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The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
(reporting mark CBQ) was a railroad that operated in the Midwestern United States. Commonly referred to as the Burlington or as the Q,[1][2] the Burlington Route served a large area, including extensive trackage in the states of Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Wyoming, and also in New Mexico
New Mexico
and Texas
Texas
through subsidiaries Colorado
Colorado
and Southern Railway, Fort Worth and Denver Railway, and Burlington-Rock Island Railroad.[citation needed] Its primary connections included Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Louis, Kansas
Kansas
City and Denver. Because of this extensive trackage in the midwest and mountain states, the railroad used the advertising slogans "Everywhere West", "Way of the Zephyrs", and "The Way West". It merged into Burlington Northern
Burlington Northern
in 1970. In 1967, it reported 19,565 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 723 million passenger miles; corresponding totals for C&S were 1,100 and 10 and for FW&D were 1,466 and 13. At the end of the year CB&Q operated 8,538 route-miles, C&S operated 708 and FW&D operated 1362. (These totals may or may not include the former Burlington-Rock Island Railroad.)

Contents

1 History

1.1 1848–1882 1.2 1882–1901 1.3 1901–1945 1.4 1945–1970

2 The Burlington Zephyrs 3 Innovations 4 Cities platted by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] 1848–1882[edit] The earliest predecessor of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, the Aurora Branch Railroad, was chartered by act of the Illinois
Illinois
General Assembly on October 2, 1848.[citation needed] The charter was obtained by citizens of Aurora and Batavia, Illinois, who were concerned that the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad
Galena and Chicago Union Railroad
would bypass their towns in favor of West Chicago on its route; at the time, that was the only line running west from Chicago. The Aurora Branch was built from Aurora, through Batavia, to Turner Junction in what is now West Chicago. The line was built with old strap rail and minimal, if any, grading. Using a leased locomotive and cars, the Aurora Branch ran passenger and freight trains from Aurora to Chicago via its own line from Aurora to Turner Junction and one of the G&CU's two tracks east from there to Chicago. The G&CU required the Aurora Branch to turn over 70 percent of their revenue per ton-mile handled on that railroad; as a result, in the mid-1850s, surveys were ordered to determine the best route for a railroad line to Chicago. The line from Aurora to Chicago was built through the fledgling towns of Naperville, Lisle, Downers Grove, Hinsdale, Berwyn, and the west side of Chicago. It was opened in 1864, and passenger and freight service began. Regular commuter train service started in 1864 and remains operational to this day, making it the oldest surviving regular passenger service in Chicago. Both the original Chicago line, and to a much lesser extent, the old Aurora Branch right of way, are still in regular use today by the Burlington's present successor BNSF Railway. With a steady acquisition of locomotives, cars, equipment, and trackage, the Burlington Route was able to enter the trade markets in 1862. From that year to date, the railroad and its successors have paid dividends continuously, and never run into debt or defaulted on a loan—the only Class I U.S. railroad for which this is true.

After extensive trackwork was planned, the Aurora Branch changed its name to the Chicago and Aurora Railroad in June 1852,[3] and to Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad in 1856, and shortly reached its two other namesake cities, Burlington, Iowa
Iowa
and Quincy, Illinois. In 1868 CB&Q completed bridges over the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
both at Burlington, Iowa, and Quincy, Illinois
Illinois
giving the railroad through connections with the Burlington and Missouri
Missouri
River Railroad (B&MR) in Iowa
Iowa
and the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad (H&StJ) in Missouri. The first Railway Post Office was inaugurated on the H&StJ to sort mail on the trains way across Missouri, passing the mail to the Pony Express
Pony Express
upon reaching the Missouri
Missouri
River at St. Joseph, Missouri. The B&MR continued building west into Nebraska
Nebraska
as a separate company, the Burlington & Missouri
Missouri
River Rail Road, founded in 1869. During the summer of 1870 it reached Lincoln, the newly designated capital of Nebraska
Nebraska
and by 1872 it reached Kearney, Nebraska. That same year the B&MR across Iowa
Iowa
was absorbed by the CB&Q. By the time the Missouri
Missouri
River bridge at Plattsmouth, Nebraska
Nebraska
was completed the B&MR in Nebraska
Nebraska
was well on its way to the Mile High city of Denver, Colorado. That same year, the Nebraska B&MR was purchased by the CB&Q, which completed the line to Denver by 1882. 1882–1901[edit] Burlington's rapid expansion after the American Civil War
American Civil War
was based upon sound financial management, dominated by John Murray Forbes of Boston and assisted by Charles Elliott Perkins. Perkins was a powerful administrator who eventually forged a system out of previously loosely held affiliates, virtually tripling Burlington's size during his presidency from 1881 to 1901.

Burlington Route system map, 1892. Burlington lines are black; connecting railroads are red.

Ultimately, Perkins believed the Burlington Railroad
Burlington Railroad
must be included into a powerful transcontinental system. Though the railroad stretched as far west as Denver and Billings, Montana, it had failed to reach the Pacific Coast
Pacific Coast
during the 1880s and 1890s, when construction was less expensive. Though approached by E. H. Harriman
E. H. Harriman
of the Union Pacific Railroad, Perkins felt his railroad was a more natural fit with James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway. With its river line to the Twin Cities, the Burlington Route formed a natural connection between Hill's home town (and headquarters) of St. Paul, Minnesota, and the railroad hub of Chicago. Moreover, Hill was willing to meet Perkins' $200-a-share asking price for the Burlington's stock. By 1900, Hill's Great Northern, in conjunction with the Northern Pacific Railway, held nearly 100 percent of Burlington's stock. In 1901 a rebuffed Harriman tried to gain an indirect influence over the Burlington by launching a stock raid on the Northern Pacific. Though Hill managed to fend off this attack on his nascent system, it led to the creation of the Northern Securities Company, and later, the Northern Securities Co. v. United States
Northern Securities Co. v. United States
ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court. 1901–1945[edit]

Chicago Burlington and Quincy Railroad steam locomotive #5633 built 1940 at West Burlington, Iowa, in service until 1956, on display since 1962 in Douglas, Wyoming

Following the purchase of the Burlington by GN and NP, expansion continued. In 1908, the CB&Q purchased both the Colorado
Colorado
& Southern and Fort Worth & Denver Railways, giving it access south to Dallas and the Gulf of Mexico ports in Houston
Houston
and Galveston.[citation needed] It also extended its reach south in the Mississippi Valley region by opening up a new line from Concord, Illinois
Illinois
south to Paducah, Kentucky. It was during this period that the Burlington was at its largest, exceeding just over 12,000 route miles in 14 states by the 1920s.[4] With the First World War having the same effect on the railroad as on all other railroads, during the 1920s, the Burlington Route had an increasingly heavy amount of equipment flooding the yards. With the advent of the Great Depression, the CB&Q held a good portion of this for scrap. Despite the decrease of passengers, it was during this time that the railroad introduced the famed Zephyrs. In 1929, the CB&Q created a subsidiary, the Burlington Transportation Company, to operate intercity buses in tandem with its railway network. In 1936, the company would become one of the founding members of the Trailways Transportation System, and still provides intercity service to this day as Burlington Trailways.[5][6] As early as 1897, the railroad had been interested in alternatives to steam power, namely, internal-combustion engines. The railroad's shops in Aurora had built an unreliable three-horsepower distillate motor in that year, but it was hugely impractical (requiring a massive 6,000-pound flywheel) and had issues with overheating (even with the best metals of the day, its cylinder heads and liners would warp and melt in a matter of minutes) and was therefore impractical. Diesel engines of that era were obese, stationary monsters and were best suited for low-speed, continuous operation. None of that would do in a railroad locomotive; however, there was no diesel engine suitable for that purpose then.

A Zephyr arriving at East Dubuque, Illinois

Always innovating, the railroad both purchased "doodlebug" gas-electric combine cars from Electro-Motive Corporation and built their own, sending them out to do the jobs of a steam locomotive and a single car. With good success in that field, and after having purchased and tried a pair of General Electric
General Electric
steeple-cab switchers powered by distillate engines, Burlington president Ralph Budd requested of the Winton Engine Company a light, powerful diesel engine that could stand the rigors of continuous, unattended daily service. The experiences of developing these engines can be summed up shortly by General Motors
General Motors
Research vice-president Charles Kettering: "I do not recall any trouble with the dip stick." Ralph Budd, accused of gambling on diesel power, chirped that "I knew that the GM people were going to see the program through to the very end. Actually, I wasn't taking a gamble at all." The manifestation of this gamble was the eight-cylinder Winton 8-201A diesel, a creature no larger than a small Dumpster, that powered the Burlington Zephyr (built 1934) on its record run and opened the door for developing the long line of diesel engines that has powered Electro-Motive locomotives for the past seventy years.[7]

Burlington locomotive hauling an express freight circa 1967. These locomotives were also used for the Zephyr passenger trains.

1945–1970[edit] After the Second World War, the CB&Q had overworked steam locomotives in a fleet which it was beginning to convert to diesel engines. The company rapidly expanded its diesel program and slowly took steam locomotives out of service. On September 28, 1959, the last steam-powered commuter train from Chicago rolled to a stop in Downers Grove, marking the end of steam passenger operations on the railroad. The last steam in regular revenue service was CB&Q Subsidiary C&S, which operated locomotive 641 until 1962 to serve the Climax Mine near Leadville, Colorado
Colorado
(internal combustion engines were not as effective as steam locomotives due to the high altitude of the mine.) The Burlington railroad was owned by the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railroads. As early as 1960 the three railroads were planning on merging into one. A proposed name for the merger was "The Great Northern, Pacific and Burlington lines". As the financial situation of American railroading continued to decline through the 1960s, forcing restructuring across the country, the Burlington Railroad
Burlington Railroad
merged with the Great Northern, Northern Pacific, and the Spokane, Portland and Seattle railroads on March 2, 1970 to form the Burlington Northern. Passenger service was markedly reduced, as people had shifted to using private automobiles for many trips. The Burlington Zephyrs[edit]

The passengers, including "Zeph" the burro, that rode the Zephyr on the "Dawn-to-Dusk Dash" gather for a group photo in front of the train after arriving in Chicago on May 26, 1934.

The Alton-Burlington Ozark State Zephyr
Ozark State Zephyr
in 1936.

The railroad operated a number of streamlined passenger trains known as the Zephyrs which were one of the most famous and largest fleets of streamliners in the United States. The Burlington Zephyr, the first American diesel-electric powered streamlined passenger train, made its noted "dawn-to-dusk" run from Denver, Colorado, to Chicago, Illinois, on May 26, 1934. On November 11, 1934, the train was put into regularly scheduled service between Lincoln, Nebraska, and Kansas City, Missouri. Although the distinctive, articulated stainless steel trains were well known, and the railroad adopted the "Way of the Zephyrs" advertising slogan, they did not attract passengers back to the rails en masse, and the last one was retired from revenue service with the advent of Amtrak. The Zephyr fleet included:

Pioneer Zephyr
Pioneer Zephyr
(Lincoln–Omaha– Kansas
Kansas
City), Twin Cities Zephyr
Twin Cities Zephyr
(Chicago–Minneapolis-St. Paul), Mark Twain Zephyr
Mark Twain Zephyr
(St. Louis–Burlington), Denver Zephyr
Denver Zephyr
(Chicago–Denver), Nebraska
Nebraska
Zephyr (Chicago–Lincoln), Sam Houston
Houston
Zephyr (Houston–Dallas-Ft. Worth), Ozark State Zephyr
Ozark State Zephyr
( Kansas
Kansas
City–St. Louis), General Pershing Zephyr
General Pershing Zephyr
( Kansas
Kansas
City–St. Louis), Silver Streak Zephyr
Silver Streak Zephyr
( Kansas
Kansas
City–Omaha–Lincoln), Ak-Sar-Ben Zephyr ( Kansas
Kansas
City–Omaha–Lincoln), Zephyr Rocket
Zephyr Rocket
(St. Louis–Burlington–Minneapolis-St. Paul), jointly with Rock Island Texas
Texas
Zephyr (Denver–Dallas-Ft. Worth), American Royal Zephyr
American Royal Zephyr
(Chicago– Kansas
Kansas
City), Kansas
Kansas
City Zephyr (Chicago– Kansas
Kansas
City), California Zephyr
California Zephyr
(Chicago–Oakland): Chicago–Denver handled by CB&Q; Denver–Salt Lake City by Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad; Salt Lake City–Oakland by Western Pacific Railroad.

Other named passenger trains which operated on the Burlington included:[8]

These trains were operated jointly with Northern Pacific Railway
Northern Pacific Railway
and had a different name when they were east or westbound.

The club car of the Chicago Limited and the Denver Limited. The train had an eastbound and westbound name.

Adventureland ( Kansas
Kansas
City-Billings), Aristocrat (Chicago–Denver): replaced the Colorado
Colorado
Limited.[9][10] Ak-Sar-Ben (Chicago–Lincoln): replaced Nebraska
Nebraska
Limited and replaced by Ak-Sar-Ben Zephyr. American Royal (Chicago– Kansas
Kansas
City): replaced by the American Royal Zephyr. Atlantic Express (Seattle-Tacoma-Chicago): jointly with Northern Pacific Railway. Black Hawk (Chicago–Twin Cities overnight). Buffalo Bill (Denver-Yellowstone) Seasonal tri-weekly service between Denver, Colorado
Colorado
and Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
via Cody, Wyoming. Chicago Limited (Chicago-Denver). Coloradoan (Chicago–Denver): replaced by the Aristocrat. Denver Limited (Denver-Chicago). Exposition Flyer (Chicago–Oakland) in conjunction with D&RGW and WP prior to the launching of the California Zephyr.[11] Empire Builder: handled Great Northern Railway's flagship between Chicago and Minneapolis. Fast Mail (Chicago–Lincoln). Mainstreeter: handled the Northern Pacific Railway's secondary transcontinental between Chicago and Minneapolis. Nebraska
Nebraska
Limited (Chicago–Lincoln): replaced by the Ak-Sar-Ben. North Coast Limited: handled Northern Pacific Railway's flagship between Chicago and Minneapolis. North Pacific Express (Chicago-Seattle-Tacoma): jointly with Northern Pacific Railway. Overland Express (Chicago-Denver). This train, along with The Aristocrat and the Colorado
Colorado
Limited, were promoted as companion trains to the streamlined Denver Zephyr.[9] Shoshone: (Denver-Billings) operated between Denver, Colorado
Colorado
and Billings, Montana. Referred to affectionately as "The Night Crawler". Western Star: handled the Great Northern Railway's secondary transcontinental between Chicago and Minneapolis. Zephyr Connection: (Denver-Cheyenne) offered daytime service along Colorado's Front Range between Denver, Colorado
Colorado
and Cheyenne, Wyoming.

The California Zephyr
California Zephyr
is still operated daily today by Amtrak
Amtrak
as trains Five (westbound) and Six (eastbound). Another Amtrak
Amtrak
train, the Illinois
Illinois
Zephyr, is a modern descendant of the Kansas
Kansas
City Zephyr and the American Royal Zephyr
American Royal Zephyr
services.

Innovations[edit] The Burlington was a leader in innovation; among its firsts were use of the printing telegraph (1910), train radio communications (1915), streamlined passenger diesel power (1934) and vista-dome coaches (1945). In 1927, the railroad was one of the first to use Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) and by the end of 1957 had equipped 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of its line. The railroad had one of the first hump classification yards at its Cicero Avenue Yard in Chicago, allowing an operator in a tower to line switches remotely and allowing around-the-clock classification. Cities platted by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad[edit]

Massena, Iowa Pacific Junction, Iowa

See also[edit]

Railways portal

Burlington Refrigerator Express

Footnotes[edit]

^ "Chicago Burlington & Quincy Station". Rock Island Preservation Society. February 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2015.  ^ "Burlington & M. R. R. Co. in Nebraska
Nebraska
v. Burch; Court of Appeals of Colorado, May 12, 1902". The American and English Railroad Cases: A Collection of All Cases Affecting Railroads of Every Kind, Decided by the Courts of Appellate Jurisdiction in the United States, England, and Canada. Vol. 27. E. Thompson. 1903. pp. 21–26. Retrieved September 6, 2015.  ^ Dorin (1976), p. 9. ^ Dorin (1976), p. 10. ^ Schwantes (2003), p. 187. ^ Yago (1984), p. 172. ^ "The Pioneer Zephyr". ASME.  ^ Dorin (1976) Chapters 2, 4, 5. pp. 14–29, 36–77, 78–90. ^ a b A Marvelous Vacation in Cool Colorado
Colorado
(ad for the Denver Zephyr). Life Magazine. 19 April 1937. p. 79. Retrieved 26 February 2012.  ^ Mann, Charles F.A. (September 17, 1935). "Most Powerful Diesel Ready for Rail Service". The Meriden Daily Journal. Retrieved 28 March 2012.  ^ The Scenic Way to California (ad for the Exposition Flyer). Life Magazine. 21 April 1941. Retrieved 26 February 2012. 

References[edit]

Dorin, Patrick C. (1976). Everywhere West: The Burlington Route. Seattle, Wash.: Superior Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87564-523-2. LCCN 76017317. OCLC 2225153.  Schwantes, Carlos A. (2003). Going Places: transportation Redefines the Twentieth-century West. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34202-3.  Yago, Glenn (1984). The Decline of Transit: Urban Transportation in German and U.S. Cities, 1900–1970. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25633-X. 

Further reading[edit]

Bryant, Keith L., Jr., Editor. Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Railroads in the Twentieth Century. New York: Facts on File, 1990. Frey, Robert L., Editor. Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Railroads in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Facts on File, 1988. Hidy, Ralph W., et al. The Great Northern Railway, A History. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1988. Klein, Maury. The Life and Legend of E.H. Harriman. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. Larson, John L. Bonds of Enterprise: John Murray Forbes and Western Development in America's Railway Age, expanded edition. Iowa
Iowa
City: University of Iowa
Iowa
Press, 2001 Martin, Albro. James J. Hill
James J. Hill
and the Opening of the Northwest. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Overton, Richard C. Burlington Route, a History of the Burlington Lines. New York: Knopf, 1965

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad.

Burlington Route Historical Society North American Railroad Slogans Pioneer Zephyr
Pioneer Zephyr
Exhibit at Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry California Zephyr
California Zephyr
Virtual Museum The CB&Q Mark Twain Zephyr Streamliners: America's Lost Trains – The American Experience The Northern Securities Decision Northern Securities Co. v. United States at Cornell Law School's Supreme Court Collection. Illinois
Illinois
Railroads as of 1850 List and Family Trees of North American Railroads

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