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A succession of laws on child labour, the so-called Factory Acts,were passed in the UK in the 19th century. Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, those aged 9–16 could work 12 hours per day per the Cotton Mills Act. In 1856, the law permitted child labour past age 9, for 60 hours per week, night or day. In 1901, the permissible child labour age was raised to 12.[1][2]
A Chinese child repairing shoes, late 19th century.