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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

A COLLEGE ( Latin
Latin
: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree -awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university , or an institution offering vocational education .

In the United States
United States
, "college" often refers to a constituent part of a university or to a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, but generally "college" and "university" are used interchangeably, whereas in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Oceania
Oceania
, South Asia and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
, "college" may refer to a secondary or high school, a college of further education , a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher education provider that does not have university status (often without its own degree-awarding powers), or a constituent part of a university (See this comparison of British and American English
American English
educational terminology for further information).

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Overview

* 2.1 Higher education
Higher education
* 2.2 Further education * 2.3 Secondary education * 2.4 Other

* 3 College
College
by Country

* 3.1 Australia * 3.2 Canada * 3.3 Chile * 3.4 Georgia * 3.5 Greece * 3.6 Hong Kong * 3.7 India
India
* 3.8 Ireland * 3.9 Israel * 3.10 Macau
Macau
* 3.11 New Zealand * 3.12 Philippines * 3.13 Portugal
Portugal
* 3.14 Singapore
Singapore
* 3.15 South Africa * 3.16 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

* 3.17 United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* 3.17.1 Secondary education and further education * 3.17.2 Higher education
Higher education

* 3.18 United States
United States

* 3.18.1 Residential colleges * 3.18.2 Origin of the U.S. usage * 3.18.3 Morrill Land-Grant Act * 3.18.4 Benefits of college

* 3.19 Zimbabwe

* 4 See also * 5 References

ETYMOLOGY

In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con- = "together" + leg- = "law" or lego = "I choose" or "I read").

Aside from the modern educational context - nowadays the most common use of "college" - there are various other meanings also derived from the original Latin
Latin
term, such as Electoral college
Electoral college
.

OVERVIEW

HIGHER EDUCATION

Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to:

* a constituent part of a collegiate university , for example King\'s College, Cambridge , or of a federal university, for example King\'s College
College
London * an institute providing specialised training, such as a college of further education , for example Belfast Metropolitan College
Belfast Metropolitan College
, a teacher training college, or an art college. * In the United States
United States
, college can be a synonym for university, e.g. Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
, one of the eight universities in the Ivy League

King\'s College
College
London , established by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
having been founded by King George IV
King George IV
and the Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London
University of London
.

FURTHER EDUCATION

Main article: Sixth form college
Sixth form college

A sixth form college or college of further education is an educational institution in England
England
, Wales
Wales
, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, Belize , The Caribbean
The Caribbean
, Malta
Malta
, Norway
Norway
, Brunei
Brunei
, or Southern Africa
Southern Africa
, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels , BTEC , HND or its equivalent and the International Baccalaureate Diploma , or school-level qualifications such as GCSEs
GCSEs
. In Singapore
Singapore
and India
India
, this is known as a junior college . The municipal government of the city of Paris
Paris
uses the phrase "sixth form college" as the English name for a lycée .

SECONDARY EDUCATION

Scotch College, Melbourne
Scotch College, Melbourne
is an independent secondary school

In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title.

In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or independent (non-government) primary and, especially, secondary school as distinct from a state school . Melbourne Grammar School
Melbourne Grammar School
, Cranbrook School, Sydney and The King\'s School, Parramatta are considered colleges.

There has also been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as "colleges". In the state of Victoria , some state high schools are referred to as secondary colleges, although the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne
Melbourne
is still named Melbourne
Melbourne
High School . In Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
, "college" is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, and also some older ones. In New South Wales
Wales
, some high schools, especially multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary colleges". In Queensland
Queensland
some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, but state schools offering only secondary education are called "State High School". In Tasmania
Tasmania
and the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
, "college" refers to the final two years of high school (years 11 and 12), and the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a shorter version of matriculation college.

In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes" (C.I.), a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation. This is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational, subjects and ability levels (for example, collegiates offered Latin while vocational schools offered technical courses). Some private secondary schools (such as Upper Canada College
Upper Canada College
, Vancouver College ) choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless. Some secondary schools elsewhere in the country, particularly ones within the separate school system, may also use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.

In New Zealand the word "college" normally refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name especially of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most frequently appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. St John\'s College, Johannesburg

In South Africa, some secondary schools, especially private schools on the English public school model, have "college" in their title. Thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John\'s College
College
.

Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges".

In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
the word "college" (known as Vidyalaya in Sinhala ) normally refers to a secondary school, which usually signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limited number of exclusive secondary schools were established based on English public school model ( Royal College Colombo , S. Thomas\' College, Mount Lavinia , Trinity College, Kandy ) these along with several Catholic schools (St. Joseph\'s College, Colombo , St Anthony\'s College
College
) traditionally carry their name as colleges. Following the start of free education in 1931 large group of central colleges were established to educate the rural masses. Since Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
gained Independence in 1948, many schools that have been established have been named as "college".

OTHER

Royal College Colombo

As well as an educational institution, the term can also refer, following its etymology, to any formal group of colleagues set up under statute or regulation; often under a Royal Charter. Examples are an electoral college , the College of Arms , a college of canons , and the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
. Other collegiate bodies include professional associations, particularly in medicine and allied professions. In the UK these include the Royal College of Nursing
Royal College of Nursing
and the Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
. Examples in the United States include the American College of Physicians
American College of Physicians
, the American College
College
of Surgeons , and the American College
College
of Dentists. An example in Australia is the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
.

COLLEGE BY COUNTRY

See also: Category: Higher education
Higher education
by country

AUSTRALIA

In Australia a college may be an institution of tertiary education that is smaller than a university, run independently or as part of a university. Following a reform in the 1980s many of the formerly independent colleges now belong to a larger universities.

Referring to parts of a university, there are residential colleges which provide residence for students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, called university colleges . These colleges often provide additional tutorial assistance, and some host theological study. Many colleges have strong traditions and rituals, so are a combination of dormitory style accommodation and fraternity or sorority culture.

Most technical and further education institutions (TAFEs ), which offer certificate and diploma vocational courses, are styled "TAFE colleges" or "Colleges of TAFE".

Some senior high schools are also referred to as colleges.

CANADA

Main article: College (Canada)

In Canada, the term "college" usually refers to a trades school, applied arts/science/technology/business/health school or community college . These are post-secondary institutions granting certificates , diplomas, associate\'s degree , and in some cases bachelor\'s degrees . In Quebec
Quebec
, the term is seldom used; the French acronym for public colleges, CEGEP
CEGEP
(Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel, "college of general and professional education"), is colloquially all collegiate level institutions specific to the Quebec education system , a step that is required to continue onto university (unless one applies as a "mature" student, meaning 21 years of age or over, and out of the educational system for at least 2 years), or to learn a trade. In Ontario
Ontario
and Alberta
Alberta
, there are also institutions which are designated university colleges , as they only grant undergraduate degrees. This is to differentiate between universities, which have both undergraduate and graduate programs and those that do not. In contrast to usage in the United States, there is a strong distinction between "college" and "university" in Canada. In conversation, one specifically would say either "They are going to university" (i.e., studying for a three- or four-year degree at a university) or "They are going to college" (suggesting technical/career training or university transfer courses).

The Royal Military College of Canada
Royal Military College of Canada
, a full-fledged degree-granting university, does not follow the naming convention used by the rest of the country, nor does its sister school Royal Military College Saint-Jean or the now closed Royal Roads Military College
Royal Roads Military College
.

The term "college" also applies to distinct entities within a university (usually referred to as "federated colleges " or "affiliated colleges"), similar to the residential colleges in the United Kingdom. These colleges act independently, but in affiliation or federation with the university that actually grants the degrees. For example, Trinity College
College
was once an independent institution, but later became federated with the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
, and is now one of its residential colleges (though it remains a degree-granting institution through its Faculty of Divinity). In the case of Memorial University
University
of Newfoundland , located in St. John\'s , the Corner Brook campus is called Sir Wilfred Grenfell College . Occasionally, "college" refers to a subject specific faculty within a university that, while distinct, are neither federated nor affiliated—College of Education, College
College
of Medicine, College
College
of Dentistry, College
College
of Biological Science among others.

There are also universities referred to as art colleges, empowered to grant academic degrees of BFA, Bdes, MFA, Mdes and sometimes collaborative PhD
PhD
degrees. Some of them have "university" in their name ( NSCAD University
NSCAD University
, OCAD University
OCAD University
and Emily Carr University
University
of Art and Design )and others do not. In some Canadian provinces, the word "college" may also be seen in the proper name of a high school , especially one with a history as a private school , but these institutions would not actually be considered colleges in the more general sense of the term.

Online and distance education ( E-learning
E-learning
) use "college" in the name in the British sense, for example : Canada Capstone College.

One use of the term "college" in the American sense is by the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
(CFL), which calls its annual entry draft the Canadian College Draft
Canadian College Draft
. The draft is restricted to players who qualify under CFL rules as "non-imports"—essentially, players who were raised in Canada (see the main CFL article for a more detailed definition). Because a player's designation as "non-import" is not affected by where he plays post-secondary football, the category includes former players at U.S. college football programs ("universities" in the Canadian sense) as well as CIS football programs at Canadian universities.

CHILE

In Chile, the term "college" is usually used in the name of some bilingual schools, like Santiago College , Saint George\'s College etc.

GEORGIA

International Association of "Tourists and Travelers" College. International association "tourists and travelers" is a non-commercial, non political and non industrial organization, which is created to develop tourism in Georgia.

GREECE

KOLLEGIO (in Greek Κολλέγιο) refers to the Centers of Post- Lyceum Education (in Greek Κέντρο Μεταλυκειακής Εκπαίδευσης, abbreviated as KEME), which are principally private and belong to the Greek post-secondary education system. Some of them have links to EU or US higher education institutions or accreditation organizations, such as the NEASC . Kollegio (or Kollegia in plural) may also refer to private non-tertiary schools, such as the Athens College .

HONG KONG

See also: Education in Hong Kong
Education in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the term 'college' is used by tertiary institutions as either part of their names or to refer to a constituent part of the university, such as the colleges in the collegiate The Chinese University
University
of Hong Kong ; or to a residence hall of a university, such as St. John\'s College, University
University
of Hong Kong . Many older secondary schools have the term 'college' as part of their names.

INDIA

See also: Colleges and institutes in India
India

The modern system of education was heavily influenced by the British starting in 1835.

In India, the term "college" is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 ("Junior College", similar to American high schools), and those that offer the bachelor\'s degree ; some colleges, however, offer programmes up to PhD
PhD
level. Generally, colleges are located in different parts of a state and all of them are affiliated to a regional university. The colleges offer programmes leading to degrees of that university. Colleges may be either Autonomous or non-autonomous. Autonomous Colleges are empowered to establish their own syllabus, and conduct and assess their own examinations; in non-autonomous colleges, examinations are conducted by the university, at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation. There are several hundred universities and each university has affiliated colleges, often a large number.

The first liberal arts and sciences college in India
India
was C. M. S. College
College
Kottayam , Kerala, established in 1817, and the Presidency College, Kolkata , also 1817, initially known as Hindu College. The first college for the study of Christian theology and ecumenical enquiry was Serampore College
Serampore College
(1818). The first Missionary institution to impart Western style education in India
India
was the Scottish Church College, Calcutta (1830). The first commerce and economics college in India
India
was Sydenham College , Mumbai
Mumbai
(1913).

IRELAND

Parliament Square, Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin
See also: List of universities in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland

In Ireland the term "college" is normally used to describe an institution of tertiary education. University
University
students often say they attend "college" rather than "university". Until 1989, no university provided teaching or research directly; they were formally offered by a constituent college of the university.

There are number of secondary education institutions that traditionally used the word "college" in their names: these are either older, private schools (such as Belvedere College
Belvedere College
, Gonzaga College and St. Michael\'s College
College
) or what were formerly a particular kind of secondary school. These secondary schools, formerly known as "technical colleges," were renamed "community colleges," but remain secondary schools.

The country's only ancient university is the University of Dublin . Created during the reign of Elizabeth I , it is modelled on the collegiate universities of Cambridge and Oxford. However, only one constituent college was ever founded, hence the curious position of Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin
today; although both are usually considered one and the same, the University
University
and College
College
are completely distinct corporate entities with separate and parallel governing structures.

Among more modern foundations, the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
, founded in 1908, consisted of constituent colleges and recognised colleges until 1997. The former are now referred to as constituent universities – institutions that are essentially universities in their own right. The National University
University
can trace its existence back to 1850 and the creation of the Queen\'s University
University
of Ireland and the creation of the Catholic University of Ireland
Catholic University of Ireland
in 1854. From 1880, the degree awarding roles of these two universities was taken over by the Royal University of Ireland
Royal University of Ireland
, which remained until the creation of the National University
University
in 1908 and Queen\'s University
University
Belfast .

The state's two new universities Dublin City University
Dublin City University
and University of Limerick
University of Limerick
were initially National Institute for Higher Education institutions. These institutions offered university level academic degrees and research from the start of their existence and were awarded university status in 1989 in recognition of this.

Third level technical education in the state has been carried out in the Institutes of Technology , which were established from the 1970s as Regional Technical Colleges. These institutions have delegated authority which entitles them to give degrees and diplomas from the Higher Education and Training Awards Council in their own name.

A number of Private Colleges exist such as DBS , providing undergraduate and postgraduate courses validated by HETAC and in some cases by other Universities.

Other types of college include Colleges of Education, such as the Church of Ireland College of Education . These are specialist institutions, often linked to a university, which provide both undergraduate and postgraduate academic degrees for people who want to train as teachers.

A number of state funded further education colleges exist - which offer vocational education and training in a range of areas from business studies, I.C.T to sports injury therapy. These courses are usually 1, 2 or less often 3 three years in duration and are validated by FETAC at levels 5 or 6 or for the BTEC Higher National Diploma award - validated by Edexcel
Edexcel
which is a level 6/7 qualification. There are numerous private colleges (particularly in Dublin and Limerick) which offer both further and higher education qualifications. These degrees and diplomas are often certified by foreign universities/international awarding bodies and are aligned to the National Framework of Qualifications at level 6, 7 and 8.

ISRAEL

Main article: List_of_universities_and_colleges_in_Israel § Colleges

In Israel, any non university higher-learning facility is called a college. Institutions accredited by the Council for Higher Education in Israel (CHE) to confer a bachelor's degree are called "Academic Colleges." These colleges (at least 4 for 2012) may also offer master's degrees and act as Research facilities. There are also over twenty teacher training colleges or seminaries, most of which may award only a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree.

* Academic colleges: Any educational facility that had been approved to offer at least bachelor's degree is entitled by CHE to use the term academic college in its name. * Engineering academic college: Any academic facility that offer at least bachelor's degree and most of it faculties are providing an Engineering degree and Engineering license. * Educational academic college: After an educational facility that had been approved for "Teachers seminar" status is then approved to provide a Bachelor of Education , its name is changed to include "Educational Academic college." * Technical college: A "Technical college" is an educational facility that is approved to allow to provide P.E degree (14'th class) or technician (טכנאי) (13'th class) diploma and licenses. * Training College: A "Training College" is an educational facility that provides basic training for person that would allow to a person to receive a working permit in a field such as alternative medicine, cooking, Art, Mechanical, Electrical and other professions. A trainee could receive the right to work in certain professions as apprentice (j. mechanic, j. Electrician etc.). After working in the training field for enough time an apprentice could have a license to operate (Mechanic, Electrician ) . This educational facility is mostly used to provide basic training for low tech jobs and for job seekers without any training that are provided by the nation's Employment Service (שירות התעסוקה).

MACAU

Following the Portuguese usage, the term "college" (colégio) in Macau
Macau
has traditionally been used in the names for private (and non-governmental) pre-university educational institutions, which correspond to form one to form six level tiers. Such schools are usually run by the Roman Catholic church or missionaries in Macau. Examples include Chan Sui Ki Perpetual Help College
Chan Sui Ki Perpetual Help College
, Yuet Wah College , and Sacred Heart Canossian College.

NEW ZEALAND

The University of Otago
University of Otago

The constituent colleges of the former University
University
of New Zealand (such as Canterbury University
University
College) have become independent universities. Some halls of residence associated with New Zealand universities retain the name of "college", particularly at the University of Otago
University of Otago
(which although brought under the umbrella of the University
University
of New Zealand, already possessed university status and degree awarding powers). The institutions formerly known as "Teacher-training colleges" now style themselves " College
College
of education".

Some universities, such as the University of Canterbury
University of Canterbury
, have divided their University
University
into constituent administrative "Colleges" – the College
College
of Arts containing departments that teach Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, College
College
of Science containing Science departments, and so on. This is largely modelled on the Cambridge model, discussed above.

Like the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
some professional bodies in New Zealand style themselves as "colleges", for example, the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons , the Royal Australasian College of Physicians .

Secondary school
Secondary school
is often referred to as college and the term is used interchangeably with high school. This is reflected in the names of many secondary schools such as Rangitoto College
Rangitoto College
, New Zealand's largest secondary.

PHILIPPINES

Main article: Higher education in the Philippines

In the Philippines, colleges usually refer to institutions of learning that grant degrees but whose scholastic fields are not as diverse as that of a university ( University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
, University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
, Ateneo de Manila University
Ateneo de Manila University
, De La Salle University
University
, Far Eastern University
Far Eastern University
, and AMA University ), such as the San Beda College
San Beda College
which specializes in law, AMA Computer College whose campuses are spread all over the Philippines which specializes in information and computing technologies, and the Mapúa Institute of Technology which specializes in engineering, or to component units within universities that do not grant degrees but rather facilitate the instruction of a particular field, such as a College
College
of Science and College
College
of Engineering, among many other colleges of the University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
.

A state college may not have the word "college" on its name, but may have several component colleges, or departments. Thus, the Eulogio Amang Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology is a state college by classification.

Usually, the term "college" is also thought of as a hierarchical demarcation between the term "university", and quite a number of colleges seek to be recognized as universities as a sign of improvement in academic standards ( Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
, San Beda College
College
), and increase in the diversity of the offered degree programs (called "courses"). For private colleges, this may be done through a survey and evaluation by the Commission on Higher Education and accrediting organizations, as was the case of Urios College
College
which is now the Fr. Saturnino Urios University . For state colleges, it is usually done by a legislation by the Congress or Senate. In common usage, "going to college" simply means attending school for an undergraduate degree, whether it's from an institution recognized as a college or a university.

When it comes to referring to the level of education, college is the term more used to be synonymous to tertiary or higher education. A student who is or has studied his/her undergraduate degree at either an institution with college or university in its name is considered to be going to or have gone to college.

PORTUGAL

Main article: Education in Portugal
Education in Portugal

Presently in Portugal
Portugal
, the term colégio (college) is normally used as a generic reference to a private (non-government) school that provides from basic to secondary education . Many of the private schools include the term colégio in their name. Some special public schools - usually of the boarding school type - also include the term in their name, with a notable example being the Colégio Militar (Military College). The term colégio interno (literally "internal college") is used specifically as a generic reference to a boarding school .

Until the 19th century, a colégio was usually a secondary or pre-university school, of public or religious nature, where the students usually lived together. A model for these colleges was the Royal College
College
of Arts and Humanities, founded in Coimbra
Coimbra
by King John III of Portugal
Portugal
in 1542.

SINGAPORE

The term "college" in Singapore
Singapore
is generally only used for pre-university educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide the final two years of secondary education (equivalent to sixth form in British terms or grades 11–12 in the American system). Since 1 January 2005, the term also refers to the three campuses of the Institute of Technical Education with the introduction of the "collegiate system", in which the three institutions are called ITE College East , ITE College Central
ITE College Central
, and ITE College
College
West respectively.

The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally conferred degrees. Institutions offering diplomas are called "polytechnics ", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth.

SOUTH AFRICA

Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary institutions call themselves colleges. These include teacher training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management colleges. See: List of universities in South Africa#Private colleges and universities ; List of post secondary institutions in South Africa .

SRI LANKA

There are several professional and vocational institutions that offer post-secondary education without granting degrees that are referred to as "colleges". This includes the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Law
Law
College
College
, the many Technical Colleges and Teaching Colleges.

UNITED KINGDOM

Birkbeck, University of London
University of London

Secondary Education And Further Education

Further education (FE) colleges and sixth form colleges are institutions providing further education to students over 16. Some of these also provide higher education courses (see below). In the context of secondary education, 'college' is used in the names of some private schools, e.g. Eton College
Eton College
and Winchester College
Winchester College
.

Higher Education

See also: Colleges within universities in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Residential college , and University college § United Kingdom
United Kingdom

In higher education, a college is normally a provider that does not hold university status, although it can also refer to a constituent part of a collegiate or federal university or a grouping of academic faculties or departments within a university. Traditionally the distinction between colleges and universities was that colleges did not award degrees while universities did, but this is no longer the case with NCG having gained taught degree awarding powers (the same as some universities) on behalf of its colleges, and many of the colleges of the University of London
University of London
holding full degree awarding powers and being effectively universities. Most colleges, however, do not hold their own degree awarding powers and continue to offer higher education courses that are validated by universities or other institutions that can award degrees.

In England, as of August 2016, over 60% of the higher education providers directly funded by HEFCE (208/340) are sixth-form or further education colleges, often termed colleges of further and higher education, along with 17 colleges of the University
University
of London, one university college , 100 universities, and 14 other providers (six of which use 'college' in their name). Overall, this means over two thirds of state-supported higher education providers in England
England
are colleges of one form or another. Many private providers are also called colleges, e.g. the New College of the Humanities
New College of the Humanities
and St Patrick\'s College, London .

Colleges within universities vary immensely in their responsibilities. The large constituent colleges of the University
University
of London are effectively universities in their own right; colleges in some universities, including those of the University
University
of the Arts London and smaller colleges of the University of London
University of London
, run their own degree courses but do not award degrees; those at the University of Roehampton provide accommodation and pastoral care as well as delivering the teaching on university courses; those at Oxford and Cambridge deliver some teaching on university courses as well as providing accommodation and pastoral care; and those in Durham , Kent , Lancaster and York provide accommodation and pastoral care but do not normally participate in formal teaching. The legal status of these colleges also varies widely, with University of London
University of London
colleges being independent corporations and recognised bodies, Oxbridge colleges, colleges of the University of the Highlands and Islands
University of the Highlands and Islands
(UHI) and some Durham colleges being independent corporations and listed bodies, most Durham colleges being owned by the university but still listed bodies, and those of other collegiate universities not having formal recognition. When applying for undergraduate courses through UCAS
UCAS
, University of London
University of London
colleges are treated as independent providers, colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham and UHI are treated as locations within the universities that can be selected by specifying a 'campus code' in addition to selecting the university, and colleges of other universities are not recognised.

The UHI and the University
University
of Wales
Wales
Trinity Saint David (UWTSD) both include further education colleges. However, while the UHI colleges integrate FE and HE provision, UWTSD maintains a separation between the university campuses (Lampeter, Carmarthen and Swansea) and the two colleges (Coleg Sir Gâr and Coleg Ceredigion; n.b. coleg is Welsh for college), which although part of the same group are treated as separate institutions rather than colleges within the university.

A university college is an independent institution with the power to award taught degrees, but which has not been granted university status. University
University
College
College
is a protected title that can only be used with permission, although note that University College London
University College London
, University College, Oxford
University College, Oxford
and University College, Durham
University College, Durham
are colleges within their respective universities and not university colleges (in the case of UCL holding full degree awarding powers that set it above a university college), while University College Birmingham is a university in its own right and also not a university college.

UNITED STATES

City College of New York
City College of New York
Saint Anselm College
Saint Anselm College
Agnes Scott College
Agnes Scott College
Main article: Higher education
Higher education
in the United States See also: Community college
Community college
§ United States
United States

In the United States, there are over 7,021 colleges and universities. A "college" in the US formally denotes a constituent part of a university, but in popular usage, the word "college" is the generic term for any post-secondary undergraduate education. Americans "go to college" after high school , regardless of whether the specific institution is formally a college or a university. Some students choose to dual-enroll, by taking college classes while still in high school. The word and its derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the institutions and experiences associated with American post-secondary undergraduate education. Bates College
Bates College

Students must pay for college before taking classes. Some borrow the money via loans, and some students fund their educations with cash, scholarships, or grants, or some combination of any two or more of those payment methods. In 2011, the state or federal government subsidized $8,000 to $100,000 for each undergraduate degree. For state-owned schools (called "public" universities), the subsidy was given to the college, with the student benefiting from lower tuition. The state subsidized on average 50% of public university tuition.

Colleges vary in terms of size, degree, and length of stay. Two-year colleges, also known as junior or community colleges , usually offer an associate\'s degree , and four-year colleges usually offer a bachelor\'s degree . Often, these are entirely undergraduate institutions, although some have graduate school programs.

Four-year institutions in the U.S. that emphasize a liberal arts curriculum are known as liberal arts colleges . Until the 20th century, liberal arts, law, medicine, theology, and divinity were about the only form of higher education available in the United States. These schools have traditionally emphasized instruction at the undergraduate level, although advanced research may still occur at these institutions. Occidental College
Occidental College

While there is no national standard in the United States, the term "university" primarily designates institutions that provide undergraduate and graduate education . A university typically has as its core and its largest internal division an undergraduate college teaching a liberal arts curriculum, also culminating in a bachelor\'s degree . What often distinguishes a university is having, in addition, one or more graduate schools engaged in both teaching graduate classes and in research. Often these would be called a School of Law
Law
or School of Medicine, (but may also be called a college of law, or a faculty of law). An exception is Vincennes University
Vincennes University
, Indiana
Indiana
, which is styled and chartered as a "university" even though almost all of its academic programs lead only to two-year associate degrees. Some institutions, such as Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
and The College
College
of William "> Boston College
College

Usage of the terms varies among the states. In 1996 for example, Georgia changed all of its four-year institutions previously designated as colleges to universities, and all of its vocational technology schools to technical colleges .

The terms "university" and "college" do not exhaust all possible titles for an American institution of higher education. Other options include "Polytechnic" ( Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
), "Institute of Technology" ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
), "academy" ( United States
United States
Military Academy
Academy
), "union" ( Cooper Union
Cooper Union
), "conservatory" (New England
England
Conservatory ), and "school" (Juilliard School ). In colloquial use, they are still referred to as "college" when referring to their undergraduate studies. SUNY Purchase College
College

The term college is also, as in the United Kingdom, used for a constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but generally organized on academic rather than residential lines. For example, at many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the university can be briefly referred to as THE COLLEGE (such as The College
College
of the University
University
of Chicago , Harvard College
Harvard College
at Harvard , or Columbia College
College
at Columbia ) while at others, such as the University
University
of California, Berkeley , each of the faculties may be called a "college" (the "college of engineering", the "college of nursing", and so forth). There exist other variants for historical reasons; for example, Duke University
Duke University
, which was called Trinity College
College
until the 1920s, still calls its main undergraduate subdivision Trinity College of Arts and Sciences .

Residential Colleges

Some American universities, such as Princeton , Rice , and Yale have established residential colleges (sometimes, as at Harvard , the first to establish such a system in the 1930s, known as houses) along the lines of Oxford or Cambridge. Unlike the Oxbridge colleges, but similarly to Durham , these residential colleges are not autonomous legal entities nor are they typically much involved in education itself, being primarily concerned with room, board, and social life. At the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
, University
University
of California, San Diego and the University of California, Santa Cruz
University of California, Santa Cruz
, however, each of the residential colleges does teach its own core writing courses and has its own distinctive set of graduation requirements.

Many U.S. universities have placed increased emphasis on their residential colleges in recent years. This is exemplified by the creation of new colleges at Ivy League
Ivy League
schools such as Yale University and Princeton University
Princeton University
, and efforts to strengthen the contribution of the residential colleges to student education, including through a 2016 taskforce at Princeton on residential colleges.

Origin Of The U.S. Usage

The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the United States
United States
were graduates of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and the University
University
of Cambridge. The small institutions they founded would not have seemed to them like universities – they were tiny and did not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology. Furthermore, they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new institutions felt like the Oxford and Cambridge colleges they were used to – small communities, housing and feeding their students, with instruction from residential tutors (as in the United Kingdom, described above). When the first students graduated, these "colleges" assumed the right to confer degrees upon them, usually with authority—for example, The College
College
of William border:solid #aaa 1px">

* University
University
portal

* Madrasa
Madrasa

REFERENCES

* ^ "college Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org. * ^ "college noun (EDUCATION)". Cambridge Dictionary Online. * ^ "Children & families." (Archive) City of Paris. Retrieved on 20 July 2010. * ^ Private Elementary and Secondary Schools search form on the Ministry of Education of Ontario
Ontario
web site—enter "college" in the "name contains" field and check the "secondary" checkbox * ^ Find a School or School Board Archived 8 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. search form on the Ministry of Education of Ontario web site—click "Secondary" and "Separate" * ^ " College
College
of Biological Science". University
University
of Guelph. Retrieved 19 June 2010. * ^ "Georgia: International Association of Tourists and Travelers College". * ^ "Search". Colleges & Universities (CIHE) / Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. Retrieved 2016-12-06. * ^ "Influence of modern education on the culture of India". 14 March 2010. * ^ Hebrew: מִכְלָלָה Mikhlala; pl. מכללות Mikhlalot * ^ "חוק המועצה להשכלה גבוהה" (מל"ג), תשי"ח-1958, רק מוסד להשכלה גבוהה שקיבל את אישור המועצה להשכלה גבוהה יהיה רשאי להשתמש בכינוי "מכללה אקדמית". * ^ מכללה טכנולוגית * ^ (הנדסאי) * ^ מכללה להכשרה or מכללה מקצועית * ^ תקנות החשמל (רשיונות), התשמ"ה-1985 Archived 9 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ " Further education – Colleges and other institutions". Education UK. British Council
British Council
. Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ Keiran Southern (29 June 2016). "Newcastle education group to become first in the country to award its own degree courses". ChronicleLive. * ^ "Overview". Register of HE providers. HEFCE . Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ "Get the data". Register of HE providers. HEFCE . Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ "Search courses". UCAS. Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ R. J. O'Hara (20 December 2004). "The Collegiate System at the University
University
of Durham". The Collegiate Way. Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ "The Education (Listed Bodies) (England) Order 2013". Legislation.gov.uk. 27 November 2013. * ^ "The Education (Recognised Bodies) (England) Order 2013". Legislation.gov.uk. 27 November 2013. * ^ "List of institution and campus codes" (XLS). UCAS. Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ "About UHI". University
University
of the Highlands and Islands. Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ "UWTSD Group". University
University
of Wales
Wales
Trinity Saint David. Retrieved 28 August 2016. * ^ NCES (September 2013). "Fast Facts - Educational Institutions". Retrieved 6 April 2015. * ^ Anonymous (24 December 2013). "Taxpayer Subsidies for Most Colleges and Universities Average Between $8,000 to More than $100,000 for Each Bachelor’s Degree, New Study Finds". * ^ "State Education Subsidies Shift Students to Public Universities". www.nber.org. * ^ Fethke, Gary (1 April 2012). "Why Does Tuition Go Up? Because Taxpayer Support Goes Down" – via The Chronicle of Higher Education.

* ^ Masci, David. "Should colleges get back to basics?". CQ Research. * ^ * ^ Robert J. O’Hara. "Samuel Eliot Morison on the Harvard Houses". The Collegiate Way. Retrieved 17 January 2017. * ^ Robert J. O’Hara (8 October 2002). "Collegiate Developments at Durham and Princeton". The Collegiate Way. Retrieved 17 January 2017. The University
University
of Durham is the third oldest collegiate university in Great Britain, and most of Durham’s residential colleges are creatures of the central university rather than legally independent corporations. In this respect, the Durham colleges are closer in structure to the residential colleges that have been established in the United States
United States
and elsewhere in recent years than are the independent corporations of Oxford and Cambridge. * ^ "Welcome - The New Residential Colleges". newresidentialcolleges.yale.edu. line feed character in title= at position 8 (help ) * ^ "Housing & Dining". Princeton University. * ^ University, Princeton. "Task Force on the Residential College Model - Planning for Princetons Future". www.princeton.edu. * ^ Bidwell, Allie. "Report: High Textbook Prices Have College Students Struggling". U.S. News. Retrieved 2015-02-27. * ^ A B C Lightcap, Brad. ND.edu The Morrill Act of 1862 * ^ "A Land-Grant Institution". Dafvm.msstate.edu. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009. * ^ David Leonhardt
David Leonhardt
(April 24, 2015). " College
College
for the Masses" (Upshot blog). The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2015. Only about a third of young adults today receive a bachelor's degree. The new research confirms that many more teenagers have the ability to do so—and would benefit from it * ^ Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz; Jonathan Smith (February 2015). " College
College
Access, Initial College
College
Choice and Degree Completion" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. doi :10.3386/w20996 . * ^ Seth Zimmerman (May 2013). "The Returns to College
College
Admission for Academically Marginal Students" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015. Students with grades just above a threshold for admissions eligibility at a large public university in Florida are much more likely to attend any university than below-threshold students. The marginal admission yields earnings gains of 22 percent between eight and fourteen years after high school completion. These gains outstrip the costs of college attendance, and are largest for male students and free lunch recipients.

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