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Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
(Chattīsgaṛh, translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,198.5 km2 (52,200.4 sq mi). With a population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is the 17th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced.[3] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is one of the fastest-developing states in India.[4] The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10 Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh.[5][6] The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
borders the states of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
in the northwest, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
in the southwest, Telangana
Telangana
in the south,[7] Odisha
Odisha
in the southeast, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
in the northeast and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
in the north. Currently the state comprises 27 districts.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Temperature

3 Transport

3.1 Roads 3.2 Rail network

3.2.1 Rail network expansion

3.3 Air

4 History

4.1 Ancient and medieval history 4.2 Colonial and post-independence history 4.3 Separation of Chhattisgarh

5 Governance and administration

5.1 Districts

6 Major cities 7 Economy

7.1 Tea production 7.2 Agriculture

7.2.1 Agricultural products 7.2.2 Irrigation

7.3 Industrial sector

7.3.1 Power sector 7.3.2 Steel sector 7.3.3 Aluminium sector 7.3.4 Natural resources

7.3.4.1 Forest 7.3.4.2 Mineral deposits 7.3.4.3 Information and technologies 7.3.4.4 Major companies

7.4 Exports

8 Human Development Indicators (HDIs)

8.1 HDI 8.2 Standard of living 8.3 Education Index 8.4 Health Index 8.5 Net state domestic product (NSDP) 8.6 Urbanisation 8.7 Sex ratio 8.8 Fertility rate 8.9 SC and ST population 8.10 Poverty 8.11 Access to drinking water 8.12 Sanitation 8.13 Teledensity 8.14 Road density

9 Demographics

9.1 Religion

9.1.1 Witchcraft 9.1.2 Religious Persecution

9.2 Language 9.3 Status of women

10 Culture

10.1 Literature 10.2 Crafts 10.3 Dance

10.3.1 Panthi 10.3.2 Pandwani 10.3.3 Raut Nacha 10.3.4 Soowa Nacha 10.3.5 Karma

11 Festivals of Chhattisgarh

11.1 Theatre 11.2 Film industry 11.3 Traditional food

12 Tourism 13 Education

13.1 Absolute literates and literacy rate

14 Media and communications

14.1 English daily newspapers 14.2 Hindi
Hindi
daily newspapers 14.3 Telecommunications 14.4 Television 14.5 Radio

15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

Etymology[edit] There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala
Dakshina Kosala
(South Kosala).[8] "Chhattisgarh" was popularised later during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795. It is claimed that Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
takes its name from the 36 ancient forts in the area.[8] (chhattis—thirty-six, and garh—fort.) The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara.[9] However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region. Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or "Empire of the Chedis".[8] In ancient times, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
region had been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kaling, in modern Odisha. In the medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was part of the Sambalpur
Sambalpur
Kingdom of Odisha. Geography[edit] The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. The highest point in the state is the Gaurlata.[10] Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state[citation needed]. The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild asian buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division.

Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh

In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand
Rihand
River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range
Satpura Range
and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is like a sea horse. The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Odisha
Odisha
to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River
Godavari River
and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.[clarification needed] The natural beauty of Koriya in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
includes dense forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls. Koriya was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is also known for the rich mineral deposits. Coal is found in abundance in this part of the country. The dense forests are rich in wildlife. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya's main attraction, is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdo River. The fall is situated at a distance of seven kilometres from Koriya. The waterfall is ideally located on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall
Waterfall
falls from a height of 27 m. The waterfall is about 3–4.5 m wide. The point where the water falls to the ground, a cloudy atmosphere is formed all around. Chirimiri
Chirimiri
is one of the more popular places, known for its pristine beauty, and healthy climate in Chhattisgarh. Climate[edit] The climate of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
can reach 45 °C (113 °F). The monsoon season is from late June to October and is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
receives an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh. Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity.[11] Temperature[edit] The temperature varies between 30 and 45 °C (86 and 113 °F) in summer and between 0 and 25 °C (32 and 77 °F) during winter. However, extremes in temperature can be observed with scales falling to less than 0 °C to 49 °C.[citation needed] Transport[edit] Roads[edit]

National Highway 43 (India)

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has coverage of mostly two-lane or one-lane roads which provides connectivity to major cities. Eleven national highways passing through the state which are together 3078.40 km in length. However, most national highways are in poor condition and provide only two lanes for slow moving traffic. Many national highways are on paper and not fully converted into four-lane highway. This includes 130A New, 130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New, 163A New, 343 New, 930New.. Other national highway includes NH 6, NH 16, NH 43, NH 12A, NH 78, NH 111, NH 200, NH 202, NH 216, NH 217, NH 221, NH30NH 930 NEW. The state highways and major district roads constitute another network of 8,031 km. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has one of the lowest densities of National Highway in Central and South India
India
(12.1 km/100,000 population) which is similar to the North Eastern state of Assam. Rail network[edit]

Raipur
Raipur
Railway Station Entrance

Almost the entire railway network spread over the state comes under the geographical jurisdiction of the South East Central Railway
South East Central Railway
Zone of Indian Railways centred around Bilaspur, which is the zonal headquarters of this zone. The main railway junctions are Bilaspur Junction, Durg
Durg
and Raipur, which is also a starting point of many long distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major cities of India.[12] The state has the highest freight loading in the country and one-sixth of Indian Railway's revenue comes from Chhattisgarh. The length of rail network in the state is 1,108 km, while a third track has been commissioned between Durg
Durg
and Raigarh.[13] Construction of some new railway lines are under process. These include Dalli-Rajhara– Jagdalpur
Jagdalpur
rail line, Pendra Road-Gevra Road Rail Line rail line, Raigarh-Mand Colliery to Bhupdeopur rail line and Barwadih- Chirmiri
Chirmiri
rail line.[14] Freight/goods trains provide services mostly to coal and iron ore industries in east-west corridor (Mumbai-Howrah route). There is lack of passenger services to north and south of Chhattisgarh. Current train stations are mostly over crowded and not maintained well for passengers. Rail network expansion[edit] Presently, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has a 1,187-kilometre-long (738 mi) railway line network, which is less than half of the national average of rail density. The construction of a new 546-km-long rail network includes the Rajhara-Rowghat rail project, 311km-long east and east-west rail corridors and the 140km-long Rowghat- Jagdalpur
Jagdalpur
rail project. The Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
government has decided to form a joint venture company with the Ministry of Railways for the expansion of railway tracks in the state. The decision to form a joint venture company with the Ministry of Railways was taken during a meeting of the state cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister on 5 February 2016. The state government will have a 51% share and the railways the remaining 49% share.[citation needed] Major railway heads are Bilaspur, Raipur, Durg, Champa, Raigarh, Rajnandgaon. Major railway stations of Chhattisgarh

Bilaspur Junction
Bilaspur Junction
Railway Station Durg
Durg
Junction Railway Station Raipur
Raipur
Junction Railway Station Raigarh
Raigarh
Railway Station Korba Railway Station Champa
Champa
Junction Railway Station Rajnandgaon
Rajnandgaon
Railway Station Dongargarh Railway Station Gevra Road Railway Station Pendra Road
Pendra Road
Railway Station

Air[edit]

Swami Vivekananda Airport
Swami Vivekananda Airport
Raipur

The air infrastructure in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is small compared to other states. Swami Vivekananda Airport
Swami Vivekananda Airport
in Raipur
Raipur
is its sole airport with scheduled commercial air services. A massive reduction in sales tax on aviation turbine fuel (ATF) from 25 to 4% in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
in 2003 has contributed to a sharp rise in passenger flow. The passenger flow has increased by 58% between 2011 and November 2012.[15] Other major areas in the north and south of state, and industrial cities such as Bilaspur, Korba, Raigarh
Raigarh
are not served by any airline. The majority of population in these area is not able take advantage of low-cost airlines due to poor road connectivity and high cost of taxi fares. The State Government has signed a MOU with the Airports Authority of India
India
(AAI) in July 2013 to develop Raigarh
Raigarh
Airport as the state's second airport for domestic flights.[16] Other airstrips

Bilaspur Airport, Bilaspur Kodatarai Airport, Raigarh Jagdalpur
Jagdalpur
Airport, Jagdalpur Nandini Airport, Bhilai Baikunth
Baikunth
Airstrip, Baikunth JSPL's Airstrip, Raigarh Darima Airstrip, Ambikapur Korba Airstrip, Korba Agdih Airstrip, Jashpur Dondi Airstrip, Dondi, Durg Kota Road Airstrip, MohanBhatha, Bilaspur Mulmula Airtrip, Mulmula Janjgir-Champa

Proposed airstrips

Kanker Kabirdham Surajpur Dantewada Bijapur Korba Balrampur Rajnandgaon

History[edit] Ancient and medieval history[edit] In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshina Kosala. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sharabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somavanshi, Kalachuri and Nagavanshi rulers dominated this region. The Bastar region of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was invaded by Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
and Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
of the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
in the 11th century.[17][18][19] Colonial and post-independence history[edit] See also: Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Division Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was under Maratha
Maratha
rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947 as the Chhattisgarh Division
Chhattisgarh Division
of the Central Provinces. Raipur
Raipur
gained prominence over the capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in 1845. In 1905, the Sambalpur
Sambalpur
district was transferred to Odisha
Odisha
and the estates of Surguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh. The area constituting the new state merged into on 1 November 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956
States Reorganisation Act, 1956
and remained a part of that state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
State, with its capital at Bhopal. Prior to that, the region was part of the Central Provinces
Central Provinces
and Berar (CP and Berar) under the British rule. Some areas constituting the Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
state were princely states under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh.[20] Separation of Chhattisgarh[edit]

Mantralaya in Naya (New) Raipur

The present state of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was carved out of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
on 1 November 2000.[5][6] The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organised movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes.[21] A demand for separate Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organisation for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat.[21] The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organised under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[21] The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was passed in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India
India
gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The Government of India subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and Madhya Pradesh.[21] Governance and administration[edit] Main articles: Government of Chhattisgarh and Legislative Assembly of Chhattisgarh The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 members of the Legislative Assembly. There are 11 members of the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
from Chhattisgarh. The Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
has five members from the state. Districts[edit] Main article: List of districts of Chhattisgarh

Districts of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
state in 2007

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
comprises 27 districts. The following are the list of the districts of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State:

Balod Baloda Bazar-Bhatapara Balrampur Bastar Bemetara Bijapur Bilaspur Dantewada Dhamtari Durg Gariaband Janjgir-Champa Jashpur Kanker Kabirdham Kondagaon Korba Koriya Mahasamund Mungeli Narayanpur Raigarh Raipur Rajnandgaon Surguja Sukma Surajpur

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
state consists of 27 districts and 5 divisions:

Bastar Division Durg
Durg
Division Raipur
Raipur
Division Bilaspur Division Surguja Division

Bastar (Jagdalpur) Bijapur Sukma Dantewada
Dantewada
(Dakshin Bastar) Kondagaon Narayanpur Kanker (Uttar Bastar)

Kawardha
Kawardha
(Kabirdham) Rajnandgaon Balod Durg Bemetara

Dhamtari Gariyaband Raipur Baloda Bazar Mahasamund

Bilaspur Mungeli Korba Janjgir-Champa Raigarh

Koriya Surajpur Surguja (Ambikapur) Balrampur Jashpur

District Headquarter Largest City Other Major Cities

Raipur Raipur Raipur Kharora, Tilda

Bilaspur Bilaspur Bilaspur Kota(Kargi Road), Pendra Road, Bilha

Durg Durg Bhilai-nagar Charoda, Kumhari, Patan

Korba Korba Korba Katghora, Pali

Raigarh Raigarh Raigarh Kharsia, Gharghora, Sarangagarh, lailunga

Rajnandgaon Rajnandgaon Rajnandgaon Dungargarh, Dungargaon

Koriya Baikunthpur Chirmiri Manendragarh

Surguja Ambikapur Ambikapur

Balrampur-Ramanujganj Balrampur Balrampur Ramanujganj

Jashpur Jashpur-Nagar Jashpur-Nagar Kunkuri, Patthalgaon

Surajpur Surajpur Surajpur Bishrampur

Janjgir–Champa Janjgir Janjgir-Naila/ Champa Shakti, Akaltara

Mungeli Mungeli Mungeli Lormi, Takhatpur

Kabirdham Kawardha Kawardha Pandariya, Pandatarai

Bemetara Bemetara Bemetara

Balod Balod Balod Dalli-Rajhara

Baloda Bazar-Bhatapara Baloda Bazar Bhatapara

Kasdol

Gariaband Gariaband Gariaband Deobhog

Mahasamund Mahasamund Mahasamund Saraipali, Bagbahra

Dhamtari Dhamtari Dhamtari Kurud

Bijapur Bijapur Bijapur

Narayanpur Narayanpur Narayanpur

North Bastar Kanker Kanker Bhanupratapur

Bastar Jagdalpur Jagdalpur Bastar

South Bastar Dantewada Dantewada

Kondagaon Kondagaon Kondagaon Keshkal

Major cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in Chhattisgarh

Largest cities in Chhattisgarh (2011 Census of India
India
estimate)[22]

Rank City District Population

1 Raipur Raipur 4,063,872

2 Bhilai-Durg Durg 3,343,872

3 Bilaspur Bilaspur 2,663,629

4 Rajnandgaon Rajnandgaon 1,537,133

5 Raigarh Raigarh 1,493,984

6 Korba Korba 1,206,640

7 Ambikapur Sarguja 2,359,886

8 Jagdalpur Bastar 125,345

9 Chirmiri Koriya 100,656

10 Dhamtari Dhamtari 90,254

Economy[edit]

Economy of Chhattisgarh

Statistics

GDP ₹3.26 lakh crore (US$50 billion) (2018–19 est.)

GDP rank 17th

GDP growth

6.7% (2017–18)[23]

GDP by sector

Agriculture 17% Industry 48% Services 35% (2016-17)[23]

Public finances

Public debt

18.06% of GSDP (2018–19 est.)[23]

Revenues ₹73,782 crore (US$11 billion) (2018–19 est.)[23]

Expenses ₹83,179 crore (US$13 billion) (2018–19 est.)[23]

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Chhattisgarh's nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) is estimated at ₹3.26 lakh crore (US$50 billion) in 2018–19, the 17th largest state economy in India. The economy of Chhattisgarh recorded a growth rate of 6.7% in 2017–18.[23] Chhattisgarh's success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production. Tea production[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State is ranked as the 17th-largest tea-producing state in India. The districts of Jashpur
Jashpur
and Surguja are favourable tea production areas. In Jashpur
Jashpur
district, the first tea plantation, Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was established under the direction of Pujya Pad Gurupad. Tea production started after two years at the Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was established in Sogara Ashram and the unit name set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The forestry department has also started a tea plantation motivated by the Sogara Ashram. In Surguja district, a tea nursery is being developed by the Margdarshan Sansthan Agriculture College in Ambikapur, Surguja. Agriculture[edit] Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is 4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 million hectares.[24] Horticulture and animal husbandry also engage a major share of the total population of the state.[25] About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry. The majority of the farmers are still practising the traditional methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural development plans and to improve the productivity.[26]

Chloroxylon is used for Pest Management in Organic Rice Cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India

Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now.

Medicinal Rice of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
used as Immune Booster

Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera

Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Gulbakawali

Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with Arhar

Agricultural products[edit] The main crops are rice, maize,[27] kodo-kutki and other small millets and pulses (tuar[28] and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans[29] and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s, most of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was still a monocrop belt. Only one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where nearly 80% of a state's area is covered only by one crop, immediate attention to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is also called the "rice bowl of central India".[24]

Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in Chhattisgarh, India

Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi

Irrigation[edit] In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the net sown area. Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the rest depends on rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of the Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
plains, 97% of the Bastar plateau and 95% of the northern hills are rainfed. The irrigated area available for double cropping is only 87,000 ha in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
plains and 2300 ha in Bastar plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of rice and other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now, though agriculture is the main occupation of more than 80% of the population.[26] In Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
region, about 22% of net cropped area was under irrigation as compared to 36.5% in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
in 1998–99, whereas the average national irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation is characterised by a high order of variability ranging from 1.6% in Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an average growth trend in the irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought under irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and 1.0% in the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very low rate in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it would take about 122 years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated area in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
at the present rate of growth.[26] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has a limited irrigation system, with dams and canals on some rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the entire state falls under the rice agroclimatic zone. The Large variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects the production of rice. Irrigation
Irrigation
is the prime need of the state for its overall development and therefore the state government has given top priority to development of irrigation.[24] A total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects have been completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects are under construction, as of 31 March 2006. Industrial sector[edit] Power sector[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is one of the few states of India
India
where the power sector is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus electric power, the position of the State is comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new state and is in good financial health. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
provides electricity to several other states because of surplus production. In Chhattisgarh, National Thermal Power Corporation Limited
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited
(NTPC) has Sipat Thermal Power Station
Sipat Thermal Power Station
with a capacity of 2,980 MW at Sipat, Bilaspur; GMR Power in Tilda and Korba Super Thermal Power Station with a capacity of 2,600 MW at Korba, while CSEB's units have a thermal capacity of 1,780 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large and small capacity. The state government has pursued a liberal policy with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of private players coming up.[30] The state has a potential of 61,000 MW of additional thermal power in terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than 2,500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial additions to the existing generation capacity are already underway.[30] Steel sector[edit] The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai
Bhilai
Steel Plant, Bhilai
Bhilai
operated by SAIL, with a capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant growth indicator of the state. More than 100 steel rolling mills, 90 sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units are in Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and Raigarh
Raigarh
have become the steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today, Raipur
Raipur
has become the centre of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel in India.[31] Aluminium sector[edit] The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
was established by Bharat Aluminium Company Limited, which has a capacity of around 600,000 tonnes each year.[31] Natural resources[edit] Forest[edit] Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area (as per the latest report by the Indian Forest Service) and the rich forest resources include wood, tendu leaves, honey and lac. Approximately 3%is under very dense forest, 25.97% is moderately dense, 12.28% is open forest and 0.09% is scrub.

Flora of Kabirdham District

Indian Luna Moth in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Forest

Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Forest

Mahua

Mineral deposits[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's total cement produce. It has the highest output of coal in the country with second-highest reserves. It is third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin ore-producing state in India. Other commercially extracted minerals include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds.

Maikal Hills in Chhattisgarh

Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri, Chhattisgarh

Information and technologies[edit] In recent years, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is also getting exposure in information technology (IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also promoting IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT solutions. The body, known as CHiPS, is providing large IT projects such as Choice, Swan, etc. Major companies[edit] Major companies with a presence in the state include:

Metal: Bhilai
Bhilai
Steel Plant, Jindal Steel and Power, Bharat Aluminium Company Oil: Indian Oil Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Engineering: Simplex Casting Ltd, Real estate: CHPL-Dream-Homes (Chouhan Housing Pvt Ltd.) Mining: NMDC, South Eastern Coalfields Power : NTPC, Lanco Infratech, KSK Energy Ventures, Vandana Vidyut, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State Power Generation Company, Chhattisgarh State Power Distribution Company, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State Power Transmission Company, Jindal Power Limited.

Exports[edit] Chhattisgarh's total exports were US$353.3 million in 2009–10. Nearly 75% of exports comes from Bhilai
Bhilai
and the remaining from Urla, Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products include steel, handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and agri-products, iron, aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC ( Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the nodal agency of the Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in the state. Human Development Indicators (HDIs)[edit] HDI[edit] As of 2011 Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
state had a Human Development Index
Human Development Index
value of 0.537 (medium), ranks 23rd in Indian state. The national average is 0.467 according to 2011 Indian NHDR report.[32] Standard of living[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has one of the lowest standard of living in India
India
as per the Income Index (0.127) along with the states of Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha
Odisha
and Rajasthan. These states have incomes below the national average, with Bihar
Bihar
having the lowest income per capita. Despite these ratings and rankings, we can consider Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
to be one of the most developing cities in India. People living here, have high living standards that can be compared to any of those living in rich metro cities. Likes of International Cricket Stadium, top notch malls, various multinational brands and lot more. Even the NSDP (Net STate Domestic Product) ratings suggest that the growth is a decent 12.15% per annum. The widespread of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
capital, Naya Raipur
Raipur
can also be considered as one of the advanced developments this state will be seeing in near 8–10 years. Education Index[edit]

School children in Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has an Education Index of 0.526 according to 2011 NHDR which is higher than that of the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, although lower than the national average of 0.563. With respect to literacy, the state fared just below the national average. The recent estimates from Census (2011) are also similar, with the literacy rate of 71% (81.4% males and 60.5% females), which is close to the all India
India
literacy rate of 74%. According to NSS (2007–08), the literacy rate for Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Castes
(SCs) was better than the corresponding national average. Among the marginalised groups, STs are at the bottom of the rankings, further emphasising the lack of social development in the state. Bastar and Dantewada
Dantewada
in south Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
are the most illiterate districts and the drop out ratio is the highest among all the districts. The reason for this is the extreme poverty in rural areas. Health Index[edit] Health Index of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is less than 0.49, one of the lowest in the country. The Health Index is defined in terms of life expectancy at birth since a higher life expectancy at birth reflects better health outcomes for an individual. Despite different health related schemes and programmes, the health indicators such as percentage of women with BMI<18.5, Under Five Mortality Rate and underweight children are poor. This may be due to the difficulty in accessing the remote areas in the state. The prevalence of female malnutrition in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is higher than the national average—half of the ST females are malnourished. The performance of SCs is a little better than the corresponding national and state average. The Under Five Mortality Rate among STs is significantly higher than the national average. The percentage of underweight children in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is also higher than the national average, further underlining the appalling health condition of the state's population. Net state domestic product (NSDP)[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is one of the emerging states with relatively high growth rates of NSDP (8.2% vs. 7.1% All India
India
over 2002–2008) and per capita NSDP (6.2% vs. 5.4% All India
India
over 2002–2008). The growth rates of the said parameters are above the national averages and thus it appears that Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is catching up with other states in this respect. However, the state still has very low levels of per capita income as compared to the other states. Urbanisation[edit] The demographic profile shows that about 80 percent of the total population lived in rural areas. Raipur
Raipur
being the Capital of the Chhattisgarh, can be considered under Urban City. Sex ratio[edit] There are more than 13 million males and 12.9  million females in Chhattisgarh, which constitutes 2.11% of the country's population. The sex ratio in the state is one of the most balanced in India
India
with 991 females per 1,000 males, as is the child sex-ratio with 964 females per 1,000 males (Census 2011) Fertility rate[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has a fairly high fertility rate (3.1) as compared to All India
India
(2.6) and the replacement rate (2.1). It has rural fertility rate of 3.2 and urban fertility rate of 2.1. SC and ST population[edit] With the exception of the hilly states of the north-east, Chhattisgarh has one of highest shares of Scheduled Tribe (ST) populations within a state, accounting for about 10 percent of the STs in India. Scheduled Castes and STs together constitute more than 50 percent of the state's population. The tribals are an important part of the state population and mainly inhabit the dense forests of Bastar and other districts of south Chhattisgarh. The Scheduled Caste (SC) population of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is 2,418,722 as per 2001 census constituting 11.6 percent of the total population (20,833,803). The proportion of Scheduled Castes has increased from 11.6 percent in 2001 to 12.8% in 2011. The percentage increase in the population of the scheduled list of tribals during the 2001–2011 decade had been at the rate of 18.23 percent. The share of the tribal population in the entire state had been 30.62 per cent which was 31.76 per cent during 2001. Poverty[edit]

Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection in Chhattisgarh, India.

The incidence of poverty in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is very high. The estimated poverty ratio in 2004–05 based on uniform reference period consumption was around 50 per cent, which is approximately double the all India
India
level. The incidence of poverty in the rural and urban areas is almost the same. More than half of the rural STs and urban SCs are poor. In general, the proportion of poor SC and ST households in the state is higher than the state average and their community's respective national averages (except for rural SC households). Given that more than 50 per cent of the state's population is ST and SC, the high incidence of income poverty among them is a matter of serious concern in the state. This indicates that the good economic performance in recent years has not percolated to this socially deprived group, which is reflected in their poor performance in human development indicators. Access to drinking water[edit] In terms of access to improved drinking water sources, at the aggregate level, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
fared better than the national average and the SCs of the state performed better than the corresponding national average. Scheduled Tribes
Scheduled Tribes
are marginally below the state average, but still better than the STs at the all India
India
level. The proportion of households with access to improved sources of drinking water in 2008–09 was 91%. This proportion was over 90% even in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Uttar Pradesh. This was largely because these states had over 70% of their households accessing tube wells/ handpumps as sources of drinking water. Sanitation[edit] Sanitation facilities in the state are abysmally low with only about 27 per cent having toilet facilities, which is far below the all-India average of 44%.[33][34] The STs are the most deprived section in this regard with only 18 per cent of the ST households having toilet facilities, which is lower than the all India
India
average for STs. The SCs also have a lower proportion of households with toilet facilities as compared to the all India
India
average. States with low sanitation coverage in 2001 that improved coverage by 4–10% points are [Chhattisgarh], Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Uttar Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh, Daman and Diu, Haryana, Sikkim, Punjab, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa
Goa
and Uttarakhand registered increased coverage by more than 20 percentage points.[33] Teledensity[edit] Across states, it has been found that teledensity (telephone density) was below 10 per cent in 2010 for Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and Jharkhand, reflecting a lack of access to telephones in these relatively poorer states.But due to development of new technology the teledensity in 2017 is 68.08 per cent which shows improvement of telecom infrastructure. On the other hand, for states like Delhi
Delhi
and Himachal Pradesh and metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, teledensity was over 100 per cent in 2010 implying that individuals have more than one telephone connection. Road density[edit] The road length per 100 km2 was less than the national average of 81 km (81,000 m) per 100 km2 in Chhattisgarh. The rural areas of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
failed to meet their targets of constructing new roads under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
(PMGSY) plan.[35] Demographics[edit]

Population Growth 

Census Pop.

1951 7,457,000

1961 9,154,000

22.8%

1971 11,637,000

27.1%

1981 14,010,000

20.4%

1991 17,615,000

25.7%

2001 20,834,000

18.3%

2011 25,540,198

22.6%

Source:Census of India[36][37]

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is primarily a rural state with only 20% of its population (around 5.1 million people in 2011) residing in urban areas. According to a report by the government of India,[38] at least 34% are Scheduled Tribes, 12% are Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Castes
and over 50% belong to the official list of Other Backward Classes. The plains are numerically dominated by castes such as Teli, Satnami and Kurmi; while forest areas are mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond, Halbi, Halba and Kamar/Bujia and Oraon. A large community of Bengalis
Bengalis
has existed in major cities since the times of the British Raj. They are associated with education, industry and services. Religion[edit]

Religion in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
(2011)[39]    Hinduism
Hinduism
(93.25%)    Islam
Islam
(2.01%)   Christianity (1.92%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.27%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.27%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.24%)    Sarnaism
Sarnaism
or not religious (3.01%)

According to the 2011 census, 93.25% of Chhattisgarh's population practised Hinduism, while 2% followed Islam, 1.92% followed Christianity and smaller number followed Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism
Jainism
or other religions.[39] Sarnaism
Sarnaism
is the indigenous religion followed by the indigenous tribes of the state. Witchcraft[edit] To bring about social reforms and with a view to discourage undesirable social practices, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
government has enacted the Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Tonhi Atyachar (Niwaran) Act, 2005 against witchery.[40] Much has to be done on the issue of law enforcement by judicial authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such persecution to an end.[41] Some sections of tribal population of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
state believe in witchcraft.[41] Women are believed to have access to supernatural forces and are accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle personal scores. As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods acquisition.[41] According to National Geographic Channel's investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally bullied and shunned or exiled from their village.

Social Mission Against Blind Faith

Religious Persecution[edit] According to the Christian organisation, Release International several Christians in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
have been attacked and killed by Hindu nationalists. Lachhu Kashap was killed and his brother, Pastor Shuduru Kashap beaten in Mandala, and several other Christians have been beaten by mobs of up to fifty people. When Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
separated from Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
in 2000 it inherited anti-conversion laws which were further tightened in 2007. Those wishing to convert to Christianity need to submit an official affidavit, leading to an official police investigation into their reasons for converting. Punishment for contravening the regulations can be up to three years' prison or fines of up to 20,000 rupees.[42] Language[edit] Main article: Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
language The official languages of the state are Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
& Hindi[43]. Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
is spoken and understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh. Among other languages, Odia is widely spoken by a significant number of Odia population in the eastern part of the state. Marathi and Telugu are also spoken in parts of Chhattisgarh. Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
was known as "Khaltahi" to the surrounding hill-people and as "Laria" to Odia speakers. In addition to Chhattisgarhi, there are several other languages spoken by the tribal people of the Bastar region, geographically equivalent to the former Bastar state, like Halbi, Gondi and Bhatri.[44][45][46][47][48] Status of women[edit]

Adivasi woman and child

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has a high female-male sex ratio (991)[49] ranking at the fifth position among other states of India. Although this ratio is small compared to other states, it is unique in India
India
because Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is the 10th-largest state in India. The gender ratio (number of females per 1,000 males) has been steadily declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh. But it is conspicuous that Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
always had a better female-to-male ratio compared with national average.

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

India 972 964 955 950 945 946 941 930 934 927 933 940

Chhattisgarh 1046 1039 1041 1043 1032 1024 1008 998 998 985 989 991

Young women in Chhattisgarh

Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: The regional variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern. Rural women, although poor, are independent, better organised, socially outspoken.[50] According to another local custom, women can choose to terminate a marriage relationship through a custom called chudi pahanana, if she desires. Most of the old temples and shrines here are related to 'women power' (e.g., Shabari, Mahamaya, Danteshwari) and the existence of these temples gives insight into historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention of these progressive local customs in no way suggests that the ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in the social and cultural life. Detailed information on aspects of women's status in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
can be found in 'A situational analysis of women and girls in Chhattisgarh' prepared in 2004 by the National Commission of Women, a statutory body belonging to government of India.

Adivasi Woman at Farasgaon Market

Natives of Kamar Tribe

Culture[edit]

A carving in the 10th- or 11th-century Hindu temple of Malhar village. This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major Buddhist centre in ancient times.

The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh)
Champaran (Chhattisgarh)
is a small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has a significant role in the life of lord Rama. Lord Rama
Rama
along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had started his Vanvas (exile) in the Bastar region (more precisely Dandakaranya
Dandakaranya
region) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 of their 14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of the remarkable place is Shivrinarayan
Shivrinarayan
which is nearby Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh. Shivrinarayan
Shivrinarayan
was named after an old lady Shabari. When Ram visited Shabari
Shabari
she said "I do not have anything to offer other than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it please you, my Lord." Saying so, Shabari
Shabari
offered the fruits she had meticulously collected to Rama. When Rama
Rama
was tasting them, Lakshmana raised the concern that Shabari
Shabari
had already tasted them and therefore unworthy of eating. To this Rama
Rama
said that of the many types of food he had tasted, "nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with such devotion. You taste them, then alone will you know. Whomsoever offers a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it with great joy." The Odia culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Odisha. Literature[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs. Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware and tribal jewellery. Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has a rich literary heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. Crafts[edit] Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles, shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis. Works by the internationally renowned sculptor, Sushil Sakhuja's Dhokra Nandi, are available at government's Shabagcrafts emporium, Raipur. Dance[edit] Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang, Bhatra Naat, Rahas, Raai, Maao-Pata and Soowa are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh. Panthi[edit] , the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, tbla[clarification needed] the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogising their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids.[51] Pandwani[edit] Pandavani
Pandavani
is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the scenes and characters.[52]

Pandwani

Raut Nacha[edit] Raut Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of Yaduvanshis (clan of Yadu) as symbol of worship to Krishna
Krishna
from the 4th day of Diwali (Goverdhan Puja) till the time of Dev Uthani Ekadashi (day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is the 11th day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar. The dance closely resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).[53][54] In Bilaspur, the Raut Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organised annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rautt dancers from remote areas participate.[55]

Raut Nacha

Soowa Nacha[edit] Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is also known as Parrot Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers keep a parrot in a bamboo-pot and form a circle around it. Then performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh.[56]

Sua Nacha at Khudmudi Village, Chhattisgarh

Karma[edit] Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chhattisgarh have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season and the advent of spring season.[clarification needed][57][58] Festivals of Chhattisgarh[edit]

Bastar Dussehra/ Durga Puja Bastar Lokotsav Madai Festival Rajim Kumbh
Rajim Kumbh
Mela Pakhanjore
Pakhanjore
Mela (Nara Narayan Mela)

Lata mangeshkar sang a song for Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
film Bhakla of Dhriti pati sarkar. Mohmd Rafi sang a song for Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
film. He had also sung songs for various Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
films like Ghardwaar, Kahi Debe Sandes, Punni Ke Chanda, etc.

Theatre[edit] Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh. Pandavani
Pandavani
is one of the lyrical forms of this theatre. Several acclaimed plays of Habib Tanvir, such as Charandas Chor, are variations of Chhattisgarhi theatre.

Natya Samaroh by IPTA

Film industry[edit] Chhollywood is Chhattisgarh's film industries. Every year many Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
film produced by local producers. Traditional food[edit] Main article: Cuisine of Chhattisgarh The State of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
is known as the rice bowl of India
India
and has a rich tradition of food culture.[59][60][61][62][63][64]

Red Velvet Mite is used as Medicine in Traditional Healing of Chhattisgarh

Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, waterfalls, caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus. There are many water falls, hot springs, caves, temples, dams and national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in Chhattisgarh. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Chhattisgarh See also: List of institutions of higher education in Chhattisgarh According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most basic indicator of education was at 71.04 per cent. Female literacy is at 60.59 per cent. Absolute literates and literacy rate[edit] Data from Census of India, 2011.[65]

Description 2001 census 2011 census

Total 20,833,803 25,540,196

Male 10,474,218 12,827,915

Female 10,359,585 12,712,281

% Total 64.66 71.04

% Male 77.38 81.45

% Female 55.85 60.59

Media and communications[edit] English daily newspapers[edit]

Central Chronicle Hindustan Times The Hitavada The Statesman Times of India

Hindi
Hindi
daily newspapers[edit]

Dainik Bhaskar Deshbandhu Haribhumi Nai Dunia Navabharat Patrika[66] Utkal Mail

Telecommunications[edit]

Airtel, BSNL, Idea Cellular, Reliance Mobile, Tata Docomo, Vodafone, Jio

Television[edit]

Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, TATA Sky, Videocon D2H, Siti Cable

Radio[edit]

All India
India
Radio 94.3 MYFM 104.8 Radio Rangeela 98.3 Radio Mirchi 95.0 Radio Tadka 101.6 Akashwani

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal India
India
portal Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
portal

Outline of Chhattisgarh

List of people from Chhattisgarh

Outline of India

Bibliography of India Index of India-related articles

India
India
– book

Notes[edit]

^ "State of Literacy" (PDF). Census of India. p. 114. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012.  ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). p. 38. Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State – Power Hub". Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
-Steel". Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ a b http://cgfinance.nic.in/Rules%20&%20Act/Reorganisation%20Act-2000/Reorganisation%20Act,2000(English).PDF ^ a b Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
profile- Know all you want to know about state[dead link] ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ a b c Srivastava, K.K. (2011). Decentralized Governance And Panchayati Raj. Gyan Publishing House. p. 164. ISBN 978-81-7835-910-6.  ^ Dr. Bhagvan Singh Verma, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
ka Itihas (A History of Chhattisgarh – in Hindi), Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Hindi
Hindi
Granth Academy, Bhopal (M.P.), 4th edition (2003), p.7 ^ " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Highest Peak: Latest Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Highest Peak News in Hindi
Hindi
– Naidunia". naidunia.jagran.com. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd. " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Climate, Climate
Climate
of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Temperature, Temperature of Chhattisgarh". Chhattisgarhonline.in. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ "South East Central Railways". South East Central Railway. Retrieved 23 May 2013.  ^ "Department of Commerce & Industry Chhattisgarh". Government of Chhattisgarh. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.  ^ "Proposed new rail line to bring Mumbai, Kolkata closer". Business Standard. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2013.  ^ Bagchi, Suvojit (8 November 2012). "Pranab hopes Raipur
Raipur
airport's new terminal will support Chhattisgarh's growth". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 22 April 2013.  ^ "Chhattisgarh's second airport worth Rs 2,800 million in Raigarh soon". The Times of India. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.  ^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India
India
by Professor S.K. Tiwari p.161 ^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India: by Professor S.K. Tiwari p.163 ^ Tribal Roots of Hinduism
Hinduism
by Shiv Kumar Tiwari p.209 ^ http://cgfinance.nic.in/FSFC/State%20Finance%20Report/English/Chap-4.pdf ^ a b c d "Prithak Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ "Chhattisgarh". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2008.  ^ a b c d e f " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 12 February 2018.  ^ a b c "Agriculture in Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ "Economy of Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ a b c http://nhm.nic.in/ActionPlan/ActionPlan_Chhattisgarh.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Oudhia, P. (1999) Allelopathic effects of Lantana camara L. on germination of soybean. Legume Research 22(4): 273–274. ^ Oudhia, P. (2000). Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of some obnoxious weeds on germination and seedling vigour of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.). Research on Crops. 1 (1):116–118. ^ Oudhia, P. (2001). Stimulatory allelopathic effects of Ageratum conyzoides L. on soybean. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21 (1):55–56. ^ a b "Power Sector in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ a b "Industries in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ Gandhi, Ankita; et al. (2011). India
India
Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion (1st ed.). New Delhi: Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission, Govt. of India. ISBN 978-0-19-807758-9. Retrieved 26 October 2015.  first2= missing last2= in Authors list (help)[page needed] ^ a b "Indicus Analytics: The real dirty picture". Business Standard. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.  ^ [1] Archived 5 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Completed Roads(CGRRDA)". cgrrda.gov.in.  ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 18 December 2008.  ^ "States Census 2011". Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "NCW Report, page 4" (PDF). National Commission of Women, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ a b "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.  ^ "Dark Spell". Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ a b c "India: Protective Laws Fall Short for Women Charged with Witchcraft". Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ Release International magazine Jan Feb 2017 page 5-7 ^ " Hindi
Hindi
News". Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Patrika. Retrieved 8 December 2017.  ^ Gajrani, S. (13 September 2017). "History, Religion and Culture of India". Gyan Publishing House. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ http://kanker.gov.in/art.html ^ "District-Bastar,Chhattishgarh". bastar.gov.in. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ "Language in India". languageinindia.com. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ "BASTAR REGION". cmijag.in. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ "Chhattisgarh, At a glance" (PDF). Census 2011, Ministry of Home Affair, India. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ "Social Structure in Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.  ^ "Panthi Dance". Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Pandawani". Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Rawat Nacha Traditions". Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Raut nacha". Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Rawat nacha mahotsva". Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Suwa Dance". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Arts and Culture of Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Karma Tribal Dance in India". Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ Oudhia, P. (1999) Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
farmer's response on control of weeds in direct seeded rice. Agril. Sci. Digest. 19(4): 261–263. ^ Das, G.K. and Oudhia, P. (2001). Rice as the medicinal plant in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
(India): A survey. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21(3):204–205. ^ Oudhia, P. (2002). Rice-Acorus intercropping: A new system developed by innovative farmers of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
(India). International Rice Research Notes (IRRN).27(1):56. ^ "Chhattisgarh". mapsofindia.com.  ^ http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/Farmers_groups_conserve_traditional_rice_varieties_in_Bastar_region_of_Chhattisgarh.pdf ^ "Which of the following district is called as the 'Rice Bowl of Andhra Pradesh' ?". gktoday.in.  ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/Chhattishgarh/2.%20Chhattishgarh%20Figures%20at%20a%20glance.pdf ^ https://www.patrika.com/chhattisgarh-news/

References[edit]

Books on Chhattisgarh

ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली 6, ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8) ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की पूर्व रियासतें और जमीन्दारियाँ (वैभव प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5) https://www.scribd.com/doc/72030961/Dr-Sanjay-Alung-CG-Ki-Riyaste-Jamindariya-Hindi Deshbandhu Publication Division, "सन्दर्भ छत्तीसगढ़" Deshbandhu Publication Division, "छत्तीसगढ़ के तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल" Deshbandhu Publication Division, "Chhattisgarh: Beautiful & Bountiful (Study in Biodiversity of Chhattisgarh)" Ramesh Dewangan & Sunil Tuteja, " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Samagra" C.K. Chandrakar, " Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
Shabadkosh" .... C.K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
Vyakaran" C.K. Chandrakar, " Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
Muhawara Kosh" Lawrence Babb, "The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism
Hinduism
in Central India" Saurabh Dube, "Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a Central Indian Community, 1780–1950" (on the Satnamis) Ramdas Lamb, "Rapt in the Name: Ramnamis, Ramnam and Untouchable Religion in Central India" Chad Bauman, "Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian Christians and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India (1868–1947) (Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton Theological Seminary, 2005) "List of books by Prof H. L. Shukla

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