Chhattisgarh (Chattīsgaṛh, translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of
the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It
is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of
135,198.5 km2 (52,200.4 sq mi). With a population of
Chhattisgarh is the 17th-most populated state in the
country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and
steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel
Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in
The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10
Chhattisgarhi and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya
Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur.
Chhattisgarh borders the
Madhya Pradesh in the northwest,
Maharashtra in the
Telangana in the south,
Odisha in the southeast,
Jharkhand in the northeast and
Uttar Pradesh in the north. Currently
the state comprises 27 districts.
3.2 Rail network
3.2.1 Rail network expansion
4.1 Ancient and medieval history
4.2 Colonial and post-independence history
4.3 Separation of Chhattisgarh
5 Governance and administration
6 Major cities
7.1 Tea production
7.2.1 Agricultural products
7.3 Industrial sector
7.3.1 Power sector
7.3.2 Steel sector
7.3.3 Aluminium sector
7.3.4 Natural resources
184.108.40.206 Mineral deposits
220.127.116.11 Information and technologies
18.104.22.168 Major companies
8 Human Development Indicators (HDIs)
8.2 Standard of living
8.3 Education Index
8.4 Health Index
8.5 Net state domestic product (NSDP)
8.7 Sex ratio
8.8 Fertility rate
8.9 SC and ST population
8.11 Access to drinking water
8.14 Road density
9.1.2 Religious Persecution
9.3 Status of women
10.3.3 Raut Nacha
10.3.4 Soowa Nacha
11 Festivals of Chhattisgarh
11.2 Film industry
11.3 Traditional food
13.1 Absolute literates and literacy rate
14 Media and communications
14.1 English daily newspapers
Hindi daily newspapers
15 See also
18 External links
There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh,
which in ancient times was known as
Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala).
"Chhattisgarh" was popularised later during the time of the Maratha
Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795.
It is claimed that
Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 ancient
forts in the area. (chhattis—thirty-six, and garh—fort.) The
old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur,
Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta,
Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra,
Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg,
Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim,
Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara. However, experts
do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be
archaeologically identified in this region.
Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that
Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or
"Empire of the Chedis". In ancient times,
Chhattisgarh region had
been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kaling, in modern Odisha. In the
medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern
Chhattisgarh was part of the
Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha.
The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the
central part is a fertile plain. The highest point in the state is the
Gaurlata. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover
roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van
bhainsa, or wild asian buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or
hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division.
Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh
In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The
Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern
end of the
Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur
Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River
basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of
like a sea horse.
The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the
Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice
cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper
Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras)
and from the plains of
Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The
southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the
watershed of the
Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati
River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main
rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk,
Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya
The natural beauty of Koriya in
Chhattisgarh includes dense forests,
mountains, rivers and waterfalls. Koriya was a princely state during
the British rule in India. Koriya is also known for the rich mineral
deposits. Coal is found in abundance in this part of the country. The
dense forests are rich in wildlife.
The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya's main attraction, is a natural
waterfall which originates from the Hasdo River. The fall is situated
at a distance of seven kilometres from Koriya. The waterfall is
ideally located on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara
Waterfall falls from a height of 27 m. The waterfall is about
3–4.5 m wide. The point where the water falls to the ground, a
cloudy atmosphere is formed all around.
Chirimiri is one of the more
popular places, known for its pristine beauty, and healthy climate in
The climate of
Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because
of its proximity to the
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the
monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in
Chhattisgarh can reach
45 °C (113 °F). The monsoon season is from late June to
October and is a welcome respite from the heat.
an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from
November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh.
Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity.
The temperature varies between 30 and 45 °C (86 and
113 °F) in summer and between 0 and 25 °C (32 and
77 °F) during winter. However, extremes in temperature can be
observed with scales falling to less than 0 °C to
49 °C.
National Highway 43 (India)
Chhattisgarh has coverage of mostly two-lane or one-lane roads which
provides connectivity to major cities. Eleven national highways
passing through the state which are together 3078.40 km in
length. However, most national highways are in poor condition and
provide only two lanes for slow moving traffic. Many national highways
are on paper and not fully converted into four-lane highway. This
includes 130A New, 130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New, 163A New,
343 New, 930New.. Other national highway includes NH 6, NH 16, NH 43,
NH 12A, NH 78, NH 111, NH 200, NH 202, NH 216, NH 217, NH 221, NH30NH
930 NEW. The state highways and major district roads constitute
another network of 8,031 km.
Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest densities of National Highway in
Central and South
India (12.1 km/100,000 population) which is
similar to the North Eastern state of Assam.
Raipur Railway Station Entrance
Almost the entire railway network spread over the state comes under
the geographical jurisdiction of the
South East Central Railway
South East Central Railway Zone
of Indian Railways centred around Bilaspur, which is the zonal
headquarters of this zone. The main railway junctions are Bilaspur
Durg and Raipur, which is also a starting point of many long
distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major
cities of India.
The state has the highest freight loading in the country and one-sixth
of Indian Railway's revenue comes from Chhattisgarh. The length of
rail network in the state is 1,108 km, while a third track has
been commissioned between
Durg and Raigarh. Construction of some
new railway lines are under process. These include
Jagdalpur rail line, Pendra Road-Gevra Road Rail Line
rail line, Raigarh-Mand Colliery to Bhupdeopur rail line and
Chirmiri rail line. Freight/goods trains provide services
mostly to coal and iron ore industries in east-west corridor
(Mumbai-Howrah route). There is lack of passenger services to north
and south of Chhattisgarh. Current train stations are mostly over
crowded and not maintained well for passengers.
Rail network expansion
Chhattisgarh has a 1,187-kilometre-long (738 mi)
railway line network, which is less than half of the national average
of rail density.
The construction of a new 546-km-long rail network includes the
Rajhara-Rowghat rail project, 311km-long east and east-west rail
corridors and the 140km-long Rowghat-
Jagdalpur rail project.
Chhattisgarh government has decided to form a joint venture
company with the Ministry of Railways for the expansion of railway
tracks in the state. The decision to form a joint venture company with
the Ministry of Railways was taken during a meeting of the state
cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister on 5 February 2016. The state
government will have a 51% share and the railways the remaining 49%
Major railway heads are Bilaspur, Raipur, Durg, Champa, Raigarh,
Major railway stations of Chhattisgarh
Bilaspur Junction Railway Station
Durg Junction Railway Station
Raipur Junction Railway Station
Raigarh Railway Station
Korba Railway Station
Champa Junction Railway Station
Rajnandgaon Railway Station
Dongargarh Railway Station
Gevra Road Railway Station
Pendra Road Railway Station
Swami Vivekananda Airport
Swami Vivekananda Airport Raipur
The air infrastructure in
Chhattisgarh is small compared to other
Swami Vivekananda Airport
Swami Vivekananda Airport in
Raipur is its sole airport with
scheduled commercial air services. A massive reduction in sales tax on
aviation turbine fuel (ATF) from 25 to 4% in
Chhattisgarh in 2003 has
contributed to a sharp rise in passenger flow. The passenger flow has
increased by 58% between 2011 and November 2012.
Other major areas in the north and south of state, and industrial
cities such as Bilaspur, Korba,
Raigarh are not served by any airline.
The majority of population in these area is not able take advantage of
low-cost airlines due to poor road connectivity and high cost of taxi
fares. The State Government has signed a MOU with the Airports
India (AAI) in July 2013 to develop
Raigarh Airport as
the state's second airport for domestic flights.
Bilaspur Airport, Bilaspur
Kodatarai Airport, Raigarh
Jagdalpur Airport, Jagdalpur
Nandini Airport, Bhilai
Baikunth Airstrip, Baikunth
JSPL's Airstrip, Raigarh
Darima Airstrip, Ambikapur
Korba Airstrip, Korba
Agdih Airstrip, Jashpur
Dondi Airstrip, Dondi, Durg
Kota Road Airstrip, MohanBhatha, Bilaspur
Mulmula Airtrip, Mulmula Janjgir-Champa
Ancient and medieval history
In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshina Kosala. This area
also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth and
twelfth centuries, Sharabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somavanshi, Kalachuri
and Nagavanshi rulers dominated this region. The Bastar region of
Chhattisgarh was invaded by
Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I and
Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I of
Chola dynasty in the 11th century.
Colonial and post-independence history
Chhattisgarh was under
Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to
1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947 as the
Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces.
prominence over the capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in
1845. In 1905, the
Sambalpur district was transferred to
the estates of Surguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.
The area constituting the new state merged into on 1 November 1956,
States Reorganisation Act, 1956
States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and remained a part of that
state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of
Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old
Madhya Pradesh State, with
its capital at Bhopal. Prior to that, the region was part of the
Central Provinces and Berar (CP and Berar) under the British rule.
Some areas constituting the
Chhattisgarh state were princely states
under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya
Separation of Chhattisgarh
Mantralaya in Naya (New) Raipur
The present state of
Chhattisgarh was carved out of
Madhya Pradesh on
1 November 2000. The demand for a separate state was first
raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular
intervals; however, a well-organised movement was never launched.
Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved
around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes.
A demand for separate
Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur
Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian
Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a
Regional Congress organisation for Chhattisgarh. When the State
Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a
Chhattisgarh was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955,
a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the
then state of Madhya Bharat.
The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as
the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the
Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum,
several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organised
under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major
political parties, including the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress and the
Bharatiya Janata Party.
The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the
Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya
Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and
then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate
Chhattisgarh was passed in the
Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving
the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The
India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh
Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The Government of India
subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya
Pradesh would be divided into
Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
Governance and administration
Government of Chhattisgarh and Legislative Assembly of
The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 members of the
Legislative Assembly. There are 11 members of the
Lok Sabha from
Rajya Sabha has five members from the state.
Main article: List of districts of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh state in 2007
Chhattisgarh comprises 27 districts. The following are the list of the
Chhattisgarh state consists of 27 districts and 5 divisions:
Dantewada (Dakshin Bastar)
Kanker (Uttar Bastar)
Other Major Cities
Kota(Kargi Road), Pendra Road, Bilha
Charoda, Kumhari, Patan
Kharsia, Gharghora, Sarangagarh, lailunga
Main article: List of cities in Chhattisgarh
Largest cities in Chhattisgarh
(2011 Census of
Economy of Chhattisgarh
₹3.26 lakh crore (US$50 billion) (2018–19 est.)
GDP by sector
Services 35% (2016-17)
18.06% of GSDP (2018–19 est.)
₹73,782 crore (US$11 billion) (2018–19 est.)
₹83,179 crore (US$13 billion) (2018–19 est.)
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
Chhattisgarh's nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) is
estimated at ₹3.26 lakh crore (US$50 billion) in 2018–19, the
17th largest state economy in India. The economy of Chhattisgarh
recorded a growth rate of 6.7% in 2017–18. Chhattisgarh's
success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in
agriculture and industrial production.
Chhattisgarh State is ranked as the 17th-largest tea-producing state
in India. The districts of
Jashpur and Surguja are favourable tea
production areas. In
Jashpur district, the first tea plantation,
Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was established under the direction of
Pujya Pad Gurupad. Tea production started after two years at the
Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was established in Sogara Ashram
and the unit name set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The forestry
department has also started a tea plantation motivated by the Sogara
Ashram. In Surguja district, a tea nursery is being developed by the
Margdarshan Sansthan Agriculture College in Ambikapur, Surguja.
Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state.
According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is
4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is
5.788 million hectares. Horticulture and animal husbandry
also engage a major share of the total population of the state.
About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main
livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small
The majority of the farmers are still practising the traditional
methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and
productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies
suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the
farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural
development plans and to improve the productivity.
Chloroxylon is used for Pest Management in Organic Rice Cultivation in
Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity
of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are
unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has
remained as subsistence agriculture till now.
Medicinal Rice of
Chhattisgarh used as Immune Booster
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Gulbakawali
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with Arhar
The main crops are rice, maize, kodo-kutki and other small millets
and pulses (tuar and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts
(peanuts), soybeans and sunflowers, are also grown. In the
mid-1990s, most of
Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only
one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a
very substantial portion of the population is dependent on
agriculture, a situation where nearly 80% of a state's area is covered
only by one crop, immediate attention to turn them into double crop
areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh,
so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards
oilseeds and other cash crops.
Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice
bowl of central India".
Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in Chhattisgarh, India
Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi
In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the net
sown area. Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the rest
depends on rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of the
Chhattisgarh plains, 97% of the Bastar plateau and 95% of the northern
hills are rainfed. The irrigated area available for double cropping is
only 87,000 ha in
Chhattisgarh plains and 2300 ha in Bastar
plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of rice and
other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic
benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence
agriculture till now, though agriculture is the main occupation of
more than 80% of the population.
Chhattisgarh region, about 22% of net cropped area was under
irrigation as compared to 36.5% in
Madhya Pradesh in 1998–99,
whereas the average national irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation
is characterised by a high order of variability ranging from 1.6% in
Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an average growth trend in the
irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought under
irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in
Madhya Pradesh and 1.0%
in the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very
low rate in
Chhattisgarh and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it
would take about 122 years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated
Chhattisgarh at the present rate of growth.
Chhattisgarh has a limited irrigation system, with dams and canals on
some rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and
the entire state falls under the rice agroclimatic zone. The Large
variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects the production of
Irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall
development and therefore the state government has given top priority
to development of irrigation.
A total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects
have been completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects
are under construction, as of 31 March 2006.
Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of
India where the power sector
is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus
electric power, the position of the State is comfortable and
Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a
strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new state
and is in good financial health.
Chhattisgarh provides electricity to
several other states because of surplus production.
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC)
Sipat Thermal Power Station
Sipat Thermal Power Station with a capacity of 2,980 MW at Sipat,
Bilaspur; GMR Power in Tilda and Korba Super Thermal Power Station
with a capacity of 2,600 MW at Korba, while CSEB's units have a
thermal capacity of 1,780 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from
NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large
and small capacity. The state government has pursued a liberal policy
with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of
private players coming up.
The state has a potential of 61,000 MW of additional thermal power in
terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than
2,500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial
additions to the existing generation capacity are already
The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of
Bhilai Steel Plant,
Bhilai operated by SAIL, with a
capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a
significant growth indicator of the state. More than 100 steel rolling
mills, 90 sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units are in
Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and
Raigarh have become the steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today,
become the centre of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel in
The aluminium industry of
Chhattisgarh was established by Bharat
Aluminium Company Limited, which has a capacity of around 600,000
tonnes each year.
Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area (as per the latest report by
the Indian Forest Service) and the rich forest resources include wood,
tendu leaves, honey and lac. Approximately 3%is under very dense
forest, 25.97% is moderately dense, 12.28% is open forest and 0.09% is
Flora of Kabirdham District
Indian Luna Moth in
Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich
Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's
total cement produce. It has the highest output of coal in the country
with second-highest reserves. It is third in iron ore production and
first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant.
It is the only tin ore-producing state in India. Other commercially
extracted minerals include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble,
alexandrite and diamonds.
Maikal Hills in Chhattisgarh
Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri, Chhattisgarh
Information and technologies
In recent years,
Chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in information
technology (IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also
promoting IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT solutions.
The body, known as CHiPS, is providing large IT projects such as
Choice, Swan, etc.
Major companies with a presence in the state include:
Bhilai Steel Plant, Jindal Steel and Power, Bharat Aluminium
Oil: Indian Oil Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited
Engineering: Simplex Casting Ltd,
Real estate: CHPL-Dream-Homes (Chouhan Housing Pvt Ltd.)
Mining: NMDC, South Eastern Coalfields
Power : NTPC, Lanco Infratech, KSK Energy Ventures, Vandana
Chhattisgarh State Power Generation Company, Chhattisgarh
State Power Distribution Company,
Chhattisgarh State Power
Transmission Company, Jindal Power Limited.
Chhattisgarh's total exports were US$353.3 million in 2009–10.
Nearly 75% of exports comes from
Bhilai and the remaining from Urla,
Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products include steel,
handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and agri-products, iron,
aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC
Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the
nodal agency of the
Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in
Human Development Indicators (HDIs)
As of 2011
Chhattisgarh state had a
Human Development Index
Human Development Index value of
0.537 (medium), ranks 23rd in Indian state. The national average is
0.467 according to 2011 Indian NHDR report.
Standard of living
Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest standard of living in
India as per
the Income Index (0.127) along with the states of Assam, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh,
Odisha and Rajasthan. These states have
incomes below the national average, with
Bihar having the lowest
income per capita.
Despite these ratings and rankings, we can consider Raipur, the
Chhattisgarh to be one of the most developing cities in
India. People living here, have high living standards that can be
compared to any of those living in rich metro cities. Likes of
International Cricket Stadium, top notch malls, various multinational
brands and lot more. Even the NSDP (Net STate Domestic Product)
ratings suggest that the growth is a decent 12.15% per annum. The
Chhattisgarh capital, Naya
Raipur can also be considered
as one of the advanced developments this state will be seeing in near
School children in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh has an Education Index of 0.526 according to 2011 NHDR
which is higher than that of the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar
Pradesh, Rajasthan, although lower than the national average of 0.563.
With respect to literacy, the state fared just below the national
average. The recent estimates from Census (2011) are also similar,
with the literacy rate of 71% (81.4% males and 60.5% females), which
is close to the all
India literacy rate of 74%.
According to NSS (2007–08), the literacy rate for Scheduled Tribes
Scheduled Castes (SCs) was better than the corresponding
Among the marginalised groups, STs are at the bottom of the rankings,
further emphasising the lack of social development in the state.
Dantewada in south
Chhattisgarh are the most illiterate
districts and the drop out ratio is the highest among all the
districts. The reason for this is the extreme poverty in rural areas.
Health Index of
Chhattisgarh is less than 0.49, one of the lowest in
the country. The Health Index is defined in terms of life expectancy
at birth since a higher life expectancy at birth reflects better
health outcomes for an individual.
Despite different health related schemes and programmes, the health
indicators such as percentage of women with BMI<18.5, Under Five
Mortality Rate and underweight children are poor. This may be due to
the difficulty in accessing the remote areas in the state. The
prevalence of female malnutrition in
Chhattisgarh is higher than the
national average—half of the ST females are malnourished. The
performance of SCs is a little better than the corresponding national
and state average. The Under Five Mortality Rate among STs is
significantly higher than the national average. The percentage of
underweight children in
Chhattisgarh is also higher than the national
average, further underlining the appalling health condition of the
Net state domestic product (NSDP)
Chhattisgarh is one of the emerging states with relatively high growth
rates of NSDP (8.2% vs. 7.1% All
India over 2002–2008) and per
capita NSDP (6.2% vs. 5.4% All
India over 2002–2008). The growth
rates of the said parameters are above the national averages and thus
it appears that
Chhattisgarh is catching up with other states in this
respect. However, the state still has very low levels of per capita
income as compared to the other states.
The demographic profile shows that about 80 percent of the total
population lived in rural areas.
Raipur being the Capital of the
Chhattisgarh, can be considered under Urban City.
There are more than 13 million males and 12.9 million females in
Chhattisgarh, which constitutes 2.11% of the country's population. The
sex ratio in the state is one of the most balanced in
India with 991
females per 1,000 males, as is the child sex-ratio with 964 females
per 1,000 males (Census 2011)
Chhattisgarh has a fairly high fertility rate (3.1) as compared to All
India (2.6) and the replacement rate (2.1). It has rural fertility
rate of 3.2 and urban fertility rate of 2.1.
SC and ST population
With the exception of the hilly states of the north-east, Chhattisgarh
has one of highest shares of Scheduled Tribe (ST) populations within a
state, accounting for about 10 percent of the STs in India. Scheduled
Castes and STs together constitute more than 50 percent of the state's
population. The tribals are an important part of the state population
and mainly inhabit the dense forests of Bastar and other districts of
south Chhattisgarh. The Scheduled Caste (SC) population of
Chhattisgarh is 2,418,722 as per 2001 census constituting 11.6 percent
of the total population (20,833,803). The proportion of Scheduled
Castes has increased from 11.6 percent in 2001 to 12.8% in 2011. The
percentage increase in the population of the scheduled list of tribals
during the 2001–2011 decade had been at the rate of 18.23 percent.
The share of the tribal population in the entire state had been 30.62
per cent which was 31.76 per cent during 2001.
Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection in Chhattisgarh, India.
The incidence of poverty in
Chhattisgarh is very high. The estimated
poverty ratio in 2004–05 based on uniform reference period
consumption was around 50 per cent, which is approximately double the
India level. The incidence of poverty in the rural and urban areas
is almost the same.
More than half of the rural STs and urban SCs are poor. In general,
the proportion of poor SC and ST households in the state is higher
than the state average and their community's respective national
averages (except for rural SC households). Given that more than 50 per
cent of the state's population is ST and SC, the high incidence of
income poverty among them is a matter of serious concern in the state.
This indicates that the good economic performance in recent years has
not percolated to this socially deprived group, which is reflected in
their poor performance in human development indicators.
Access to drinking water
In terms of access to improved drinking water sources, at the
Chhattisgarh fared better than the national average
and the SCs of the state performed better than the corresponding
Scheduled Tribes are marginally below the state
average, but still better than the STs at the all
The proportion of households with access to improved sources of
drinking water in 2008–09 was 91%. This proportion was over 90% even
in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
This was largely because these states had over 70% of their households
accessing tube wells/ handpumps as sources of drinking water.
Sanitation facilities in the state are abysmally low with only about
27 per cent having toilet facilities, which is far below the all-India
average of 44%. The STs are the most deprived section in this
regard with only 18 per cent of the ST households having toilet
facilities, which is lower than the all
India average for STs. The SCs
also have a lower proportion of households with toilet facilities as
compared to the all
States with low sanitation coverage in 2001 that improved coverage by
4–10% points are [Chhattisgarh], Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh, Daman and Diu,
Haryana, Sikkim, Punjab, Dadra and Nagar Haveli,
Goa and Uttarakhand
registered increased coverage by more than 20 percentage points.
Across states, it has been found that teledensity (telephone density)
was below 10 per cent in 2010 for
Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand,
reflecting a lack of access to telephones in these relatively poorer
states.But due to development of new technology the teledensity in
2017 is 68.08 per cent which shows improvement of telecom
infrastructure. On the other hand, for states like
Delhi and Himachal
Pradesh and metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai,
teledensity was over 100 per cent in 2010 implying that individuals
have more than one telephone connection.
The road length per 100 km2 was less than the national average of
81 km (81,000 m) per 100 km2 in Chhattisgarh. The rural
Chhattisgarh failed to meet their targets of constructing new
roads under the
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) plan.
Source:Census of India
Chhattisgarh is primarily a rural state with only 20% of its
population (around 5.1 million people in 2011) residing in urban
areas. According to a report by the government of India, at least
34% are Scheduled Tribes, 12% are
Scheduled Castes and over 50% belong
to the official list of Other Backward Classes. The plains are
numerically dominated by castes such as Teli, Satnami and Kurmi; while
forest areas are mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond, Halbi, Halba
and Kamar/Bujia and Oraon. A large community of
Bengalis has existed
in major cities since the times of the British Raj. They are
associated with education, industry and services.
Sarnaism or not religious (3.01%)
According to the 2011 census, 93.25% of Chhattisgarh's population
practised Hinduism, while 2% followed Islam, 1.92% followed
Christianity and smaller number followed Buddhism, Sikhism,
Sarnaism is the indigenous religion followed by
the indigenous tribes of the state.
To bring about social reforms and with a view to discourage
undesirable social practices,
Chhattisgarh government has enacted the
Chhattisgarh Tonhi Atyachar (Niwaran) Act, 2005 against witchery.
Much has to be done on the issue of law enforcement by judicial
authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such persecution
to an end.
Some sections of tribal population of
Chhattisgarh state believe in
witchcraft. Women are believed to have access to supernatural
forces and are accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle
As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of
flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by
villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods
acquisition. According to National Geographic Channel's
investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally
bullied and shunned or exiled from their village.
Social Mission Against Blind Faith
According to the Christian organisation,
Release International several
Chhattisgarh have been attacked and killed by Hindu
nationalists. Lachhu Kashap was killed and his brother, Pastor Shuduru
Kashap beaten in Mandala, and several other Christians have been
beaten by mobs of up to fifty people. When
Chhattisgarh separated from
Madhya Pradesh in 2000 it inherited anti-conversion laws which were
further tightened in 2007. Those wishing to convert to Christianity
need to submit an official affidavit, leading to an official police
investigation into their reasons for converting. Punishment for
contravening the regulations can be up to three years' prison or fines
of up to 20,000 rupees.
The official languages of the state are
Chhattisgarhi & Hindi.
Chhattisgarhi is spoken and understood by the majority of people in
Chhattisgarh. Among other languages, Odia is widely spoken by a
significant number of Odia population in the eastern part of the
state. Marathi and Telugu are also spoken in parts of Chhattisgarh.
Chhattisgarhi was known as "Khaltahi" to the surrounding hill-people
and as "Laria" to Odia speakers.
In addition to Chhattisgarhi, there are several other languages spoken
by the tribal people of the Bastar region, geographically equivalent
to the former Bastar state, like Halbi, Gondi and
Status of women
Adivasi woman and child
Chhattisgarh has a high female-male sex ratio (991) ranking at the
fifth position among other states of India. Although this ratio is
small compared to other states, it is unique in
Chhattisgarh is the 10th-largest state in India.
The gender ratio (number of females per 1,000 males) has been steadily
declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh. But it is conspicuous
Chhattisgarh always had a better female-to-male ratio compared
with national average.
Young women in Chhattisgarh
Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and
cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: The regional
variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern.
Rural women, although poor, are independent, better organised,
socially outspoken. According to another local custom, women can
choose to terminate a marriage relationship through a custom called
chudi pahanana, if she desires. Most of the old temples and shrines
here are related to 'women power' (e.g., Shabari, Mahamaya,
Danteshwari) and the existence of these temples gives insight into
historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention
of these progressive local customs in no way suggests that the
ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the
contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in
the social and cultural life.
Detailed information on aspects of women's status in
be found in 'A situational analysis of women and girls in
Chhattisgarh' prepared in 2004 by the National Commission of Women, a
statutory body belonging to government of India.
Adivasi Woman at Farasgaon Market
Natives of Kamar Tribe
A carving in the 10th- or 11th-century Hindu temple of Malhar village.
This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major Buddhist
centre in ancient times.
The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth,
Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others.
Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a
small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint
Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the
Chhattisgarh has a significant role in the life of lord Rama. Lord
Rama along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had
started his Vanvas (exile) in the Bastar region (more precisely
Dandakaranya region) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 of their
14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of the
remarkable place is
Shivrinarayan which is nearby Bilaspur district of
Shivrinarayan was named after an old lady Shabari. When
Shabari she said "I do not have anything to offer other
than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it please you, my
Lord." Saying so,
Shabari offered the fruits she had meticulously
collected to Rama. When
Rama was tasting them, Lakshmana raised the
Shabari had already tasted them and therefore unworthy of
eating. To this
Rama said that of the many types of food he had
tasted, "nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with such
devotion. You taste them, then alone will you know. Whomsoever offers
a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it with great
The Odia culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and
crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the
day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social
and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs.
Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft,
bamboo ware and tribal jewellery.
Chhattisgarh has a rich literary
heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical
movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional
consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in
Chhattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides
saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles,
shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis.
Works by the internationally renowned sculptor, Sushil Sakhuja's
Dhokra Nandi, are available at government's Shabagcrafts emporium,
Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang,
Bhatra Naat, Rahas, Raai, Maao-Pata and Soowa are the several
indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.
, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones.
Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, tbla[clarification needed] the
anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a
jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogising their spiritual
head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of
their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir,
Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance,
carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they perform
acrobatics and form human pyramids.
Pandavani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in
Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading
characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani
narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and
musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati
and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a
simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The
Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the
scenes and characters.
Raut Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of
Yaduvanshis (clan of Yadu) as symbol of worship to
Krishna from the
4th day of Diwali (Goverdhan Puja) till the time of Dev Uthani
Ekadashi (day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is
the 11th day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar. The dance
closely resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).
In Bilaspur, the Raut Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organised
annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rautt dancers from remote
Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in
Chhattisgarh is also known as Parrot
Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers
keep a parrot in a bamboo-pot and form a circle around it. Then
performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one
of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh.
Sua Nacha at Khudmudi Village, Chhattisgarh
Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chhattisgarh
have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange
themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the
singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season
and the advent of spring season.[clarification needed]
Festivals of Chhattisgarh
Bastar Dussehra/ Durga Puja
Rajim Kumbh Mela
Pakhanjore Mela (Nara Narayan Mela)
Lata mangeshkar sang a song for
Bhakla of Dhriti
Mohmd Rafi sang a song for
Chhattisgarhi film. He had also sung songs
Chhattisgarhi films like Ghardwaar, Kahi Debe Sandes,
Punni Ke Chanda, etc.
Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh.
Pandavani is one of the
lyrical forms of this theatre. Several acclaimed plays of Habib
Tanvir, such as Charandas Chor, are variations of Chhattisgarhi
Natya Samaroh by IPTA
Chhollywood is Chhattisgarh's film industries. Every year many
Chhattisgarhi film produced by local producers.
Main article: Cuisine of Chhattisgarh
The State of
Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of
India and has a
rich tradition of food culture.
Red Velvet Mite is used as Medicine in Traditional Healing of
Main article: Tourism in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich
cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full
of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples,
Buddhist sites, palaces, waterfalls, caves, rock paintings and hill
There are many water falls, hot springs, caves, temples, dams and
national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in Chhattisgarh.
Main article: Education in Chhattisgarh
See also: List of institutions of higher education in Chhattisgarh
According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most
basic indicator of education was at 71.04 per cent. Female literacy is
at 60.59 per cent.
Absolute literates and literacy rate
Data from Census of India, 2011.
Media and communications
English daily newspapers
Times of India
Hindi daily newspapers
Airtel, BSNL, Idea Cellular, Reliance Mobile, Tata Docomo, Vodafone,
Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, TATA Sky, Videocon
D2H, Siti Cable
104.8 Radio Rangeela
98.3 Radio Mirchi
95.0 Radio Tadka
South Asia portal
Outline of Chhattisgarh
List of people from Chhattisgarh
Outline of India
Bibliography of India
Index of India-related articles
India – book
^ "State of Literacy" (PDF). Census of India. p. 114. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012.
^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India"
(PDF). p. 38. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
Chhattisgarh State – Power Hub". Archived from the original on 20
November 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
Chhattisgarh -Steel". Archived from the original on 7 July 2011.
Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ a b
^ a b
Chhattisgarh profile- Know all you want to know about state[dead
^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
^ a b c Srivastava, K.K. (2011). Decentralized Governance And
Panchayati Raj. Gyan Publishing House. p. 164.
^ Dr. Bhagvan Singh Verma,
Chhattisgarh ka Itihas (A History of
Chhattisgarh – in Hindi),
Hindi Granth Academy,
Bhopal (M.P.), 4th edition (2003), p.7
Chhattisgarh Highest Peak: Latest
Chhattisgarh Highest Peak News in
Hindi – Naidunia". naidunia.jagran.com. Retrieved 13 September
^ Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd. "
Chhattisgarh Temperature, Temperature of Chhattisgarh".
Chhattisgarhonline.in. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010.
Retrieved 29 August 2011.
^ "South East Central Railways". South East Central Railway. Retrieved
23 May 2013.
^ "Department of Commerce & Industry Chhattisgarh". Government of
Chhattisgarh. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 23
^ "Proposed new rail line to bring Mumbai, Kolkata closer". Business
Standard. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
^ Bagchi, Suvojit (8 November 2012). "Pranab hopes
new terminal will support Chhattisgarh's growth". The Hindu. Chennai,
India. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
^ "Chhattisgarh's second airport worth Rs 2,800 million in Raigarh
soon". The Times of India. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central
India by Professor S.K.
^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India: by Professor S.K.
^ Tribal Roots of
Hinduism by Shiv Kumar Tiwari p.209
^ a b c d "Prithak Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 4 July
2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ "Chhattisgarh". Office of the Registrar General and Census
Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
^ a b c d e f "
Chhattisgarh Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS
Legislative Research. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
^ a b c "Agriculture in Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on
21 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ "Economy of Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ a b c
^ Oudhia, P. (1999) Allelopathic effects of Lantana camara L. on
germination of soybean. Legume Research 22(4): 273–274.
^ Oudhia, P. (2000). Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of
some obnoxious weeds on germination and seedling vigour of pigeonpea
(Cajanus cajan L.). Research on Crops. 1 (1):116–118.
^ Oudhia, P. (2001). Stimulatory allelopathic effects of Ageratum
conyzoides L. on soybean. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21 (1):55–56.
^ a b "Power Sector in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ a b "Industries in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ Gandhi, Ankita; et al. (2011).
India Human Development Report 2011:
Towards Social Inclusion (1st ed.). New Delhi: Institute of Applied
Manpower Research, Planning Commission, Govt. of India.
ISBN 978-0-19-807758-9. Retrieved 26 October 2015. first2=
missing last2= in Authors list (help)[page needed]
^ a b "Indicus Analytics: The real dirty picture". Business Standard.
12 April 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
^  Archived 5 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Completed Roads(CGRRDA)". cgrrda.gov.in.
^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance
India. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
^ "States Census 2011". Census of India. Ministry of Finance India.
Retrieved 18 August 2015.
^ "NCW Report, page 4" (PDF). National Commission of Women, Government
of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2009. Retrieved
22 August 2010.
^ a b "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India,
2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived
from the original on 25 August 2015.
^ "Dark Spell". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ a b c "India: Protective Laws Fall Short for Women Charged with
Witchcraft". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
Release International magazine Jan Feb 2017 page 5-7
Rajasthan Patrika. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
^ Gajrani, S. (13 September 2017). "History, Religion and Culture of
India". Gyan Publishing House. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
^ "District-Bastar,Chhattishgarh". bastar.gov.in. Retrieved 13
^ "Language in India". languageinindia.com. Retrieved 13 September
^ "BASTAR REGION". cmijag.in. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
^ "Chhattisgarh, At a glance" (PDF). Census 2011, Ministry of Home
Affair, India. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ "Social Structure in Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 20
July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
^ "Panthi Dance". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ "Pandawani". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ "Rawat Nacha Traditions". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ "Raut nacha". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ "Rawat nacha mahotsva". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ "Suwa Dance". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved
27 July 2011.
^ "Arts and Culture of Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 18
March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ "Karma Tribal Dance in India". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
^ Oudhia, P. (1999)
Chhattisgarh farmer's response on control of weeds
in direct seeded rice. Agril. Sci. Digest. 19(4): 261–263.
^ Das, G.K. and Oudhia, P. (2001). Rice as the medicinal plant in
Chhattisgarh (India): A survey. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21(3):204–205.
^ Oudhia, P. (2002). Rice-Acorus intercropping: A new system developed
by innovative farmers of
Chhattisgarh (India). International Rice
Research Notes (IRRN).27(1):56.
^ "Chhattisgarh". mapsofindia.com.
^ "Which of the following district is called as the 'Rice Bowl of
Andhra Pradesh' ?". gktoday.in.
Books on Chhattisgarh
ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की
जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ Castes
(मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली 6,
ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की
पूर्व रियासतें और
प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5)
Deshbandhu Publication Division, "सन्दर्भ
Deshbandhu Publication Division, "छत्तीसगढ़ के
तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल"
Deshbandhu Publication Division, "Chhattisgarh: Beautiful &
Bountiful (Study in Biodiversity of Chhattisgarh)"
Ramesh Dewangan & Sunil Tuteja, "
C.K. Chandrakar, "
Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh" ....
C.K. Chandrakar, "Manak
C.K. Chandrakar, "
Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
Lawrence Babb, "The Divine Hierarchy: Popular
Hinduism in Central
Saurabh Dube, "Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a
Central Indian Community, 1780–1950" (on the Satnamis)
Ramdas Lamb, "Rapt in the Name: Ramnamis, Ramnam and Untouchable
Religion in Central India"
Chad Bauman, "Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian
Christians and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India
(1868–1947) (Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton Theological Seminary,
"List of books by Prof H. L. Shukla
Find more aboutChhattisgarhat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
The Official Site of the Government of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh Encyclopædia Britannica entry
Chhattisgarh at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Geographic data related to
Chhattisgarh at OpenStreetMap
Places adjacent to Chhattisgarh
State of Chhattisgarh
Raipur (Legislative) Naya
States and union territories of India
Jammu and Kashmir
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
National Capital Territory of Delhi
Daman and Diu
Capitals in India
Proposed states and territories