chile
include Chacalluta International Airport
Chacalluta International Airport
(Arica), Diego Aracena International Airport
Diego Aracena International Airport
(Iquique), Andrés Sabella Gálvez International Airport (Antofagasta), Carriel Sur International Airport (Concepción), El Tepual International Airport
El Tepual International Airport
(Puerto Montt), Presidente Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
International Airport (Punta Arenas), La Araucanía International Airport (Temuco), Mataveri International Airport (Easter Island), the most remote airport in the world[dubious – discuss], and the Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport (Santiago) with a traffic of 12,105,524 passengers in 2011. Santiago
Santiago
is headquarters of Latin America's largest airline holding company and Chilean flag carrier LAN Airlines. Telecommunications

Torre Entel
Torre Entel
in Santiago
Santiago
de Chile, with the Andes
Andes
mountains in the background

Chile
Chile
has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases. Privatization of the telephone system began in 1988; Chile
Chile
has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America
South America
with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations.[10] In 2012, there were 3.276 million main lines in use and 24.13 million mobile cellular telephone subscribers.[10] According to a 2012 database of the International Telecommunications Union
International Telecommunications Union
(ITU), 61.42% of the Chilean population uses the internet, making Chile
Chile
the country with the highest internet penetration in South America.[162] The Chilean internet country code is ".cl". Culture Main articles: Culture of Chile, Music of Chile, and Chilean cuisine From the period between early agricultural settlements and up to the late pre-Hispanic period, northern Chile
Chile
was a region of Andean culture that was influenced by altiplano traditions spreading to the coastal valleys of the north, while southern regions were areas of Mapuche
Mapuche
cultural activities. Throughout the colonial period following the conquest, and during the early Republican period, the country's culture was dominated by the Spanish. Other European influences, primarily English, French, and German began in the 19th century and have continued to this day. German migrants influenced the Bavarian style rural architecture and cuisine in the south of Chile
Chile
in cities such as Valdivia, Frutillar, Puerto Varas, Osorno, Temuco, Puerto Octay, Llanquihue, Faja Maisan, Pitrufquén, Victoria, Pucón
Pucón
and Puerto Montt.[163][164][165][166][167] Music and dance

La Zamacueca, by Manuel Antonio Caro.

Music in Chile
Chile
ranges from folkloric, popular and classical music. Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island
Easter Island
and Mapuche
Mapuche
music.[168] The national dance is the cueca. Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody. Between 1950 and 1970 appears a rebirth in folk music leading by groups such as Los de Ramón, Los Cuatro Huasos and Los Huasos Quincheros, among others[169] with composers such as Raúl de Ramón, Violeta Parra
Violeta Parra
and others. In the mid-1960s native musical forms were revitalized by the Parra family with the Nueva canción
Nueva canción
Chilena, which was associated with political activists and reformers such as Víctor Jara, Inti-Illimani, and Quilapayún. Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography, is Margot Loyola. Also many Chilean rock bands like Los Jaivas, Los Prisioneros, La Ley, and Los Tres
Los Tres
have reached international success. In February, annual music festivals are held in Viña del Mar.[170] Literature

Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
and Gabriela Mistral, Nobel Prize recipients in literature

Chile
Chile
is a country of poets.[171][172] Gabriela Mistral
Gabriela Mistral
was the first Latin American to receive a Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
(1945). Chile's most famous poet is Pablo Neruda, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature (1971) and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics. His three highly personalized homes in Isla Negra, Santiago
Santiago
and Valparaíso
Valparaíso
are popular tourist destinations. Among the list of other Chilean poets are Carlos Pezoa Véliz, Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas, Pablo de Rokha, Nicanor Parra
Nicanor Parra
and Raúl Zurita. Isabel Allende
Isabel Allende
is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide.[173] Novelist José Donoso's novel The Obscene Bird of Night
The Obscene Bird of Night
is considered by critic Harold Bloom to be one of the canonical works of 20th-century Western literature. Another internationally recognized Chilean novelist and poet is Roberto Bolaño
Roberto Bolaño
whose translations into English have had an excellent reception from the critics.[174][175][176] Cuisine

Chilean Asado
Asado
(Barbecue) and Marraqueta

Chilean cuisine
Chilean cuisine
is a reflection of the country's topographical variety, featuring an assortment of seafood, beef, fruits, and vegetables. Traditional recipes include asado, cazuela, empanadas, humitas, pastel de choclo, pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.[177] Crudos
Crudos
is an example of the mixture of culinary contributions from the various ethnic influences in Chile. The raw minced llama, heavy use of shellfish and rice bread were taken from native Quechua Andean cuisine, (although now beef brought to Chile
Chile
by Europeans is also used in place of the llama meat), lemon and onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer. Folklore The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture of Spanish and Amerindian elements that occurred during the colonial period. Due to cultural and historical reasons, they are classified and distinguished four major areas in the country: northern areas, central, southern and south. Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile
Chile
have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components.[citation needed] Mythology Main article: Chilean mythology Chilean mythology, is the mythology and beliefs of the Folklore
Folklore
of Chile. This includes Chilote mythology, Rapa Nui mythology
Rapa Nui mythology
and Mapuche mythology. Cinema Main article: Cinema of Chile The film originated in Valparaíso
Valparaíso
on 26 May 1902 with the premiere of the documentary Exercise General Fire Brigade, the first film completely filmed and processed in the country. In the following decades, marked milestones The deck of Death (or The Enigma of Lord Street) (1916), considered the first film Chilean story, The transmission of presidential (1920), the first animated film in the country, and North and South (1934), the first sound film of Chile. Sports Main article: Sport in Chile

Estadio Nacional de Chile

Chile's most popular sport is association football. Chile
Chile
has appeared in nine FIFA World Cups which includes hosting the 1962 FIFA World Cup where the national football team finished third. Other results achieved by the national football team include two Copa América titles (2015 and 2016), and two runners up positions, one silver and two bronze medals at the Pan American Games, a bronze medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
and two third places finishes in the FIFA under-17 and under-20 youth tournaments. The top league in the Chilean football league system is the Chilean Primera División, which is named by the IFFHS as the ninth strongest national football league in the world.[178] The main football clubs are Colo-Colo, Universidad de Chile
Universidad de Chile
and Universidad Católica. Colo-Colo
Colo-Colo
is the country's most successful football club, having both the most national and international championships, including the coveted Copa Libertadores
Libertadores
South American club tournament. Universidad de Chile
Universidad de Chile
was the last international champion ( Copa Sudamericana
Copa Sudamericana
2011). Tennis is Chile's most successful sport. Its national team won the World Team Cup
World Team Cup
clay tournament twice (2003 & 2004), and played the Davis Cup
Davis Cup
final against Italy
Italy
in 1976. At the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
the country captured gold and bronze in men's singles and gold in men's doubles. Marcelo Ríos
Marcelo Ríos
became the first Latin American man to reach the number one spot in the ATP singles rankings in 1998. Anita Lizana won the US Open in 1937, becoming the first woman from Latin America to win a Grand Slam tournament. Luis Ayala was twice a runner-up at the French Open and both Ríos and Fernando González
Fernando González
reached the Australian Open men's singles finals. González also won a silver medal in singles at the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing. At the Summer Olympic Games Chile
Chile
boasts a total of two gold medals (tennis), seven silver medals (athletics, equestrian, boxing, shooting and tennis) and four bronze medals (tennis, boxing and football). In 2012, Chile
Chile
won its first Paralympic Games medal (gold in Athletics).

The Chilean national polo team with President Michelle Bachelet
Michelle Bachelet
and the trophy of the 2015 World Polo
Polo
Championship.

Rodeo is the country's national sport and is practiced in the more rural areas of the nation. A sport similar to hockey called chueca was played by the Mapuche
Mapuche
people during the Spanish conquest. Skiing
Skiing
and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers located in the Central Andes, and in southern ski centers near to cities as Osorno, Puerto Varas, Temuco
Temuco
and Punta Arenas. surfing is popular at some coastal towns. Polo
Polo
is professionally practiced within Chile, with the country achieving top prize in the 2008 and 2015 World Polo
Polo
Championship. Basketball
Basketball
is a popular sport in which Chile
Chile
has earned a bronze medal in the first men's FIBA World Championship
FIBA World Championship
held in 1950 and winning a second bronze medal when Chile
Chile
hosted the 1959 FIBA World Championship. Chile
Chile
hosted the first FIBA World Championship
FIBA World Championship
for Women in 1953 finishing the tournament with the silver medal. San Pedro de Atacama is host to the annual "Atacama Crossing", a six-stage, 250-kilometre (160 mi) footrace which annually attracts about 150 competitors from 35 countries. The Dakar Rally
Dakar Rally
off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile
Chile
and Argentina
Argentina
since 2009. Cultural heritage

The historical district of the port city of Valparaíso

The cultural heritage of Chile
Chile
consists, first, of their intangible heritage, composed of various cultural events, such as visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, cuisine, games, music and traditions, and, secondly, by its tangible, consists of those buildings, objects and sites of archaeological, architectural, traditional, artistic, ethnographic, folkloric, historical, religious or technological scattered through Chilean territory, among them, those goods are declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 1972, ratified by Chile
Chile
in 1980. These cultural sites are the Rapa Nui National Park
Rapa Nui National Park
(1995), the Churches of Chiloé
Churches of Chiloé
(2000), the historical district of the port city of Valparaíso
Valparaíso
(2003), Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (2005) and the mining city Sewell (2006). In 1999 the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chiles cultural heritage. It is an official national holiday celebrated in May every year. See also

Chile
Chile
portal Latin America
Latin America
portal Geography
Geography
portal

Index of Chile-related articles International rankings of Chile List of Chileans Outline of Chile 2010 Chile
Chile
earthquake

References

^ "100 peso Coin". Central Bank of Chile. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2016). "Chile". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 29, 2017.  ^ a b Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (October 2006). "Compendio estadístico 2006" (PDF). Retrieved November 29, 2007.  ^ a b "RESULTADOS CENSO 2017" (PDF). RESULTADOS DEFINITIVOS CENSO 2017. National Statistics Institute. 1 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2017.  ^ a b c d "Chile". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ "GINI index ( World Bank
World Bank
estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved November 2, 2017.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Chile". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ "Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, Background Note: Chile". United States
United States
Department of State. 16 December 2011.  ^ a b c d "Chile". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ a b c d "Country profile: Chile". BBC News. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009.  ^ "SOCIAL PROGRESS INDEX 2015 : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" (PDF). 2.deloitte.com. Retrieved 2017-08-02.  ^ a b "Human and income poverty: developing countries". UNDP. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009.  ^ "World Development Indicators". World Bank. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.  ^ "Chile.com.La Incógnita Sobre el Origen de la Palabra Chile". Chile.com. 15 June 2000. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. " Picunche
Picunche
(people) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ a b c Encina, Francisco A., and Leopoldo Castedo (1961). Resumen de la Historia de Chile. 4th ed. Santiago. I. Zig-Zag. p. 44.  ^ "Chile". Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online. 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2005. The name Chile
Chile
is of Native American origin, meaning possibly "ends of the earth" or simply "sea gulls."  ^ a b c d e f g Hudson, Rex A., ed. (1995). "Chile: A Country Study". GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 February 2005. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b "CHILE". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11th ed. 1911. ("derived, it is said, from the Quichua chiri, cold, or tchili, snow") ^ " Chile
Chile
(república)". Enciclopedia Microsoft Encarta Online. 2005. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2005. The region was then known to its native population as Tchili, a Native American word meaning "snow".  ^ Pearson, Neale J. (2004). "Chile". Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Library Publishing. Retrieved 2 March 2005. Chile's name comes from an Indian word, Tchili, meaning "the deepest point of the Earth."  ^ de Olivares y González SJ, Miguel (1864) [1736]. Historia de la Compañía de Jesús en Chile. Colección de historiadores de Chile
Chile
y documentos relativos a la historia nacional. 4. Santiago: Imprenta del Ferrocarril.  ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year: 1900. New York: Appletons. p. 87.  ^ Bower, Bruce (26 December 2015). "People roamed tip of South America 18,500 years ago". Science News. p. 10. Retrieved 26 December 2015.  ^ Insight Guides: Chile. Langenscheidt Publishing Group. 2002. p. 27. ISBN 978-981-234-890-6. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Development and Breakdown of Democracy, 1830–1973". Country Studies. Library of Congress. 31 March 1994.  ^ "Bárbaros, page 66. David J. Weber". Archive.org.  ^ "INE – Censo de 1813. Introducción" (PDF).  ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 9781107507180.  ^ Fowler, Will (1996). Authoritarianism in Latin America
Latin America
since independence. University of Virginia: Geenwood Press. pp. 30–96. ISBN 0-313-29843-2.  ^ Frazier, Lessie Jo (17 July 2007). Salt in the Sand: Memory, Violence, and the Nation-State in Chile, 1890 to the Present. Duke University Press. pp. 163–184. ISBN 978-0-8223-4003-4. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Mares, David; Francisco Rojas Aravena (2001). The United States
United States
and Chile: Coming in from the Cold. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-415-93125-0. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Trento, Joseph J. (2005). The Secret History Of The CIA. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 560. ISBN 978-0-7867-1500-8. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Lois Hecht Oppenheim (2007). Politics in Chile: Socialism, Authoritarianism, and Market Democracy. Westview Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7867-3426-9. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ a b c De Vylder, Stefan (5 March 2009). Allende's Chile: The Political Economy of the Rise and Fall of the Unidad Popular. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-10757-0.  ^ "Allende wins the elections: first coup attempt". Grace.evergreen.edu. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ a b c d Friedman, Norman (1 March 2007). The Fifty-Year War: Conflict and Strategy in the Cold War. Naval Institute Press. pp. 367–368. ISBN 978-1-59114-287-4. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Qureshi, Lubna Z. (2009). Nixon, Kissinger, and Allende: U.S. Involvement in the 1973 Coup in Chile. Lexington Books. pp. 86–97. ISBN 978-0-7391-2655-4. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "Report on CIA Chilean Task Force activities". Chile
Chile
and the United States: Declassified Documents relating to the Military Coup, 1970–1976. The National Security Archive: Electronic Briefing Books (George Washington University). Retrieved 11 March 2010.  ^ a b "Covert Action In Chile
Chile
1963–1973, Staff Report Of The Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect To Intelligence Activities". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ "Tightening the Belt". Time Magazine. 7 August 1972.  ^ "Equipo Nizkor – CIA Activities in Chile
Chile
– September 18, 2000". Derechos.org. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ "Transition to Democracy in Latin America: The Role of the judiciary" (PDF). Yale University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2013.  ^ Soto, Óscar (1999). El último día de Salvador Allende. Aguilar. ISBN 978-956-239-084-2.  ^ Ahumada, Eugeno. Chile: La memoria prohibida.  ^ "KISSINGER AND CHILE: THE DECLASSIFIED RECORD". The national security archive. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.  ^ "Flashback: Caravan of Death". BBC. 25 July 2000.  ^ Ministerio del Interior (3 August 1999). "Ministerio del Interior, Programa de Derechos Humanos – ddhh_rettig". Ddhh.gov.cl. Archived from the original on 23 December 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ a b "Sintesis Ok" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ Eva Vergara (August 18, 2015). Chile
Chile
Recognizes 9,800 More Pinochet Victims. The Associated Press via The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2015. ^ Pamela Constable; Arturo Valenzuela (1993). A Nation of Enemies: Chile
Chile
Under Pinochet. W W Norton & Company Incorporated. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-393-30985-0.  ^ Naomi Klein (1 April 2010). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Henry Holt and Company (2007). p. 85. ISBN 978-1-4299-1948-7. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Huneeus, Carlos (3 September 2009). "Political Mass Mobilization against Authoritarian Rule: Pinochet's Chile, 1983–88". In Adam Roberts; Timothy Garton Ash. Civil Resistance and Power Politics:The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford University Press. pp. 197–212. ISBN 978-0-19-161917-5. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Christian, Shirley (16 December 1989). "Man in the News: Patricio Aylwin; A Moderate Leads Chile". The New York Times.  ^ " Chile
Chile
elects new leader Late president's son wins big". Encyclopedia.com. 12 December 1993. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "Moderate socialist Lagos wins Chilean presidential election". CNN. 16 January 2000. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008.  ^ " Chile
Chile
elects first woman president". MSNBC.  ^ Reel, Monte (12 March 2006). "Bachelet Sworn In As Chile's President". The Washington Post.  ^ "US ready to help Chile: Obama". The Australia Times. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ More Quakes Shake Chile’s Infrastructure, Adam Figman, Contract Magazine, 1 March 2010 Archived 14 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Background Note: Chile". Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, United States
United States
Department of State. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2012.  ^ "A Country Study: Chile". United States
United States
Library of Congress.  ^ " Chile
Chile
scraps Pinochet-era system". BBC. 16 August 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2009.  ^ "President Lagos: We can make a greater effort to make yesterday's and today's trials equally just". Chilean Government. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Member States". United Nations. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ "The San Francisco Conference: Chile
Chile
Signs United Nations Charter". [permanent dead link] ^ "Election (13 May 2010) Human Rights Council". 64th Session. United Nations General Assembly.  ^ "Chad, Chile, Lithuania, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Saudi Arabia were elected to serve on the UN Security Council". United Nations. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.  ^ a b Ministerio del Interior (October 10, 1978). "Decreto ley 2339 de 1978" (HTML). Retrieved June 28, 2011.  ^ Ministerio del Interior (October 26, 1979). "Decreto ley 2867 de 1979" (HTML). Retrieved March 20, 2011.  ^ Ministerio del Interior (October 26, 1979). "Decreto ley 2868 de 1979" (HTML). Retrieved March 20, 2011.  ^ a b Ministerio del Interior (April 5, 2007). "Ley 20174 de 2007" (HTML). Retrieved March 20, 2011.  ^ a b Ministerio del Interior (April 11, 2007). "Ley 20175 de 2007" (HTML). Retrieved March 20, 2011.  ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (March 18, 2008). "División político-administrativa y censal, 2007" (PDF). p. 12. ISBN 978-956-7952-68-7. Retrieved February 27, 2013.  ^ " Chile
Chile
flag and description". Worldatlas.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ " Chilean Army
Chilean Army
Commander-in-Chief Visits WJPC". Archived from the original on 30 October 2014.  ^ "Army War College Community Banner".  ^ "Almirante Julio Leiva Nuevo Comandante en Jefe de la Armada". Ministry of Defence of Chile. Retrieved 10 January 2018.  ^ "The National Fleet". Chilean Navy. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2014.  ^ "Submarine Force". Wayback.archive.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "Carabineros de Chile". Wayback.archive.org. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "Chile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ "Antarctic Treaty: Information about the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
and how Antarctica
Antarctica
is governed". Polar Conservation Organisation. Polar Conservation Organisation. 1 February 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.  ^ Collin, Robert (2015). Trash Talk: An Encyclopedia of Garbage and Recycling around the World. p. 121.  ^ Blanco, Alejandro Vergara (1998). Derecho de aguas. Editorial Jurídica de Chile. ISBN 978-956-10-1241-7. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ a b c d e "Icarito: Enciclopedia de la flora y fauna de Chile". Icarito. Archived from the original on 10 April 2006.  ^ a b Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia (27 October 2006). "Distribution patterns of flora and fauna in southern Chilean Coastal rain forests: Integrating Natural History and GIS". Biodiversity and Conservation. Springer Netherlands (Volume 16, Number 9 / August 2007). doi:10.1007/s10531-006-9073-2.  ^ Posada-Swafford, Ángela. "Chilean and Antarctic Fossils Reveal the Last "Geologic Minutes" of the Age of Dinosaurs [Slide Show]".  ^ Oehrens, E.B. "Flora Fungosa Chilena". Universidad de Chile, Santiago
Santiago
de Chile, 1980 ^ "Cybertruffle's Robigalia – Observations of fungi and their associated organisms". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2011.  ^ Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., Minter, D.W. and Stalpers, J. "Dictionary of the Fungi". Edn 10. CABI, 2008 ^ "Fungi of Chile
Chile
– potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2011.  ^ a b c Niemeyer, Hans; Cereceda, Pilar (1983). "Hydrography". Geography of Chile
Geography of Chile
(1st ed.). Santiago: Military Geographic Institute. 8.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Anuario Estadísticas Vitales 2003". Instituto National de Estadísticas.  ^ "Chile: Proyecciones y Estimaciones de Población. Total País 1950–2050" (PDF). Instituto National de Estadísticas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2010.  ^ "List of Chilean cities". Observatorio Urbano, Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo de Chile. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.  ^ "Estudio genético en chilenos muestra desconocida herencia africana El Dínamo". Eldinamo.cl. 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2013.  ^ Godinho, Neide Maria de Oliveira (2008). "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas" (PDF). Universidade de Brasília. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2013.  ^ "5.2.6. Estructura racial". La Universidad de Chile. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2007.  (Main page Archived 16 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ "Informe Latinobarómetro 2011". Latinobarometro.org. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "Encuesta CEP, Julio 2002" (in Spanish). July 2002. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ "1907 census". Memoriachilena.cl.  ^ "Censo 2002 – Síntesis de Resultados" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas.  ^ "El gradiente sociogenético chileno y sus implicaciones ético-sociales". Medwave.cl. 15 June 2000. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013.  ^ "ILOLEX: submits English query". Ilo.org. 9 January 2004. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009.  ^ "Chile's Supreme Court Upholds Indigenous Water Use Rights". The Santiago
Santiago
Times. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ a b c d Waldo Ayarza Elorza. "De los Vascos, Oñati y los Elorza" (PDF). pp. 59, 65, 66. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ a b c d e Salazar Vergara, Gabriel; Pinto, Julio (1999). "La Presencia Inmigrante". Historia contemporánea de Chile: Actores, identidad y movimiento. II. Lom Ediciones. pp. 76–81. ISBN 978-956-282-174-2. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "INE - Error 404" (PDF). www.ine.cl.  ^ Hoofdstuk XVI Historisch tussenspel (in Dutch) ^ "Dutch immigration". Cstandt.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013.  ^ Durán, Hipólito (1997). "El crecimiento de la población latinoamericana y en especial de Chile
Chile
• Academia Chilena de Medicina". Superpoblación. Madrid: Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. p. 217. ISBN 84-923901-0-7. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ Pérez Rosales, Vicente (1860). Recuerdos del Pasado. Santiago
Santiago
de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello.  ^ "entrevista al Presidente de la Cámara vasca". Deia.com. 22 May 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009.  ^ "Chile: Moving Towards a Migration Policy". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ Landaburu, Juan (24 June 2007). "El debate sobre la inmigración ilegal se extiende a la región". La Nación. Retrieved 31 December 2008.  ^ "Estimación de Población de Extranjeros en Chile
Chile
a Diciembre de 2008" (PDF). Departamento de Extranjería y Migración. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome". Adnkronos.com. 7 April 2003.  ^ "500,000 descendientes de primera y segunda generación de palestinos en Chile". Laventana.casa.cult.cu. Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ a b "Population 15 years of age or older, by religion, region, sex and age groups. (censused population)" (PDF) (in Spanish). 7 September 2015. Archived from the original (.pdf) on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2018.  ^ 7,853,428 out of 11,226,309 people over 15 years of age. "Population 15 years of age or older, by religion, administrative division, sex and age groups" (PDF). Censo 2002 (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 March 2014.  ^ a b c d "Chile". International Religious Freedom Report. United States Department of State. 19 September 2008.  ^ http://plazapublica.cl/wp-content/uploads/658799.pdf ^ "Hola, Luther". The Economist. 6 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008.  ^ Andrea Henríquez (31 October 2008). "Los evangélicos tienen su feriado". BBC Mundo. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ "Patron Saints: 'C'". Catholic Online. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ "Las fechas del proceso de Canonización del Padre Hurtado" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 January 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2008.  ^ "Ethnologue report for Chile". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ Oliver Zoellner. "Oliver Zoellner Generating Samples of Ethnic Minorities in Chile". Research-worldwide.de. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ "Repeat after me: Hello, my name is". Globalpost.com.  ^ "Anglicism in Chilean Spanish". Scielo.cl. 4 May 2004.  ^ " Chile
Chile
Country Profile, UNESCO-UNEVOC".  ^ "Mensualidad de los colegios con los mejores puntajes en la PSU supera los mil". Emol.com. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2014.  ^ "Program in Chile
Chile
Yale Law School". Law.yale.edu. Retrieved 22 December 2013.  ^ "How We Classify Countries". World Bank. Retrieved 1 July 2013.  ^ "Country and Lending Groups". High-income economies ($12,616 or more): The World Bank. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)". Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. 1 August 2013. Archived from the original (xls) on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013. GNI-WB  ^ "Chile". Index of Economic Freedom. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "Chile's accession to the OECD". OECD. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2016.  ^ Table 4: The Global Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Index 2009–2010 rankings and 2008–2009 comparisons Archived 30 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. The Global Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Index 2009–2010. World Economic Forum ^ a b c d "Mining in Chile: Copper
Copper
solution". The Economist. 27 April 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ " Chile
Chile
GDP
GDP
– real growth rate". Indexmundi.com. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ " Chile
Chile
finmin says no recession seen in 2009-report". Reuters. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ a b c d e "Chile: 2013 Article IV Consultation; IMF Country Report 13/198" (PDF). IMF. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ " Chile
Chile
February–April Unemployment Rises to 6.4% From 6.2% in January–March". WSJ.com. Retrieved 13 July 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ "Casen 2006 en profundidad" (PDF). Libertad y Desarrollo. 22 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ "Panorama social de América Latina" (PDF). ECLAC. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "Una muy necesaria corrección: Hay cuatro millones de pobres en Chile". El Mercurio. 14 October 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ "Destitute no more". The Economist. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  (subscription required) ^ "Ficha de Protección Social – Ministerio de Desarrollo Social". Fichaproteccionsocial.gob.cl. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Ficha de Protección Social – Ministerio de Desarrollo Social". Fichaproteccionsocial.gob.cl. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012.  ^ "The Chilean pension system" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "An uncertain future". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ "USA- Chile
Chile
FTA Final Text". Ustr.gov. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "UPDATE 2-S&P raises Chile's credit rating to AA-minus". Reuters. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ Blanco, Hernán et al. (August 2007) International Trade and Sustainable Tourism in Chile. International Institute for Sustainable Development ^ "Pro Chile
Chile
– Importadores Selección idiomas". Prochile.us. Retrieved 22 December 2013.  ^ "Guía del Viajero" [Plan Your Journey] (in Spanish). Metro de Santiago. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^ Omnilineas. "Omnilineas website".  ^ "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000, International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013 ^ " Valdivia
Valdivia
Chile". Allsouthernchile.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ International Web Solutions, Inc. <http://www.iwsinc.net>. "Latin America :: Chile". Global Adrenaline. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ "Learning About Each Other". Learnapec.org. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ " Chile
Chile
Foreign Relations". Country-studies.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ "Food in Chile
Chile
– Chilean Food, Chilean Cuisine – traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, rice, main, people, favorite, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread, drink, typical". Foodbycountry.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ "Memoria Chilena". Memoriachilena.cl.  ^ "Conjuntos Folkloricos de Chile". Musicapopular.cl. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.  ^ Martinez, Jessica. "Top Cultural Celebrations and Festivals in Chile". USA Today.  ^ http://www.protocolo.com.mx/articulos.php?id_sec=2&id_art=600. Retrieved 29 October 2008.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ "Un mapa por completar: la joven poesia chilena – ¿Por qué tanta y tan variada poesía?". Uchile.cl. Retrieved 17 December 2009.  ^ "Latin American Herald Tribune – Isabel Allende
Isabel Allende
Named to Council of Cervantes Institute". Laht.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ Grossman, Lev (10 November 2008). "Bolaño's 2666: The Best Book of 2008". Time. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ Sarah Kerr (18 December 2008). "The Triumph of Roberto Bolaño". The New York Review of Books.  ^ Wood, James (15 April 2007). "The Visceral Realist". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2010.  ^ Maria Baez Kijac (2003). The South American Table: The Flavor and Soul of Authentic... Harvard Common Press. ISBN 978-1-55832-249-3. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "The strongest National League in the World 2011". IFFHS. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 

Further reading

Simon Collier and William F. Sater, A History of Chile, 1808–1894, Cambridge University Press, 1996 Paul W. Drake, and others., Chile: A Country Study, Library of Congress, 1994 Luis Galdames, A History of Chile, University of North Carolina Press, 1941 Brian Lovemen, Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 2001 John L. Rector, The History of Chile, Greenwood Press, 2003

External links

Find more aboutChileat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official Chile
Chile
website Government of Chile "Chile". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Chile
Chile
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Chile
Chile
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Chile
Chile
profile from the BBC News Road maps of Chile, interactive World Bank
World Bank
Summary Trade Statistics Chile Wikimedia Atlas of Chile Geographic data related to Chile
Chile
at OpenStreetMap Key Development Forecasts for Chile
Chile
from International Futures Chile
Chile
Cultural Society

v t e

Chile articles

History

Timeline Early Mapuches Inca rule Spanish invasion Colonial Chile Captaincy General Arauco War Independence Expansionism War of the Confederation Chincha Islands War War of the Pacific Occupation of Araucanía Parliamentary Era (1891–1925) Arms race with Argentina Dreadnought
Dreadnought
race with Argentina, Brazil Presidential Republic (1925–73) Presidency of Salvador Allende 1973 coup Pinochet regime Transition to democracy

Geography

Cities Climate Earthquakes Environment Extreme points Fjords, channels, sounds and straits Geology Islands National parks Natural regions Provinces Regions Rivers Lakes Volcanoes Lighthouses

Politics

National Congress Elections Foreign relations Government Political parties President Ministries

Law

Civil Code Constitution Copyright law Human rights

LGBT Intersex

LGBT history Law enforcement Nationality law Passport Supreme Court Constitutional Court Comptroller General of Chile Investigations Police of Chile

Military

Air Force Army Navy Carabineros Ministry of Defence

Economy

Agriculture Central Bank Companies Economic history Peso (currency) Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport

Society

Crime Demographics Education Healthcare Immigration Languages People Religion Water supply and sanitation Women

Culture

Arts Beauty pageants Cinema Cuisine Literature Music Mythology Newspapers Public holidays Sports Television

Outline Index

Category Portal

International membership

v t e

Countries and dependencies of South America

Sovereign states

Entire

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

In part

France

French Guiana

Dependencies

Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK

v t e

Andean Community of Nations

Members

Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru

Associate members

Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela

Observers

Mexico Panama

v t e

Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS)

Members

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Barbados Brazil Belize Bahamas Bolivia Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay

Renounced

Venezuela

Organization

Secretariat for Political Affairs Secretariat for Multidimensional Security General Assembly Inter-American Commission of Women Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights Pan American Union Building

Politics

Charter Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man American Convention on Human Rights Pan-American Conference Summits of the Americas

Americas Pan American Sports Organization

v t e

Union of South American Nations

Member states

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Proposed: Trinidad and Tobago

Summits

2004 2008 2009 Ecuador 2009 Argentina 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Topics

Cusco Declaration Constitutive Treaty President Pro Tempore Secretary General Bank of the South South American Parliament Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America Mercosur Andean Community

v t e

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD)

History

Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD Anti-Bribery Convention

Guidelines

Multinational Enterprises Testing of Chemicals

v t e

Nations in the Group of 15
Group of 15
(G-15)

Summits

1990 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2004 2006 2010 2012

Members

Algeria Argentina Brazil Chile Egypt India Indonesia Iran Jamaica Kenya Malaysia Mexico Nigeria Senegal Sri Lanka Venezuela Zimbabwe

v t e

Mercosur
Mercosur
· Mercosul

(Southern Common Market)

Treaties

Treaty of Asunción Protocol of Ouro Preto

Members

Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela
Venezuela
(suspended)

Currencies

Argentine peso Brazilian real Paraguayan guaraní Uruguayan peso Venezuelan bolívar Gaucho

Associates

Bolivia Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru

Observers

Mexico New Zealand

Institutions

Parliament

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 233665742 GND: 4009929-5 HDS:

.