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Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
(Thai: เมืองเชียงราย, pronounced [mɯəŋ tɕʰiəŋ raːj]; Lanna: ᩮᨾᩥᩬᨦᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩁᩣ᩠ᨿ: Mueang Jiang Hai; Lao: Mueang Xieng Hai) is a city in Mueang Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
District, Chiang Rai Province. Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
is the northernmost large city in Thailand. It was established as a capital city in the reign of King Mangrai, in 1262 CE.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Government 6 Buddhist temples 7 Tourist attractions 8 Education

8.1 Colleges and universities 8.2 International Schools 8.3 High Schools 8.4 Primary Schools

9 Hospitals 10 Transportation 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Sadue Mueang, omphalos of the city

The city was founded by King Mangrai
Mangrai
in 1262[1]:208 and became the capital of the Mangrai
Mangrai
Dynasty. Subsequently, Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
was conquered by Burma
Burma
and remained under Burmese rule for several hundred years. It was not until 1786 that Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
became a Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
vassal. Siam (Thailand) annexed Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
in 1899, and Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
was proclaimed a province of Thailand
Thailand
in 1933. In 1432, during the reign of King Sam Fang Kaen of the Mangrai
Mangrai
Dynasty (1402–1441), the Phra Kaeo, or Emerald Buddha, the most revered Buddha statue, was discovered in Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
when an earthquake split the chedi at Wat Phra Kaeo of Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
city. The beautiful jade figure was then seen concealed within. Another telling of the story has the "Emerald Buddha" hastily covered in mud just before marauders entered to pillage. Many years later, the clunky-looking mud Buddha was found to actually house a magnificent jade statue, perhaps by way of the earthquake mentioned above—which caused a piece of the clay to break off—revealing the jade beneath. In 1992, the city pillar was moved from Wat Klang Wiang to Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong, where it is known as Sadue Mueang (Thai: สะดือเมือง), the "navel" or omphalos of the city. Geography[edit] Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
lies on the flat alluvial plain of the Mae Kok River, a tributary of the Mekong, between the Daen Lao Range
Daen Lao Range
in the north and the Phi Pan Nam Range
Phi Pan Nam Range
in the south. The Mae Kok River
Kok River
runs along Chiang Rai's north side, flowing eastwards out of Burma
Burma
at Tha Ton(ท่าตอม) town, bending north-eastwards and joining the Mekong River
Mekong River
about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north-east of the city. The Lao River, a tributary of the Kok, flows south of Chiang Rai. There are four bridges spanning the Mae Kok river within the town's boundaries, each running south–north. Most of the terrain surrounding Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
town is either flat or has moderate hills. The exception is outward in the west and north-west directions, where limestone hills are evident, some of which have straight-up exposed cliffs. That is also the direction where most of the region's Hill Tribe people have their villages, further afield. The city is 860 kilometres (530 mi) north of Bangkok, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) north-east of Chiang Mai, 62 kilometres (39 mi) south of Mae Sai and the Burmese border; 60 kilometres (37 mi) south-west of the town of Chiang Saen on the Mekong River across from Laos; and 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Phayao
Phayao
town. The Golden Triangle, the tripoint of the Thailand, Laos
Laos
and Myanmar borders, is 55 kilometres (34 mi) north-east of the city.

Chiang Rai

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    7.5     29 13

    14     31 14

    28     34 17

    98     35 21

    213     33 23

    178     32 24

    311     31 23

    358     31 23

    284     31 23

    125     31 21

    59     29 17

    14     27 14

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: Thai Meteorological Department[2]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.3     83 55

    0.5     88 57

    1.1     93 62

    3.9     95 69

    8.4     92 73

    7     90 74

    12     88 74

    14     88 74

    11     88 73

    4.9     87 70

    2.3     84 63

    0.6     81 56

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Climate[edit] Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). Winters are fairly dry and warm. Temperatures rise until April, which is hot with the average daily maximum at 34.9 °C (94.8 °F). The monsoon season runs from late April through October, with heavy rain and somewhat cooler temperatures during the day, although nights remain warm.

Climate data for Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 34.3 (93.7) 37.0 (98.6) 39.3 (102.7) 40.5 (104.9) 39.6 (103.3) 39.6 (103.3) 36.2 (97.2) 35.6 (96.1) 35.0 (95) 34.3 (93.7) 34.9 (94.8) 33.5 (92.3) 40.5 (104.9)

Average high °C (°F) 28.6 (83.5) 31.3 (88.3) 33.8 (92.8) 34.8 (94.6) 33.1 (91.6) 32.1 (89.8) 31.1 (88) 30.9 (87.6) 31.1 (88) 30.5 (86.9) 28.8 (83.8) 27.2 (81) 31.1 (88)

Daily mean °C (°F) 19.7 (67.5) 21.6 (70.9) 24.6 (76.3) 27.1 (80.8) 27.1 (80.8) 27.2 (81) 26.7 (80.1) 26.5 (79.7) 26.2 (79.2) 25.1 (77.2) 22.2 (72) 19.4 (66.9) 24.4 (75.9)

Average low °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 13.7 (56.7) 16.9 (62.4) 20.6 (69.1) 22.5 (72.5) 23.6 (74.5) 23.4 (74.1) 23.3 (73.9) 22.7 (72.9) 21.1 (70) 17.3 (63.1) 13.5 (56.3) 19.3 (66.7)

Record low °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 7.0 (44.6) 6.0 (42.8) 14.7 (58.5) 17.1 (62.8) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 20.7 (69.3) 17.0 (62.6) 12.7 (54.9) 5.2 (41.4) 1.5 (34.7) 1.5 (34.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 7.5 (0.295) 13.8 (0.543) 28.2 (1.11) 97.9 (3.854) 213.4 (8.402) 178.4 (7.024) 310.9 (12.24) 358.4 (14.11) 283.9 (11.177) 124.9 (4.917) 59.2 (2.331) 14.0 (0.551) 1,690.5 (66.555)

Average rainy days 1.4 1.8 3.7 10.8 18.4 19.5 23.1 23.7 17.3 11.4 5.0 1.8 137.9

Average relative humidity (%) 75 67 62 66 76 80 82 84 83 82 79 77 76

Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8 257.1 294.5 279.0 198.4 159.0 120.9 117.8 144.0 198.4 249.0 251.1 2,542

Mean daily sunshine hours 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.3 6.4 5.3 3.9 3.8 4.8 6.4 8.3 8.1 7.0

Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department[3]

Source #2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity)[4]

Demographics[edit] According to the Thailand
Thailand
National Statistical Office, as of September 2010, Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
municipal district had a population of 199,699. With the spread of the city extending into neighboring districts, the metropolitan area is considered somewhat larger by local residents. Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
city is the capital city and business center of the Chiang Rai Province, home to 1.1 million residents.[citation needed] 12.5% of the population belong to hill tribes, a collective term for the minority ethnic groups in north Thailand
Thailand
such as the Karen, Akha, Lisu, Meo, and Hmong. Government[edit] Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
City is the capital of Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Province. The city hall 19°54.805′N 99°49.615′E / 19.913417°N 99.826917°E / 19.913417; 99.826917 houses the provincial offices. The thesaban houses the municipal offices 19°54′34″N 99°49′39″E / 19.90944°N 99.82750°E / 19.90944; 99.82750. Buddhist temples[edit]

Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong, 19°54.970′N 99°49.365′E / 19.916167°N 99.822750°E / 19.916167; 99.822750 Wat Phra Kaeo, Chiang Rai, 19°54.704′N 99°49.647′E / 19.911733°N 99.827450°E / 19.911733; 99.827450 Wat Phra Sing, Chiang Rai, 19°54.653′N 99°49.882′E / 19.910883°N 99.831367°E / 19.910883; 99.831367 Wat Doi Khao Khwai, 19°52.892′N 99°48.582′E / 19.881533°N 99.809700°E / 19.881533; 99.809700 Wat Rong Khun, 19°49.480′N 99°45.800′E / 19.824667°N 99.763333°E / 19.824667; 99.763333, a modern temple built since 1998 by Thai artist Chalermchai Kositpipat Chedi Doi Trimoorati,.Map

Tourist attractions[edit]

Night Bazaar a night market in the middle of downtown Chiang Rai. A place for souvenirs and local products, with free cultural performances. Also more than 40 restaurants. Lion Hill is the site of a Buddha cave and a natural cavern where hikers can walk in the south side, and out the north side of the hill that parallels the Mae Kok River. Saturday Night Walking Street just north of downtown. Hundreds of local folks display their crafts and food. Includes local dance and showcase displays. The White Temple or Wat Rong Khun
Wat Rong Khun
is about 14 km away.

Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

Mae Fah Luang University Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Rajabhat University Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Campus

International Schools[edit]

Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
International School Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
International Christian School 19°57.022′N 99°49.893′E / 19.950367°N 99.831550°E / 19.950367; 99.831550

High Schools[edit]

Samakkhi Witthayakhom School
Samakkhi Witthayakhom School
19°54.314′N 99°49.598′E / 19.905233°N 99.826633°E / 19.905233; 99.826633 Damrongratsongkroh School Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Witthayakhom School Chiangrai municiplarity school 6 Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
International School

Primary Schools[edit]

PSEP Bilingual School. http://psec.ac.th/ 19.8681872,99.7942703,15z/data=!4m6!3m5!1s0x0:0x102692d4fbf65d33!4b1!8m2!3d19.8681872!4d99.7942703 Bansonkong School 19°54.045′N 99°49.671′E / 19.900750°N 99.827850°E / 19.900750; 99.827850 Piti Suksa Montessori School 19°55.400′N 99°49.950′E / 19.923333°N 99.832500°E / 19.923333; 99.832500 AMEC School, Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
19°50.660′N 99°48.114′E / 19.844333°N 99.801900°E / 19.844333; 99.801900

Hospitals[edit]

Overbrook Hospital (semi-private) Founded in 1903 by Dr. William A. Briggs, as a Missionary hospital. Kasemrad Sriburin General Hospital, Private hospital. Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Prachanukhro Hospital, Public hospital. Fort Mengraimaharaj Hospital, Military public hospital. Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Inter Hospital, Private hospital. Bangkok
Bangkok
Hospital - Chiang Rai, Private hospital by BDMS chain.

Transportation[edit] Route 1 runs from Bangkok
Bangkok
through Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
to Mae Sai on the Burma border. Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
is 839 kilometers from Bangkok, about 14 hours by car or by bus. According to official bus schedules, the bus ride to Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
from Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
takes approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes, All of these times should take into account the rainy season which lasts from about June to late October, this can severely inhibit travel with road sections often completely flooded and even washed out. Several flights are available to and from Bangkok
Bangkok
daily. Mae Fah Luang International Airport flight time is about 1 hour and 30 minutes. There are several major operators including Thai Airways, Air Asia, Nok Air. There is scheduled boat service between Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
and Thaton in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Province daily. This journey will last about 3–4 hours and is a pleasant alternative to the bus ride through the mountains. There are currently no rail services to Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
as the railway line from Bangkok
Bangkok
ends at Chiang Mai. There have been talks of extending the rail line from Den Chai to Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
in the near future,[5] but this is unlikely to happen as the city's population is well below 1 million and there aren't as many international tourists visiting Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
as Chiang Mai.[citation needed] Also there are no major industrial complexes in the region as it is largely a rural economy.[citation needed] References[edit]

^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of south-east Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ "www.tmd.go.th/province_stat.php?StationNumber=48303".  ^ "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. p. 1. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 11. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ railway.co.th Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chiang Rai.

Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
travel guide from Wikivoyage Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Times Provincial and local news for Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
(English language)

Coordinates: 19°54′34″N 99°49′39″E / 19.90944°N 99.82750°E / 19.90944; 99.82750

v t e

Metropolitan cities of Thailand

Special
Special
Governed Cities

Bangkok
Bangkok
(Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) Pattaya

City Municipalities (thesaban nakhon)

Chaophraya Surasak Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Hat Yai Khon Kaen Ko Samui Laem Chabang Lampang Mae Sot Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Nonthaburi Om Noi Pak Kret Phitsanulok Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Phuket Rangsit Rayong Sakon Nakhon Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Songkhla Surat Thani Trang Ubon Ratchathani Udon Thani Yala

v t e

Capitals of provinces of Thailand

Ang Thong Ayothaya Ban Tom Bang Rin Bangkok Bueng Kan SAO Area Chachoengsao Chaeramae Chai Nat Chai Sathan Chaiyaphum Chanthaburi Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Chonburi Chumphon Kalasin Kanchanaburi Khelang Nakhon Khon Kaen Krabi Lamphun Loei Lopburi Mae Hong Son Mai Khet Map Ta Phut Mukdahan Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Phanom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Narathiwat Non Nam Thaeng Nong Bua Lam Phu Nong Khai Nong Pling Nonthaburi Pathum Thani Pattani Phang Nga Phatthalung Phetchaburi Phichit Phitsanulok Phrae Phuket Prachuap Khiri Khan Ratchaburi Roi Et Sa Kaeo Sadiang Sakon Nakhon Samet Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Samut Songkhram Sanam Chai Saraburi Satun Sing Buri Sisaket Songkhla Sukhothai Thani Surat Thani Surin Tak Thanon Khat Trang Trat Udon Thani Uthai Thani Uttaradit Waeng Nang Township Yala Yasothon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 243839683 GND: 4365207-4

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