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Cheshire
Cheshire
(/ˈtʃɛʃər/ CHESH-ər, /-ɪər/ -eer;[2] archaically the County Palatine of Chester)[3] is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside
Merseyside
and Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Shropshire
Shropshire
to the south and Flintshire, Wales
Wales
to the west. Cheshire's county town is Chester; the largest town is Warrington.[4] Other major towns include Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Macclesfield, Northwich, Runcorn, Widnes, Wilmslow, and Winsford.[5][6] The county covers 905 square miles (2,344 km2) and has a population of around 1 million. It is mostly rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire
Cheshire
cheese, salt, chemicals and silk.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Administrative history

1.2.1 Palatine hundreds 1.2.2 Palatine feudal baronies 1.2.3 Lands devolved to Lancashire 1.2.4 Acquires Welsh-March lands 1.2.5 Lands devolved to Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and Merseyside
Merseyside
metropolitan counties 1.2.6 Unitary authorities created 1.2.7 Regional assemblies proposed 1.2.8 Abolition of Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council

1.3 Buildings and structures

2 Geography

2.1 Physical 2.2 Human

2.2.1 Green belt

3 Demography

3.1 Population

3.1.1 Population change

3.2 Ethnicity

4 Politics and administration

4.1 Current 4.2 Transition from the previous (1974) arrangement

5 Borders 6 Religion 7 Economy and industry 8 Education 9 Culture, media and sports

9.1 Modern county emblem

10 Settlements 11 Transport

11.1 Bus transport 11.2 Rail and road 11.3 Waterways

11.3.1 List of rivers and canals

12 See also 13 Notes and references

13.1 Notes 13.2 Bibliography

14 Further reading 15 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Cheshire
History of Cheshire
and Timeline of Cheshire
Cheshire
history Toponymy[edit] Cheshire's name was originally derived from an early name for Chester, and was first recorded as Legeceasterscir in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,[8] meaning the shire of the city of legions.[9] Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
around 920.[9] In the Domesday Book, Chester
Chester
was recorded as having the name Cestrescir (Chestershire), derived from the name for Chester
Chester
at the time.[8] A series of changes that occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire, as it occurs today. Because of the historically close links with the land bordering Cheshire
Cheshire
to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire
Cheshire
and North Wales. The Domesday Book records Cheshire
Cheshire
as having two complete Hundreds (Atiscross and Exestan) that later became the principal part of Flintshire. Additionally, another large portion of the Duddestan Hundred later became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales.[10] For this and other reasons, the Welsh language
Welsh language
name for Cheshire
Cheshire
(Swydd Gaerlleon) is sometimes used[11]. Administrative history[edit]

The strategic location of the Earldom of Chester; the only county palatine on the Welsh Marches.[12]

  Pura Wallia (independent Wales)   Lands gained by Llywelyn the Great
Llywelyn the Great
in 1234   Marchia Wallie (lands controlled by Norman Marcher barons)

After the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire
Cheshire
was finally put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North. The ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, their properties confiscated and redistributed amongst Norman barons. William I made Cheshire
Cheshire
a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester. When Gerbod returned to Normandy
Normandy
in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit and gave the title to Hugh d'Avranches
Hugh d'Avranches
(nicknamed Hugh Lupus, or "wolf"). Due to Cheshire's strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine. The earldom was sufficiently independent from the kingdom of England
England
that the 13th century Magna Carta
Magna Carta
did not apply to the shire of Chester, so the earl wrote up his own Chester
Chester
Charter at the petition of his barons.[13] Palatine hundreds[edit]

Hundreds of Cheshire
Hundreds of Cheshire
in Domesday Book. Areas highlighted in pink became part of Flintshire
Flintshire
in Wales.

Cheshire
Cheshire
in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(1086) is recorded as a much larger county than it is today. It included two hundreds, Atiscross and Exestan, that later became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it also included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land later known as English Maelor
English Maelor
(which used to be a detached part of Flintshire) in Wales.[14] The area between the Mersey
Mersey
and Ribble (referred to in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as "Inter Ripam et Mersam") formed part of the returns for Cheshire.[15][16] Although this has been interpreted to mean that at that time south Lancashire
Lancashire
was part of Cheshire,[16][17] more exhaustive research indicates that the boundary between Cheshire
Cheshire
and what was to become Lancashire
Lancashire
remained the River Mersey.[18][19][20] With minor variations in spelling across sources, the complete list of hundreds of Cheshire
Cheshire
at this time are: Atiscross, Bochelau, Chester, Dudestan, Exestan, Hamestan, Middlewich, Riseton, Roelau, Tunendune, Warmundestrou and Wilaveston.[21] Palatine feudal baronies[edit] Feudal baronies or baronies by tenure were granted by the Earl as forms of feudal land tenure within the palatinate in a similar way to which the king granted English feudal baronies within England
England
proper. An example is the barony of Halton.[22] One of Hugh d'Avranche's barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton and Montebourg.[23] Lands devolved to Lancashire[edit] In 1182 the land north of the Mersey
Mersey
became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land "Inter Ripam et Mersam" was.[24] Over the years, the ten hundreds consolidated and changed names to leave just seven—Broxton, Bucklow, Eddisbury, Macclesfield, Nantwich, Northwich and Wirral.[25] Acquires Welsh-March lands[edit] In 1397 the county had lands in the march of Wales
Wales
added to its territory, and was promoted to the rank of principality. This was because of the support the men of the county had given to King Richard II, in particular by his standing armed force of about 500 men called the " Cheshire
Cheshire
Guard". As a result, the King's title was changed to "King of England
England
and France, Lord of Ireland, and Prince of Chester". No other English county has been honoured in this way, although it lost the distinction on Richard's fall in 1399.[26] Lands devolved to Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and Merseyside
Merseyside
metropolitan counties[edit] Through the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, some areas in the north became part of the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and Merseyside.[27] Stockport (previously a county borough), Altrincham, Hyde, Dukinfield
Dukinfield
and Stalybridge
Stalybridge
in the north-east became part of Greater Manchester. Much of the Wirral Peninsula
Wirral Peninsula
in the north-west, including the county boroughs of Birkenhead
Birkenhead
and Wallasey, joined Merseyside
Merseyside
as the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the same time the Tintwistle
Tintwistle
Rural District was transferred to Derbyshire. The area of south Lancashire not included within either the Merseyside
Merseyside
or Greater Manchester counties, including Widnes
Widnes
and the county borough of Warrington, was added to the new non-metropolitan county of Cheshire.[28] Unitary authorities created[edit] Halton and Warrington
Warrington
became unitary authorities independent of Cheshire County Council on 1 April 1998, but remain part of Cheshire for ceremonial purposes and also for fire and policing.[29] Regional assemblies proposed[edit] Further information: Northern England
England
referendum, 2004 A referendum for a further local government reform connected with an elected regional assembly was planned for 2004, but was abandoned. Abolition of Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council[edit] As part of the local government restructuring in April 2009, Cheshire County Council and the Cheshire
Cheshire
districts were abolished and replaced by two new unitary authorities, Cheshire East
Cheshire East
and Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester. The existing unitary authorities of Halton and Warrington were not affected by the change. Buildings and structures[edit]

Gallery

Nantwich
Nantwich
High Street

Crewe
Crewe
Town Council

The Wizard Pub, Alderley Edge

Chester
Chester
Rows, Chester

Capesthorne Hall

Little Moreton Hall

Beeston Castle

Eaton Hall

Chester
Chester
Cathedral

Prehistoric burial grounds have been discovered at The Bridestones, near Congleton
Congleton
(Neolithic) and Robin Hood's Tump, near Alpraham (Bronze Age).[30] The remains of Iron Age
Iron Age
hill forts are found on sandstone ridges at several locations in Cheshire. Examples include Maiden Castle on Bickerton Hill, Helsby
Helsby
Hillfort and Woodhouse Hillfort at Frodsham. The Roman fortress and walls of Chester, perhaps the earliest building works in Cheshire
Cheshire
remaining above ground, are constructed from purple-grey sandstone.[31] The distinctive local red sandstone has been used for many monumental and ecclesiastical buildings throughout the county: for example, the medieval Beeston Castle, Chester
Chester
Cathedral and numerous parish churches. Occasional residential and industrial buildings, such as Helsby
Helsby
railway station (1849),[32] are also in this sandstone. Many surviving buildings from the 15th to 17th centuries are timbered, particularly in the southern part of the county. Notable examples include the moated manor house Little Moreton Hall, dating from around 1450, and many commercial and residential buildings in Chester, Nantwich
Nantwich
and surrounding villages. Early brick buildings include Peover Hall
Peover Hall
near Macclesfield
Macclesfield
(1585), Tattenhall Hall (pre-1622), and the Pied Bull Hotel
Pied Bull Hotel
in Chester
Chester
(17th century). From the 18th century, orange, red or brown brick became the predominant building material used in Cheshire, although earlier buildings are often faced or dressed with stone. Examples from the Victorian period onwards often employ distinctive brick detailing, such as brick patterning and ornate chimney stacks and gables. Notable examples include Arley Hall
Arley Hall
near Northwich, Willington Hall[33] near Chester
Chester
(both by Nantwich
Nantwich
architect George Latham) and Overleigh Lodge, Chester. From the Victorian era, brick buildings often incorporate timberwork in a mock Tudor style, and this hybrid style has been used in some modern residential developments in the county. Industrial buildings, such as the Macclesfield
Macclesfield
silk mills (for example, Waters Green New Mill), are also usually in brick. Geography[edit] Physical[edit] Main article: Geology of Cheshire Cheshire
Cheshire
covers a boulder clay plain separating the hills of North Wales
Wales
and the Peak District
Peak District
(the area is also known as the Cheshire Gap). This was formed following the retreat of ice age glaciers which left the area dotted with kettle holes, locally referred to as meres. The bedrock of this region is almost entirely Triassic
Triassic
sandstone, outcrops of which have long been quarried, notably at Runcorn, providing the distinctive red stone for Liverpool Cathedral
Liverpool Cathedral
and Chester
Chester
Cathedral. The eastern half of the county is Upper Triassic
Triassic
Mercia Mudstone laid down with large salt deposits which were mined for hundreds of years around Winsford. Separating this area from Lower Triassic
Triassic
Sherwood Sandstone
Sandstone
to the west is a prominent sandstone ridge known as the Mid Cheshire
Cheshire
Ridge. A 55-kilometre (34 mi) footpath,[34] the Sandstone
Sandstone
Trail, follows this ridge from Frodsham
Frodsham
to Whitchurch passing Delamere Forest, Beeston Castle
Beeston Castle
and earlier Iron Age forts.[35] The highest point in Cheshire
Cheshire
is Shining Tor
Shining Tor
on the Derbyshire/ Cheshire
Cheshire
border between Macclesfield
Macclesfield
and Buxton, at 559 metres (1,834 ft) above sea level. Before county boundary alterations in 1974, the county top was Black Hill (582 m (1,909 ft)) near Crowden in the far east of the historic county on the border with the West Riding of Yorkshire. Black Hill is now the highest point in West Yorkshire.

The Cheshire Plain
Cheshire Plain
from the Mid- Cheshire
Cheshire
Ridge.

Human[edit] Green belt[edit] Main articles: North West Green Belt
North West Green Belt
and Stoke-on-Trent Green Belt Cheshire
Cheshire
contains portions of two green belt areas surrounding the large conurbations of Merseyside
Merseyside
and Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
(North Cheshire
Cheshire
Green Belt, part of the North West Green Belt) and Stoke-on-Trent (South Cheshire
Cheshire
Green Belt, part of the Stoke-on-Trent Green Belt), these were first drawn up from the 1950s. Contained primarily within Cheshire
Cheshire
East[36] and Chester
Chester
West & Chester[37], with small portions along the borders of the Halton[38] and Warrington[39] districts, towns and cities such as Chester, Macclesfield, Alsager, Congleton, Northwich, Ellesmere Port, Knutsford, Warrington, Poynton, Disley, Neston, Wilmslow, Runcorn, and Widnes
Widnes
are either surrounded wholly, partially enveloped by, or on the fringes of the belts. The North Cheshire
Cheshire
Green Belt is contiguous with the Peak District
Peak District
Park boundary inside Cheshire. Demography[edit] Population[edit] See also: List of Cheshire
Cheshire
settlements by population Based on the Census of 2001, the overall population of Cheshire
Cheshire
is 673,781, of which 51.3% of the population were male and 48.7% were female. Of those aged between 0–14 years, 51.5% were male and 48.4% were female; and of those aged over 75 years, 62.9% were female and 37.1% were male.[40] This increased to 699,735 at the 2011 Census.[41][42] In 2001, the population density of Cheshire
Cheshire
was 32 people per km², lower than the North West average of 42 people/km² and the England and Wales
Wales
average of 38 people/km². Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
and Neston
Neston
had a greater urban density than the rest of the county with 92 people/km².[40] The population for 2021 is forecast to be 708,000.[43] Population change[edit]

Population totals for Cheshire

Year Population

Year Population

Year Population

1801 124,570

1881 303,315

1961 533,642

1811 141,672 1891 324,494 1971 605,918

1821 167,730 1901 343,557 1981 632,630

1831 191,965 1911 364,179 1991 656,050

1841 206,063 1921 379,157 2001 673,777

1851 224,739 1931 395,717 2011 699,735

1861 250,931 1941 431,335

1871 277,123 1951 471,438

Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that now comprise Cheshire Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.[44]

Ethnicity[edit] In 2001, ethnic white groups accounted for 98% (662,794) of the population, and 10,994 (2%) in ethnic groups other than white. Of the 2% in non-white ethnic groups:

3,717 (34%) belonged to mixed ethnic groups 3,336 (30%) were Asian or Asian British 1,076 (10%) were Black or Black British 1,826 (17%) were of Chinese ethnic groups 1,039 (9%) were of other ethnic groups.[45]

Politics and administration[edit] See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cheshire Current[edit]

The ceremonial county showing the four unitary authorities. Click on the map for more information

District Administrative HQ Population (mid-2016 est.) Area (km²) Density (km²) Leader Executive

Cheshire
Cheshire
East

Sandbach 376,700 1,166 322 Rachel Bailey

Conservative

Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester

Chester 335,700 916.7 366 Samantha Dixon

Labour

Halton

Widnes 126,900 79.08 1,604 Rob Polhill

Labour

Warrington

Warrington 208,800 180.6 1,156 Terry O'Neill

Labour

Cheshire
Cheshire
is a ceremonial county. This means that although there is no county-wide elected local council, Cheshire
Cheshire
has a Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
and High Sheriff for ceremonial purposes under the Lieutenancies Act 1997. Local government functions apart from the Police and Fire/Rescue services are carried out by four smaller unitary authorities: Cheshire East, Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, Halton, and Warrington. All four unitary authority areas have borough status. Policing and fire and rescue services are still provided across the County as a whole. The Cheshire
Cheshire
Fire Authority consist of members of the four councils, while governance of Cheshire Constabulary is performer by the elected Cheshire
Cheshire
Police and Crime Commissioner. Transition from the previous (1974) arrangement[edit] From 1 April 1974 the area under the control of the county council was divided into eight local government districts; Chester, Congleton, Crewe
Crewe
and Nantwich, Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
and Neston, Halton, Macclesfield, Vale Royal
Vale Royal
and Warrington.[46][47] Halton (which includes the towns of Runcorn
Runcorn
and Widnes) and Warrington
Warrington
became unitary authorities in 1998.[29][48] The remaining districts and the county were abolished as part of local government restructuring on 1 April 2009.[49] The Halton and Warrington
Warrington
boroughs were not affected by the 2009 restructuring. On 25 July 2007, the Secretary of State Hazel Blears
Hazel Blears
announced she was 'minded' to split Cheshire
Cheshire
into two new unitary authorities, Cheshire West and Chester, and Cheshire
Cheshire
East. She confirmed she had not changed her mind on 19 December 2007 and therefore the proposal to split two-tier Cheshire
Cheshire
into two would proceed. Cheshire County Council leader Paul Findlow, who attempted High Court legal action against the proposal, claimed that splitting Cheshire would only disrupt excellent services while increasing living costs for all. A widespread sentiment that this decision was taken by the European Union
European Union
long ago has often been portrayed via angered letters from Cheshire
Cheshire
residents to local papers. On 31 January 2008 The Standard, Cheshire
Cheshire
and district's newspaper, announced that the legal action had been dropped. Members against the proposal were advised that they may be unable to persuade the court that the decision of Hazel Blears
Hazel Blears
was "manifestly absurd". The Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester
unitary authority covers the area formerly occupied by the City of Chester
Chester
and the boroughs of Ellesmere Port and Neston
Neston
and Vale Royal; Cheshire East
Cheshire East
now covers the area formerly occupied by the boroughs of Congleton, Crewe
Crewe
and Nantwich, and Macclesfield. The changes were implemented on 1 April 2009.[50][51] Congleton
Congleton
Borough Council pursued an appeal against the judicial review it lost in October 2007. The appeal was dismissed on 4 March 2008.[52] Borders[edit] The ceremonial county borders Merseyside, Greater Manchester, Derbyshire, Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Shropshire
Shropshire
in England
England
along with Flintshire
Flintshire
and Wrexham
Wrexham
in Wales, arranged by compass directions as shown in the table. below. Cheshire
Cheshire
also forms part of the North West England
England
region.[53]

Neighbouring Authorities to the Ceremonial County

Places adjacent to Cheshire

Merseyside Merseyside/Greater Manchester Greater Manchester

Flintshire

Cheshire

Derbyshire

Wrexham Shropshire Staffordshire

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Cheshire

Wilmslow
Wilmslow
Church

In the 2001 Census, 81% of the population (542,413) identified themselves as Christian; 124,677 (19%) did not identify with any religion or did not answer the question; 5,665 (1%) identified themselves as belonging to other major world religions; and 1,033 belonged to other religions.[45] The boundary of the Church of England
England
Diocese of Chester
Chester
follows most closely the pre-1974 county boundary of Cheshire, so it includes all of Wirral, Stockport, and the Cheshire
Cheshire
panhandle that included Tintwistle Rural District council area.[54] In terms of Roman Catholic church administration, most of Cheshire
Cheshire
falls into the Roman Catholic Diocese of Shrewsbury.[55] Economy and industry[edit] Main article: Economy of Cheshire Cheshire
Cheshire
has a diverse economy with significant sectors including agriculture, automotive, bio-technology, chemical, financial services, food and drink, ICT, and tourism. The county is famous for the production of Cheshire
Cheshire
cheese, salt and silk. The county has seen a number of inventions and firsts in its history. A mainly rural county, Cheshire
Cheshire
has a high concentration of villages. Agriculture is generally based on the dairy trade, and cattle are the predominant livestock. Land use given to agriculture has fluctuated somewhat, and in 2005 totalled 1558 km² over 4,609 holdings.[56] Based on holdings by EC farm type in 2005, 8.51 km² was allocated to dairy farming, with another 11.78 km² allocated to cattle and sheep. The chemical industry in Cheshire
Cheshire
was founded in Roman times, with the mining of salt in Middlewich
Middlewich
and Northwich. Salt is still mined in the area by British Salt. The salt mining has led to a continued chemical industry around Northwich, with Brunner Mond
Brunner Mond
based in the town. Other chemical companies, including Ineos
Ineos
(formerly ICI), have plants at Runcorn. The Essar Refinery (formerly Shell Stanlow Refinery) is at Ellesmere Port. The oil refinery has operated since 1924 and has a capacity of 12 million tonnes per year.[citation needed] Crewe
Crewe
was once the centre of the British railway industry, and remains a major railway junction. The Crewe
Crewe
railway works, built in 1840, employed 20,000 people at its peak, although the workforce is now less than 1,000. Crewe
Crewe
is also the home of Bentley
Bentley
cars. Also within Cheshire
Cheshire
are manufacturing plants for Jaguar and Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
in Ellesmere Port. The county also has an aircraft industry, with the BAE Systems facility at Woodford Aerodrome, part of BAE System's Military Air Solutions division. The facility designed and constructed Avro Lancaster and Avro Vulcan
Avro Vulcan
bombers and the Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod. On the Cheshire
Cheshire
border with Flintshire
Flintshire
is the Broughton aircraft factory, more recently associated with Airbus. Tourism in Cheshire
Cheshire
from within the UK and overseas continues to perform strongly. Over 8 million nights of accommodation (both UK and overseas) and over 2.8 million visits to Cheshire
Cheshire
were recorded during 2003.[57] At the start of 2003, there were 22,020 VAT-registered enterprises in Cheshire, an increase of 7% since 1998, many in the business services (31.9%) and wholesale/retail (21.7%) sectors. Between 2002 and 2003 the number of businesses grew in four sectors: public administration and other services (6.0%), hotels and restaurants (5.1%), construction (1.7%), and business services (1.0%).[57] The county saw the largest proportional reduction between 2001 and 2002 in employment in the energy and water sector and there was also a significant reduction in the manufacturing sector. The largest growth during this period was in the other services and distribution, hotels and retail sectors.[57] Cheshire
Cheshire
is considered to be an affluent county.[58][59] However, towns such as Crewe
Crewe
have significant deprivation.[60] The county's proximity to the cities of Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool
Liverpool
means counter urbanisation is common. Cheshire
Cheshire
West has a fairly large proportion of residents who work in Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester, while the town of Northwich
Northwich
and area of Cheshire East
Cheshire East
falls more within Manchester's sphere of influence. Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Cheshire
Cheshire
East, List of schools in Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, List of schools in Halton, and List of schools in Warrington All four local education authorities in Cheshire
Cheshire
operate only comprehensive state school systems. When Altrincham, Sale and Bebington
Bebington
were moved from Cheshire
Cheshire
to Trafford
Trafford
and Merseyside
Merseyside
in 1974, they took some former Cheshire
Cheshire
selective schools. Today, there are three universities based in the county, the University of Chester, the Crewe
Crewe
campus of Manchester
Manchester
Metropolitan University and the Chester campus of The University of Law. Culture, media and sports[edit]

A resident of Knutsford
Knutsford
sanding the street in celebration of May Day 1920. The custom continues to this day.

Cheshire
Cheshire
has one Football League team, Crewe
Crewe
Alexandra who play in League Two. Chester, phoenix club formed in 2010 after an ex-Football League club Chester
Chester
City was dissolved competes in the National League along with other Cheshire
Cheshire
side Macclesfield
Macclesfield
Town, who played in the Football League from 1997 till 2012. Northwich
Northwich
Victoria are also an ex-Football League team who were founder members of the Football League Division Two in 1892/1893 now represent Cheshire
Cheshire
in the Northern Premier League
Northern Premier League
along with Nantwich
Nantwich
Town, Warrington
Warrington
Town and Witton Albion. Warrington
Warrington
Wolves and the Widnes
Widnes
Vikings are the premier Rugby league teams in Cheshire
Cheshire
and play in the Super League. There are also numerous junior clubs in the county, including Chester
Chester
Gladiators. Cheshire County Cricket Club is one of the clubs that make up the Minor counties of English and Welsh cricket. Cheshire
Cheshire
also is represented in the highest level basketball league in the UK, the BBL, by Cheshire Phoenix
Cheshire Phoenix
(formerly Cheshire
Cheshire
Jets). Each May, Europe's largest motorcycle event, the Thundersprint, is held in Northwich.[61] The county has also been home to many notable sportsmen and athletes. Due to its proximity to both Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool, many Premier League footballers have lived in Cheshire,[62] including Dean Ashton, Seth Johnson, Michael Owen
Michael Owen
and Wayne Rooney. Other local athletes have included cricketer Ian Botham, marathon runner Paula Radcliffe, oarsman Matt Langridge, hurdler Shirley Strong, sailor Ben Ainslie, cyclist Sarah Storey
Sarah Storey
and mountaineer George Mallory, who died in 1924 on Mount Everest. Cheshire
Cheshire
has also produced a military hero in Norman Cyril Jones, a World War I flying ace who won the Distinguished Flying Cross.[63]

One Direction
One Direction
band member Harry Styles
Harry Styles
was brought up in Holmes Chapel

The county has produced several notable popular musicians, including Gary Barlow
Gary Barlow
(Take That, born and raised in Frodsham), Harry Styles (singer with One Direction, raised in Holmes Chapel), John Mayall ( John Mayall
John Mayall
& the Bluesbreakers),[64] Ian Astbury
Ian Astbury
(The Cult), Tim Burgess (Charlatans), Ian Curtis
Ian Curtis
(Joy Division) and Hooton Tennis Club. Matthew Healy, lead singer of The 1975, met his three bandmates at Wilmslow
Wilmslow
High School in Wilmslow.[65] Concert pianist Stephen Hough, singer Thea Gilmore
Thea Gilmore
and her producer husband Nigel Stonier also reside in Cheshire. The county has also been home to several writers, including Hall Caine (1853–1931), popular romantic novelist and playwright; Alan Garner; Victorian novelist Elizabeth Gaskell, whose novel Cranford features her home town of Knutsford; and most famously Lewis Carroll, born and raised in Daresbury, hence the Cheshire Cat
Cheshire Cat
(a fictional cat popularised by Carroll in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
and known for its distinctive mischievous grin). Artists from the county include ceramic artist Emma Bossons
Emma Bossons
and sculptor and photographer Andy Goldsworthy. Actors from Cheshire
Cheshire
include Tim Curry; Daniel Craig, the 6th James Bond; Dame Wendy Hiller; and Lewis McGibbon, best known for his role in Millions. Local radio stations in the county include Dee 106.3, Heart and Gold for Chester
Chester
and West Cheshire, Silk FM
Silk FM
for the east of the county, Signal 1
Signal 1
and The Cat 107.9 for the south, Wire FM
Wire FM
for Warrington
Warrington
and Wish FM, which covers Widnes. Cheshire
Cheshire
is one of the only counties (along with County Durham, Dorset
Dorset
and Rutland) that does not have its own designated BBC
BBC
Radio station. The majority of the county (south and east) are covered by BBC
BBC
Radio Stoke, whilst BBC
BBC
Radio Merseyside tends to cover the west.[66] The BBC
BBC
directs readers to Stoke and Staffordshire
Staffordshire
when Cheshire
Cheshire
is selected on their website.[67] The BBC covers the west with BBC
BBC
Radio Merseyside, the north and east with BBC Radio Manchester
Manchester
and the south with BBC
BBC
Radio Stoke. There were plans to launch BBC
BBC
Radio Cheshire, but those were shelved in 2007 after a lower than expected BBC
BBC
licence fee settlement. The Royal Cheshire
Cheshire
Show, an annual agricultural show, has taken place for the last 175 years and includes exhibitions, games and competitions.[68] Modern county emblem[edit] As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife
Plantlife
chose the cuckooflower as the county flower.[69] Previously, a sheaf of golden wheat was the county emblem, a reference to the Earl of Chester's arms in use from the 12th century. Settlements[edit]

Warrington

Chester

Stockport

Birkenhead

Crewe

W'shawe

Ellesmere Port

Runcorn

Wallasey

Widnes

Sale

Macclesfield

Altrincham

Winsford

Hyde

Wilmslow

Cheadle Hulme

Congleton

Bramhall

Marple

Stalybridge

Knutsford

Northwich

Notable places in Cheshire – red. Towns historically in Cheshire – orange.

Main articles: List of places in Cheshire
List of places in Cheshire
and List of Cheshire settlements by population The county is home to some of the most affluent areas of northern England, including Alderley Edge, Wilmslow, Prestbury, Tarporley
Tarporley
and Knutsford, named in 2006 as the most expensive place to buy a house in the north of England. The former Cheshire
Cheshire
town of Altrincham
Altrincham
was in second place. The area is sometimes referred to as The Golden Triangle on account of the area in and around the aforementioned towns and villages.[70] The cities and towns in Cheshire
Cheshire
are:

Ceremonial county District Centre of administration Other Towns or Cities

Cheshire Cheshire East
Cheshire East
(unitary) Sandbach Alderley Edge, Alsager, Bollington, Crewe, Congleton, Handforth, Knutsford, Macclesfield, Middlewich, Nantwich, Poynton, Wilmslow

Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester
(unitary) Chester Ellesmere Port, Frodsham, Malpas, Neston, Northwich, Saltney, Tarporley, Tarvin, Winsford

Halton (unitary) Widnes Runcorn

Warrington
Warrington
(unitary) Warrington Birchwood, Culcheth, Grappenhall, Lymm

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of Derbyshire, Merseyside
Merseyside
and Greater Manchester:[28][71][72][73]

Derbyshire Crowden, Newtown, Tintwistle, Whaley Bridge
Whaley Bridge
(western part), Woodhead

Greater Manchester Altrincham, Bramhall, Bredbury, Cheadle, Cheadle Hulme, Dukinfield, Gatley, Hale, Hazel Grove, Hyde, Marple, Mossley
Mossley
(part), Partington, Romiley, Sale, Stalybridge, Stockport, Woodley, Wythenshawe

Merseyside Bebington, Birkenhead, Brimstage, Bromborough, Eastham, Greasby, Heswall, Hoylake, Irby, Moreton, New Ferry, Port Sunlight, Upton, Wallasey, West Kirby

Transport[edit] Bus transport[edit] Bus transport in Cheshire
Cheshire
is provided by various operators. The major bus operator in the Cheshire
Cheshire
area is Arriva North West. Other operators in Cheshire
Cheshire
include Stagecoach Chester
Chester
& Wirral, Halton Transport and Network Warrington. There are also several operators based outside of Cheshire
Cheshire
who either run services wholly within the area or services which start from outside the area. Companies include Arriva Buses Wales, BakerBus, High Peak, First Greater Manchester, GHA Coaches and Stagecoach Manchester. Some services are run under contract to Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, Cheshire
Cheshire
East, Borough of Halton
Borough of Halton
and Warrington
Warrington
Councils. Rail and road[edit]

Alderley Edge
Alderley Edge
in 1951

The main railway line through the county is the West Coast Main Line. Many trains call at Crewe
Crewe
(in the south of the county) and Warrington Bank Quay (in the north of the county) en route to London and Scotland, as well as Runcorn
Runcorn
on the Liverpool
Liverpool
branch of the WCML. The major interchanges are:

Crewe
Crewe
(the biggest station in Cheshire) for trains to London Euston and Scotland (via the WCML), Wales, The Midlands (Birmingham, Stoke and Derby) as well as suburban services to Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly, Chester
Chester
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Lime Street. Warrington
Warrington
stations (Central and Bank Quay) for suburban services to Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly, Chester
Chester
and Liverpool
Liverpool
Lime Street and regional express services to North Wales, London, Scotland, Yorkshire, the East Coast and the East Midlands Chester
Chester
for urban services (via Merseyrail) to Liverpool
Liverpool
Central, suburban services to Manchester, Warrington, Wrexham
Wrexham
General and rural Cheshire
Cheshire
and express services to Llandudno, Holyhead, Birmingham, the West Midlands, London and Cardiff and from December 2017, to Leeds

In the east of Cheshire, Macclesfield
Macclesfield
station is served by Virgin Trains and CrossCountry, on the Manchester-London line. Services from Manchester
Manchester
to the south coast frequently stop at Macclesfield. Cheshire
Cheshire
has 3,417 miles (5,499 km) of roads, including 214 miles (344 km) of the M6, M62, M53 and M56 motorways, with 23 interchanges and four service areas. The M6 motorway
M6 motorway
at the Thelwall Viaduct carries 140,000 vehicles every 24 hours.[74] Waterways[edit] Main article: Canals
Canals
in Cheshire

Anderton Boat Lift

Chester
Chester
Weir on the River Dee

Canal cutting by Chester
Chester
city walls

Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal from Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
Dock towards Stanlow

The Cheshire
Cheshire
canal system includes several canals originally used to transport the county's industrial products (mostly chemicals). Nowadays they are mainly used for tourist traffic. The Cheshire
Cheshire
Ring is formed from the Rochdale, Ashton, Peak Forest, Macclesfield, Trent and Mersey
Mersey
and Bridgewater canals. The Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal is a wide, 36-mile (58 km) stretch of water opened in 1894. It consists of the rivers Irwell and Mersey
Mersey
made navigable to Manchester
Manchester
for seagoing ships leaving the Mersey
Mersey
estuary. The canal passes through the north of the county via Runcorn
Runcorn
and Warrington.

List of rivers and canals[edit]

Bridgewater Canal Macclesfield
Macclesfield
Canal Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal River Bollin River Croco River Dane River Dean River Dee / Afon Dyfrdwy River Gowy River Goyt River Mersey River Weaver
River Weaver
and Weaver Navigation River Wheelock Shropshire
Shropshire
Union Canal and the Llangollen branch Trent and Mersey
Mersey
Canal

See also[edit]

Cheshire
Cheshire
portal North West England
England
portal

Outline of England Cheshire
Cheshire
(UK Parliament constituency), historical list of MPs for Cheshire
Cheshire
constituency Healthcare in Cheshire Custos Rotulorum of Cheshire – Keepers of the Rolls Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
of Cheshire High Sheriff of Cheshire Cheshire
Cheshire
Cat Cheshire
Cheshire
cheese

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit]

^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
2017/2018". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 8 June 2017.  ^ "Cheshire". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Relationships / unit history of Cheshire". A Vision of Britain through Time website. Retrieved 5 March 2007.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council". Cheshire County Council website. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2007.  ^ " Cheshire County Council Map" (PDF). Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2007.  ^ "Towns & Villages in Cheshire
Cheshire
- Visitcheshire.com". www.visitcheshire.com. Retrieved 2017-05-29.  ^ Ingham, A. (1920). Cheshire: Its Traditions and History.  ^ a b Harris, B. E. and Thacker, A. T. (1987). p. 237. ^ a b Crosby, A. (1996). page 31. ^ Harris, B.E. and Thacker, A.T. (1987). pp. 340–341. ^ Welsh dictionary entry for Cheshire.[permanent dead link] www.geriadur.net website (Welsh-English / English-Welsh On-line Dictionary ). Department of Welsh, University of Wales, Lampeter. Retrieval Date: 21 February 2008 ^ " Wrexham
Wrexham
County Borough Council: The Princes and the Marcher Lords". Wrexham.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 May 2014.  ^ Hewitt, Herbert James (1929). Mediaeval Cheshire: An Economic and Social History of Cheshire
History of Cheshire
in the Reigns of the Three Edwards. Manchester: Manchester
Manchester
University Press. p. 9.  ^ Davies, R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales
Wales
1063–1415.  ^ Morgan (1978). pp.269c–301c,d. ^ a b Sylvester (1980). p. 14. ^ Roffe (2000) ^ Harris and Thacker (1987) write on page 252:

Certainly there were links between Cheshire
Cheshire
and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot
Wulfric Spot
held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm, and indeed there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire
Lancashire
was surveyed together with Cheshire
Cheshire
by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire
Lancashire
section of Domesday were the Cheshire
Cheshire
ones.

^ Phillips and Phillips (2002); pp. 26–31. ^ Crosby, A. (1996) writes on page 31:

The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire
Lancashire
with Cheshire
Cheshire
for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary.

^ Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987); pages 340–341. ^ Sanders, I.J. English Baronies, a Study of their Origin and Descent 1086–1327, Oxford, 1960, p.138, refers to the "Lord" of Halton being the hereditary constable of the County Palatine of Chester, but omits Halton from both his lists of English feudal baronies ^ Crosby, A. A History of Cheshire; Norman Chapter ^ George, D. (1991). Lancashire.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
ancient divisions". Vision of Britain website. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ Davies, R. R. 'Richard II and the Principality of Chester' in The Reign of Richard II: Essays in Honour of May McKisack, ed. F. R. H. Du Boulay and Caroline Baron (1971) ^ Jones, B.; et al. (2004). Politics UK.  ^ a b Local Government Act 1972 ^ a b "The Cheshire
Cheshire
(Boroughs of Halton and Warrington) (Structural Change) Order 1996". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council: Revealing Cheshire's Past". .cheshire.gov.uk. 1 September 2004. Archived from the original on 17 November 2004. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ "Images of England". Images of England. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1261746)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ Historic England. "Details from image database (55781)". Images of England. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ [1] Archived 2 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Walking Cheshire's Sandstone
Sandstone
Trail". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.  ^ " Cheshire East
Cheshire East
Council Green Belt Assessment Update 2015 - Final Consolidated Report". Cheshire East
Cheshire East
Council.  ^ "Local Plan - Green Belt Study Part One". Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Council.  ^ " Widnes
Widnes
and Hale Green Belt Study" (PDF). www3.halton.gov.uk. Halton Council.  ^ " Warrington
Warrington
Borough Council Green Belt Assessment Final Report Final - 21 October 2016" (PDF). www.warrington.gov.uk. Warrington Council.  ^ a b "Census 2001 – Population" (PDF). Cheshire
Cheshire
Census Consortium. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ "2011 Census: Helping tomorrow take shape". A population estimate for Cheshire East
Cheshire East
of 370,127  ^ "2011 Census Cheshire
Cheshire
West". 329,608 residents in Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester  ^ "CCC Long Term Population Forecasts" (PDF). Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ A Vision of Britain through Time. " Cheshire
Cheshire
Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population". Retrieved 10 January 2010.  ^ a b "Key Statistics Interim Profile" (PDF). Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ Vision of Britain Archived 6 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine. – Divisions of Cheshire ^ Cheshire County Council Archived 5 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. – Map of Cheshire
Cheshire
districts ^ "The Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
of Cheshire". Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
(Structural Changes) Order 2008". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ " BBC
BBC
News, 25 July 2007 – County split into two authorities". BBC News. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ "The Cheshire
Cheshire
(Structural Changes) Order 2008". Office of Public Sector Information. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2009.  ^ "Unitary legal fight over in 60 seconds". LocalGov.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2009.  ^ "Local Authorities". Government Offices of the North West. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ Chester
Chester
Diocese (Church of England). Archived 31 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Official website. Retrieval Date: 30 September 2007. ^ Diocese of Shrewsbury
Diocese of Shrewsbury
(Roman Catholic). Archived 29 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Official website. Retrieval Date: 30 September 2007. ^ "Agricultural Holdings – Land and Employment – Cheshire
Cheshire
– 2002 to 2005" (PDF). Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2007.  ^ a b c " Cheshire
Cheshire
Economy (page 64)" (PDF). Cheshire
Cheshire
County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ "Top Ten Most Affluent Villages in the UK". The Telegraph. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.  ^ " Chester
Chester
Named Top Place to Live in UK". The Chester
Chester
Chronicle. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2017.  ^ "Area Profile" (PDF). Cheshire East
Cheshire East
Council. Cheshire East
Cheshire East
Council. Retrieved 11 September 2017.  ^ "The Thundersprint". Archived from the original on 14 November 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ Robinson, Julian; Crossley, Lucy (2 February 2015). "Terror for Man United's Angel di Maria as thugs try to break into his mansion - Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2 February 2015.  ^ Shores, et al, p. 217. ^ John Mayall
John Mayall
biographical details. www.johnmayall.com website. Retrieval Date: 21 February 2008. ^ Bono, Salvatore. "Speaking With Your New Favorite Band -- The 1975". Huffington Post. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Radio Cheshire
Cheshire
- Radio - Digital Spy Forums". Forums.digitalspy.co.uk. Retrieved 14 May 2014.  ^ " BBC
BBC
News - Stoke & Staffordshire". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 14 May 2014.  ^ "About The Royal Cheshire
Cheshire
County Show The Royal Cheshire
Cheshire
County Show". The Royal Cheshire
Cheshire
County Show 2016. Retrieved 2017-05-29.  ^ "Things to do - Plantlife
Plantlife
in your area - North-west England". Plantlife. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  ^ "Why Cheshire
Cheshire
fat cats smile". The Times. London. Retrieved 6 March 2006.  ^ Chandler, J. (2001). Local Government Today.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
ancient county boundaries". Vision of Britain website. Archived from the original on 6 May 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ " Cheshire
Cheshire
1974 boundaries". Vision of Britain website. Archived from the original on 6 May 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ "Road policing". Cheshire
Cheshire
Police website. Archived from the original on 5 November 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

Crosby, A. (1996). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series.) Chichester, UK: Phillimore & Co ISBN 0-85033-932-4. Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-722761-9. Morgan, P. (Ed.) (1978). Domesday Book. Volume 26: Cheshire. Chichester, Sussex: Phillmore and Company Limited. ISBN 0-85033-140-4. Phillips, A. D. M., and Phillips, C. B. (Eds.) (2002). A New Historical Atlas of Cheshire. Chester, UK: Cheshire County Council and Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Publications Trust. ISBN 0-904532-46-1. Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1990). Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. Grub Street. ISBN 0-948817-19-4, ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9. Sylvester, D. (1980). A History of Cheshire, (The Darwen County History Series.) (Second Edition, original publication date, 1971). London and Chichester, UK: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-85033-384-9.

Further reading[edit]

Beck, J. (1969). Tudor Cheshire. (Volume 7 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Bu'Lock, J. D. (1972). Pre-Conquest Cheshire
Cheshire
383–1066. (Volume 3 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Dore, R.N. (1966). The Civil Wars in Cheshire. (Volume 8 of Cheshire Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Driver, J. T. (1971). Cheshire
Cheshire
in the Later Middle Ages 1399–1540. (Volume 6 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire Community Council. Harris, B. E. (1979). 'The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 2). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-722749-X. Harris, B. E. (1980). 'The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 3). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-722754-6. Hewitt, H. J. (1967). Cheshire
Cheshire
Under the Three Edwards. (Volume 5 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Higham, N. J. (1993). The Origins of Cheshire. Manchester, UK: Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-3160-5. Hodson, J. H. (1978). Cheshire, 1660–1780: Restoration to Industrial Revolution. (Volume 9 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire Community Council. ISBN 0-903119-11-0. Husain, B. M. C. (1973). Cheshire
Cheshire
Under the Norman Earls 1066–1237. (Volume 4 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire Community Council. Morgan, V., and Morgan, P. (2004). Prehistoric Cheshire. Ashbourne, Derbyshire:Landmark Publishing Company. ISBN 1-84306-140-6. Scard, G. (1981). Squire and Tenant: Rural Life in Cheshire 1760–1900. (Volume 10 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. ISBN 0-903119-13-7. Scholes, R. (2000). The Towns and Villages of Britain: Cheshire. Wilmslow, Cheshire: Sigma Press. ISBN 1-85058-637-3. Starkey, H. F. (1990). "Old Runcorn". Halton Borough Council.  Sylvester. D., and Nulty, G. (1958). The Historical Atlas of Cheshire. (Third Edition) Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Thompson, F. H. (1965). Roman Cheshire. (Volume 2 of Cheshire Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Tigwell, R. E. (1985). Cheshire
Cheshire
in the Twentieth Century. (Volume 11 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Varley, W. J. (1964). Cheshire
Cheshire
Before the Romans. (Volume 1 of Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council Series: A History of Cheshire). Series Editor: J. J. Bagley. Chester, UK: Cheshire
Cheshire
Community Council. Youngs, F. A. (1991). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. (Volume 1: Northern England). London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-86193-127-0.

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Major settlements

Alsager Birchwood Bollington Chester Congleton Crewe Ellesmere Port Frodsham Handforth Knutsford Macclesfield Middlewich Nantwich Neston Northwich Poynton Runcorn Sandbach Warrington Widnes Wilmslow Winsford See also: List of civil parishes in Cheshire

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