Chesham (/ˈtʃɛʃəm/, locally /ˈtʃɛsəm/, or /ˈtʃɛzəm/) is a
market town in the Chiltern Hills, Buckinghamshire, England. It is
located 11 miles south-east of the county town of Aylesbury. Chesham
is also a civil parish designated a town council within Chiltern
district. It is situated in the Chess Valley and surrounded by
farmland, as well as being bordered on one side by the parishes of
Chesham Bois. The earliest records of
Chesham as a
settlement are from the second half of the 10th century although there
is archaeological evidence of people in this area from around 8000 BC.
Henry III granted the town a royal charter for a weekly market in
The town is known for its four Bs, usually quoted as:- boots, beer,
brushes and Baptists. Chesham's prosperity grew significantly
during the 18th and 19th centuries with the development of
In the face of fierce competition from both home and abroad all these
traditional industries rapidly declined. The ready availability of
skilled labour encouraged new industries to the town both before and
after the end of the Second World War. Today employment in the town is
provided mainly by small businesses engaged in light industry,
technology and professional services.
From the early part of the 20th century onwards there has been a
considerable expansion of the town with new housing developments and
civic infrastructure. Increasingly
Chesham has also become a commuter
town with improved connection to London via the
London Underground and
road networks. The town centre has been progressively redeveloped
since the 1960s and was pedestrianised in the 1990s. The population of
the town has increased to slightly over 20,000 but further growth has
been restricted because the area forms part of the Metropolitan Green
1.1 Early history
1.2 The land owners of Chesham
1.3 Ecclesiastical history
1.4 Religious dissent and nonconformity
1.5 Emigration to the American colonies
1.6 Industrial development
1.7 The town in times of war
1.8 Social history
2.1 Topography and geology
2.2 Built environment and social geography
2.4 Neighbourhoods and wards
3.1 Clock tower
3.2 War memorial
4.2 Industrial Revolution
4.3 Manufacturing and brewing
4.4 Commerce today
5.1 Parliamentary representation
5.2 Local government
5.3 Coat of Arms
6 Public services
6.2 Health services
6.3 Emergency services
9.3 Bus services
9.4 Car usage and parking
9.6 Air transport
10.1 Primary education
10.2 Secondary education
10.3 Independent schools
10.4 Special, further and adult education provision
11 Culture and recreation
11.1 Community facilities
Town twinning and cultural exchanges
12 Media, communications and filmography
12.1 Local news media
12.2 TV and mobile phone signals
13 Notable people
14 See also
15 Other projects
16 Further reading
18 External links
Church Street in
Chesham old town
There is archaeological evidence of the earliest settlement during the
Mesolithic period around 5000 BC in East Street,
Chesham where a
large quantity of Flint tools were found. The earliest farming
evidence from the
Neolithic era around 2500 BC.
Bronze Age tribes
settled in the valley around 1800 BC and they were succeeded by Iron
Belgic people of the
Catuvellauni tribe around 500 BC. Between
150–400 AD there is evidence of
Romano-British farming and nearby at
Latimer there is archaeological evidence of a Roman villa and the
planting of grapevines. However the area was then deserted until the
Saxon period around the 7th century'.
Contrary to popular belief, the town is not named after the river;
rather, the river is named after the town. The first recorded
Chesham is under the
Old English name Cæstæleshamm
meaning "the river-meadow at the pile of stones" around 970 in the
will of Lady Ælfgifu, who has been identified with the former wife of
King Eadwig. She held an estate here which she bequeathed to Abingdon
Prior to 1066 there were three adjacent estates which comprised
Caestreham which are briefly recorded in the
Domesday Book as being of
1½, 4 and 8½ hides, having four mills. The most important of these
manors was held by Queen Edith, the widow of Edward the Confessor.
Other land having been returned to the Crown it was in the hands of
Harold Godwinson and his brother Leofwine Godwinson. Part of these
Chesham Bois parish. After 1066 Edith kept her
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror divided royal lands between his half
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux and Hugh de Bolbec.
The land owners of Chesham
Domesday Book records that there were three manors in Cestreham
and one at nearby Latimer.
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror shared out the
estates between four of his dependants. The vast majority of land was
granted to Hugh de Bolebec and smaller parcels to Odo, Bishop of
Bayeux, Toustain Mantel and Alsi.
Before the 13th century the three Cestreham manors were known as
Chesham Bury and
Chesham Boys (or 'Bois'). In the 14th
century they were first recorded as 'the manors of Great Chesham'.
Collectively they extended beyond the current
boundary. Together with the manor at Latimer they were held by the
Oxford and Surrey. During the 16th century Greater Chesham
was owned by the
Seymour family who disposed of it to the Cavendish
family who were the Earls and later Dukes of Devonshire. It is from
the 15th century that the earliest surviving properties survive and
are to be found close by the church in an area called the Nap, and
along part of the present-day Church Street. Though gradually
disposing of land the Cavendishes maintained an influence in the town
until the 19th century. The Lowndes family started purchasing land
from the 16th century. William Lowndes was an influential politician
Secretary to the Treasury during the reigns of Mary II, William
III and Queen Anne. He had the original Bury and manor house of Great
Chesham, rebuilt in 1712. The Lowndes family settled in
over the next 200 years became equally influential both nationally
through politics and the law and locally within the town as its
No evidence remains of any church prior to the Norman Conquest.
However, the siting of puddingstones beneath the present-day church
suggests a wooden church was constructed on the site during the
Anglo-Saxon period. During the 12th century two families of Norman
descent, the de Bolebecs and the Sifrewasts, each held a share of the
advowson assigned to the adjacent manors of
Chesham Higham and Chesham
Bury respectively for the Church at
Chesham which it is evidenced from
about 1154 was dedicated to St Mary. These moieties were
subsequently given by the families to two monasteries. In 1194 the de
Bolbecs bestowed their advowson to the abbot and monks of Woburn Abbey
and henceforth the parish of
Chesham Higham was renamed 'Chesham
Woburn'. Meanwhile, and sometime before 1199, the Sifrewast family
granted their advowson to the convent of St Mary's de Pré Leicester.
As a consequence the advowson for the parish of
Chesham Bury became
known as '
Chesham Leicester'. In 1536 Henry VIII seized control of
church property as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Subsequently, during Edward VI and Elizabeth I's reigns, first Chesham
Woburn and then
Chesham Leicester advowsons became part of the estates
of the Dukes of Bedford. Though there were originally two vicars
appointed to the parish church of St Mary's from the 17th century a
single incumbent was appointed. Jurisdiction was still shared between
both advowsons and two parsonages, an 'upper' and 'lower', continued
to be maintained until the 18th century when both were superseded by a
single new parsonage. The Duke of Bedford subsequently
consolidated the moities by Act of Parliament in 1767. To
accommodate the increasing population during the 19th century a new
parish church were built in 1867; Christ Church at Waterside, and
further churches were built at
Ashley Green and
Bellingdon which were
at the time both within the civil parish of Chesham.
Thomas Harding memorial
Religious dissent and nonconformity
Chesham is noted for the religious dissent which dominated the town
from the 15th century. In 1532
Thomas Harding was burnt at the stake
in the town for being a
Lollard and heretic. From the 17th century
Chesham was a focus for those dissenting from mainstream religion.
Quakers met in the late 17th century in
Chesham and in 1798 they built
the current meeting house. The first Baptists' meeting dates back to
about 1640 and a place was registered for services in 1706. The first
chapel was opened in 1712, one of many to be built for the various
Baptist groups during the 18th and 19th centuries. John Wesley
Chesham in the 1760s and a Wesleyan
existed in the town. In more recent time a Wesleyan
was opened in 1897. The
Christian Brethren which date back in Chesham
to 1876, opened their
Gospel Hall in 1895, which closed in December
2008. Broadway Baptist church had branches at the Vale, Hawridge,
Ashley Green and Chartridge; only the one at
Trinity Baptist church had branches at Hyde Heath,
Ley Hill and
Whelpley Hill; only the one at
Hyde Heath survives. The Congregational
Church had branches at
Asheridge and Pond Park.
Emigration to the American colonies
In 1630 Aquila Chase left
Chesham to join the colony, settling first
at Hampton (now New Hampshire), then Newbury, Massachusetts.
Descendants of Aquila became influential in shaping political,
legislative and commercial matters from the colonial period until
after the Declaration of Independence. For example, Salmon P. Chase
was the United States Treasury Secretary and Chief Justice in the
1870s and after whom the
Chase Manhattan Bank
Chase Manhattan Bank is named (although Chase
did not have any connection with the bank).
The primary industries of the town in medieval times were flour
production, woodworking and weaving of wool. There were four mills
built along the Chess which was diverted to generate sufficient power.
Surplus flour was supplied to London. The number of clothworkers,
including spinners and those associated with dying (fullers), grew
rapidly between 1530 and 1730 and became the major industry in the
town prior to a period of rapid decline. Between 1740 and 1798 mills
were converted to produce paper (pulp) responding to London's
insatiable demand for paper. However, technological developments in
paper-making elsewhere rendered the mills unprofitable and they
reverted to flour production in the 1850s.
Chesham town, circa 1750
New industries emerged from the 16th century onwards. The woodlands
had been a source of firewood for London during the mediaeval period.
A small-scale woodenware industry; making shovels, brooms, spoons and
chairs, began around 1538 and its expansion was accompanied by the
planting of beechwoods between 17th and 19th centuries. Straw
plaiting was seen as home-based work for the wives and daughters of
labourers from the 18th century. Straw was also imported from Italy to
produce the superior 'Tuscan plait' traded at a Saturday market for
Dunstable hat trade and remained the major cottage
industry until around 1860, providing employment for women and girls
some of whom attended a 'plait-school' in Waterside.
developed in the 16th century as a cottage industry and was valued for
Chesham specialised in black lace. The industry declined
in the 1850s due to mechinisation in Nottingham. Between 1838 and
1864 silk-spinning, powered by a steam-driven mill in Waterside was
started to make use of unemployed lace workers. This trend was
relatively short-lived as changes in fashion and the growth of the
railways resulted in competition from elsewhere for the valuable
London markets. However one exception was the firm of George
Tutill, which specialised in high-quality banners and was responsible
for three-quarters of those made for trade unions. The firm is still a
going concern still specialising in flags and banners.
Three of the four Bs that have shaped Chesham's history relate to its
Brush making was introduced around 1829 to make use of the
off-cuts from woodworking.
Boot and shoe making which started as a
cottage industry later expanding through small workshops thrived
following the opening of tanneries around 1792 which also supplied
leather for saddle making and glove. By the mid-19th century both
brushmaking and footwear manufacture became major industries in the
town with production concentrated in large factories. The industry
declined in the early-20th century as the market for heavy boots
declined. Beer brewing grew rapidly around the town centre in the 19th
century again declining at the start of the 20th century. These
traditional industries were succeeded by smaller but more commercial
enterprises which took advantage of the available skilled labour. For
example, in 1908 the Chiltern Toy Works was opened by Joseph Eisenmann
Bellingdon Road, later moving to the 'new' industrial estate in
Waterside, making high quality teddy bears. The works finally closed
in 1960. Post
Second World War
Second World War industry has ranged from the
manufacture of glue (Industrial Adhesives) to aluminium-based
packaging (Alcan), Aluminium Castings & Bronze Castings (Draycast
Foundries Limited) and balloons (B-Loony).
The town in times of war
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror paused at nearby
Berkhamsted in 1066 en route to
London. Henry VIII imposed a tax on the town to pay for his wars
against Scotland and France.
In common with the majority of communities in Buckinghamshire,
Lollard heritage and puritan traditions ensured it would
vehemently resist King Charles I demand for
Ship Money a tax on
tradesmen and landowners. In 1635 the townsfolk of
to the Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, Sir Peter Temple who was
reluctantly enforcing a writ requiring payment of a levy to the King.
Not surprisingly given the local allegiances to
John Hampden the
towns' people largely sided with the Parliamentarians at the outbreak
of the English Civil War. During 1642 the influential Parliamentarians
John Pym and Earl of Warwick were headquartered in the town along with
large numbers of troops. There are records of skirmishes in the area
during 1643 when
Prince Rupert was stationed near
Robert Dormer, 1st Earl of Carnarvon
Robert Dormer, 1st Earl of Carnarvon to pillage nearby
towns, such as Wendover. Heading toward
Chesham a company of horse of
the Parliamentary Army from the town met them outside Great Missenden
where a skirmish took place ending with the Parliamentary force being
The records of the Posse Comitatus for
Chesham in 1798 recorded over
800 men between the ages of 16–60 enrolled in a militia to defend
the town in the event of invasion by
Napoleon I or to deal with civil
unrest. Less than 50 years later, in 1846 a similar register of 22
able-bodied men had been assembled to form the
Chesham troop of the
Buckinghamshire Yeomanry which coincided with the billeting of
troops from the Queen's Own
7th Hussars passing through the town on
their way to Ireland.
First World War
First World War 188 servicemen from
Chesham lost their
lives (see Landmarks). Alfred Burt a corporal in the Bedfordshire and
Hertfordshire Regiment from
Chesham received the
Victoria Cross for
his actions in September 1915. The town were temporary quarters for
several regiments including the Kings Royal Rifles and the Royal
Engineers honed their bridge building skills in local parks. Over the
duration of the
Second World War
Second World War 80 servicemen lost their lives. Air
raid shelters were built by the Council in 1940 although the official
view was that the not being a strategic location the town was unlikely
to be targeted. In fact at the end of the war it was estimated that 45
bombs fell in the
Chesham area and it is known that nine people were
Chesham workhouse for 90 paupers was operating in Germain Street as
early as 1777. New legislation transferred the control of the Chesham
Poor Law Union
Poor Law Union in 1835. However, there were
long-standing rivalries between the locals of both towns and in July
that year violence broke out when an order was given to remove the
paupers to Amersham. The
Riot Act was read out to an angry crowd of
500 and arrests followed.
Publicly funded education started with the opening of a British School
in 1825 followed by a National School in 1845, an Infants' School in
1851 and the first Elementary School for girls in 1864. Chesham
Building Society, opened for business in 1845 and continued to operate
until June 2010 when it was taken over by the Skipton Building
Society. Other public institutions also started at this time with the
Fire Brigade coming in 1846, the first cemetery in 1858 and the Police
Station built in 1861.
Chesham cottage hospital, built for £865 17s 11d on land provided by
Lord Chesham, opened in October 1869 and just ahead of an outbreak of
typhoid in 1871. Despite a local campaign to save the hospital it
closed in 2005. In September 2010 the derelict hospital building
was severely damaged by fire caused by arsonists according to police
reports. The Council commissioned a waterworks to be built in 1875
in Alma Road and mains drainage in the town and a sewage works was
opened adjacent to the Chess, downstream in 1887. A gasworks was
constructed on the southern part of the town in 1847. Bathing in the
Chess at Waterside was an old tradition which became increasingly
popular in the 19th century. Complaints that it had become a nuisance
led to the Urban District Council surrounding the site with a concrete
wall. This further increased its popularity and an open-air pool was
built by the council in 1912.
Transport connections have always come late to the town. The
Metropolitan Railway eventually reached
Chesham in July 1889.
Electrification was not to come until the 1960s. Between the two world
wars and in the 1950s and 60s there was much expansion in the town
with new public housing developments along the Missenden Road, at Pond
Park and at Botley.
The first public viewings of cinema films in
Chesham were provided by
travelling showmen around 1900 and attracted large crowds. The first
purpose-built cinema, The Empire Picture Hall, opened in Station Road
in 1912 and in 1914 The
Chesham Palace started up in The Broadway.
Both showed silent films. By 1920 the Empire had closed. In 1930 the
Chesham Palace was refurbished to show the new 'talkies' and reopened
as The Astoria which remained in business until 1959 when the arrival
of television forced it to close. The Embassy in Germain Street opened
in 1935 and survived until 1982, closing due to competition from
cinemas in nearby towns. The Elgiva Theatre, completed in 1976 beside
St Mary's Way, was equipped to show films and on moving to a new site
just across the road in 1998 state of the art projection equipment was
installed in the new theatre (see image below).
The town is located in the Chess Valley and is 11 miles south-east of
the county town of
Aylesbury and is situated 25 miles (40 km)
north west of central London. It is the fourth largest town in the
ceremonial county of
Buckinghamshire and the largest in Chiltern
District, with a population of some 20,343 people behind Milton
Keynes with 184,500,
High Wycombe with 118,200 and
Amersham has 17,719.
Topography and geology
Chesham is located in the
Chiltern Hills and from its lowest point of
295 feet (90 metres) above sea level rises up valley sides. It lies at
the confluence of four dry valleys formed by the meltwater at the end
of the last ice age which deposited onto the bed rock of chalk,
alluvial gravels, silts, on which the town now sits. Subsequent
periods of subsidence and submergence deposited clays and flints.
River Chess is a chalk-stream which rises from three springs; to
the north-west along the
Pednor Vale at Frogmoor, at Higham Mead to
the north of the town, and to the west near the
Amersham Road which
converge in the town near to East Street. The river was known as
the Isen from at least 12th century when it is found contributing to
the name to the nearby hamlet of Isenhampstead, later to divide and
become the manors of Isenhampstead
Chenies and Isenhampstead Latimer
and persisting until the 19th century. It has been suggested,
but not established, that the old name 'Isen', which derives from the
Anglo-Saxon word for iron, refers to the chalybeate or iron-charged
spring waters which feed the river Today the streams are culverted
and conducted below street level before emerging at Waterside and
flowing in a south easterly direction towards Latimer. From there it
flows to the north of
Chenies and on towards
Rickmansworth after which
it joins the River Colne.
Built environment and social geography
Chesham developed as a market town which prospered through its
manufacturing industries fuelled by a series of mills which sprung up
along the River Chess. Until the 19th century the town was centred to
the south-eastern end of the present High Street. Most of the
present-day town centre's development took place during Victorian
times. The 'old town', particularly Church and Germain Street, has
been well preserved and now designated a conservation area. it
includes a number of impressive residential, institutional and
commercial buildings that largely survived Victorian 'improvement'.
The 12th century St Mary's Church, which underwent refurbishment and
George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century. 'The Bury', a
Queen Anne town house was built in 1712 for William Lowndes Secretary
to the Treasury.
Chesham had two workhouses, both buildings survived
and are located in Germain Street. In June 2009 the
centre and old town conservation area was placed on the English
Heritage Conservation Areas at Risk register which the District
Council commented was due to the misinterpretation of its responses to
the conservation body's questionnaire. Due to the pattern of
the town's expansion there are several centres of employment which are
interspersed with residential housing. Industrial buildings on the
north side of the town have been redeveloped into offices in recent
St Mary's Church
The population more than doubled from 4000 to 9000 during the 19th
century. As a consequence the centre of the town shifted to the east
as shops, workshops and cottages sprung up along the High Street and
Berkhampstead Road. In the period after the
Second World War
Second World War the town
centre was progressively redeveloped. In the 1960s St Mary's Way was
constructed, rerouting the A416 around the congested High Street which
avoided the need to widen the street, conserved its character and
allowed for its pedestrianisation during the 1990s. Industrial
development became centred on two areas. At the southern end of the
town at Waterside which was the site of the first mills and factories
in the 18th and 19th centuries there is a mixture of original and
newly constructed industrial units and at the northern end along the
Asheridge Vale there is a further development of generally small
commercial business units.
Compared to other towns in south Buckinghamshire, there are fewer
detached and owner-occupied houses and a higher proportion of social
rental accommodation. Expansion in housing has occurred in several
phases mainly to the east of the old town where artisan's housing
sprung up along
Berkhamsted Road and subsequently along the many steep
valley sides. Initially this development was as a consequence of the
extension of the railway to the town in the 1880s, subsequently the
promotion of Metroland during the 1920s and the electrification of the
Metropolitan line in the 1960s.
Pond Park estate was built in the
1930s. The population grew fast after the
Second World War
Second World War as workers
followed employers who moved out from London. The population in 1951
was 11,500 leading to the building of the
Chessmount and Hilltop
estates by speculative developers in the 1950s and '60s. By 1971 the
population had reached 20,000 since when it has only increased
slightly. The growing popularity of the Chilterns as a place to live
from the latter part of the 20th century onwards led to restrictions
on housing and industrial development in the Chilterns Area of
Outstanding Natural Beauty and has sustained the demand for further
house building in the town. Today an increasing number of those in
employment find work outside the town, commuting by car or train as
well as an increasing number who are home or office-based using
technology to make a living.
Chesham experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification
Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom, although the lower
parts of the valley have significant frost hollow characteristics –
being several degrees colder than surrounding areas on clear, calm
nights and so have much lower average minimum temperatures than shown
in the table. The lowest recorded temperature in
−19.6 °C (−3 °F) on 20 December 2010 at a private
weather station, which was also the coldest place in the UK on that
date. On 12 February 2012, the coldest day in Britain since
December 2010, temperatures in
Chesham fell to −18.3 °C
(−1 °F) again the lowest in the country on that date.
Climate data for Chesham
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: World Weather Online
Neighbourhoods and wards
The town comprises the following communities:
Asheridge Vale, stretches along
Asheridge Road on the north-west edge
of the town. The large housing development was built during the mid
20th century along with an industrial estate comprising manufacturing
and light industrial units which has since undergone diversification
into offices and small businesses. Also a town council ward.
Botley, a hamlet located to the east of the town of
Lye Green and
Ley Hill (the latter in Latimer parish). Part of
Chesham Vale, area on the northern edge of the town on the road to the
Hawridge and Cholesbury. Also a town council ward called
Chessmount, area to the east of the town centre. Part of Waterside
Codmore, ancient hamlet located to the north-east of the town centre,
at the junction between the roads to
Lye Green and Botley. Part of
Great Hivings, an area to the north of
Chesham on the road to
Bellingdon (the latter in
Chartridge parish). Part of the ward called
Hilltop, residential area to the north-east of the town built on
steeply sloping ground. The estate, built in 1958 following the
decision to extend the Metropolitan line. Consists primarily of steel
framed bungalows, many of which were originally purchased by west
Londoners. Also the name of a town council ward.
Lye Green, hamlet located to the north east of the main town. Part of
Lowndes, residential area which includes the
Chiltern Hills Academy
School, close to the centre of the town, adjacent to Lowndes Park.
Also a town council ward.
Waterside and River Chess
Newtown, late Victorian housing development to the north of the town,
now incorporated into the enlarged townscape. Also a town council
Old Town, until the arrival of the
Metropolitan Railway in the 19th
century was the town's centre. Today, St Mary's Church, the historic
houses and streetscape are part of a designated Conservation Area
lying to the south of the present town centre with which it comprises
St. Mary's ward.
Pednormead End, an area to the west of the main town, along Missenden
Road. Part of St. Mary's ward.
Pond Park, an area comprising post
Second World War
Second World War housing to the
north of the town. Part of the Ridgeway Ward.
Townsend, Victorian extension to the town comprising commercial
premises, later 20th century residential developments and Chesham
Grammar School. Also a town council ward.
Waterside, once a hamlet located just south of the town centre.
Several mills sprung up along the
River Chess which flows through the
area as well as factories. It still retains a distinct character with
a large open space known as the Moor. Also a town council ward.
Chesham War Memorial
A clock tower constructed in 1992 stands in Market Square on the site
of Chesham's 18th-century town hall demolished in 1965. The turret is
a reconstruction of the one built onto the original town hall in the
19th century and features the original glass-dialled clock face and
clock mechanism from the mid 19th century. (see info box).
Chesham war memorial stands in a landscaped garden in the Broadway. It
depicts an infantryman with his rifle inverted and commemorates those
who fell during the First and Second World Wars. It was designed by
Arthur George Walker
Arthur George Walker and unveiled in 1921. The
inscription reads:- To The Glorious Memory Of The Men Of The Town Who
Gave Their Lives And To Honour: All Who Served Or Suffered In Cause Of
God King And Country Their Deeds Live After Them Faithful Unto
There is evidence during the pre-Norman period of common fields
divided into parcels and strips of land. The
Domesday Book records
Chesham with sufficient arable land to support four water-powered corn
mills on the
River Chess producing a surplus of flour exported to
London. There was woodland to feed over 1600 pigs and supply timber
for local manufacturing of farm tools (ploughshares). Field enclosure
started in the early 16th century and although almost completed by the
mid 19th century the productivity of
Chesham farms provided work for
over 450 agricultural labourers. Sheep that grazed on the hillside
Chesham provided wool for the cloth making and dying
cottage industry which, due to the town's proximity to London, thrived
until the 18th century when Yorkshire mills out-competed them.
Until the 18th century the economic activity of
Chesham had remained
largely unchanged since the granting of its town charter in 1257. The
commercial planting of beechwoods established
Chesham as one of a
number local centres in the Chilterns for the production of turned
furniture components and other wooden items often called bodging, in
local workshops. Mills along the Chess concerned with papermaking and
silk weaving continued to operate until the middle of the 19th century
as did 'outworkers' engaged in lace making and straw plaiting whose
employment was impacted on by changes in fashion, by mechanisation and
from cheaper imports from the continent. The mineral-laden unpolluted
water of the Chess made it ideal for growing watercress and this
industry flourished in
Chesham in the
Victorian era and beds extended
along the Chess towards Latimer, which continued in operation until
after the Second World War.
Manufacturing and brewing
In the 18th century home-based leather trade workers moved to a newly
Boot factory and the Britannia
Boot and Shoe Works
towards the end of the 19th century by which time there were eight
major manufacturers and many small workshops. In 1829 Beechwoods
brushmaking factory was opened. At its height there were around 12
factories specialising in brush made from locally grown beech with
bristles imported mainly from across Asia. The adoption of nylon for
brushes was the cause of the downturn with only one manufacturer
remaining today. Russell's Brushes still make brushes in Chesham.
Chesham Brewery opened in the High Street in 1841. Two other
notable rivals were Darvell's Brewery and Sarah Howe and Sons.
Competition led to amalgamations around the start of the 20th century
although brewing continued at
Chesham Brewery until the 1950s.
Pedestrianised High Street
Chesham has a diverse economic base comprising many typically
small-medium-sized enterprises representing all business sectors.
Within the two industrial parks light engineering and fabrication
industry is to be found alongside printers and graphic designers or
other technology-based firms, wholesalers, distribution and courier
businesses. As elsewhere there has been an expansion of professional
business services and consultancies. The pedestrianised High Street
retains some of the character of the old market town with some
long-established traditional family retailers and also features a
street market on Wednesdays and Saturdays. This individuality was
recognised in a survey of town 'high streets' which gave
marks for its distinctiveness. There are two of the 'big five'
supermarkets present which have impacted on the town's independent
stores and all retail outlets have also to compete with other nearby
town centres, at Amersham,
Tring as well as the large
shopping centres in High Wycombe,
Watford and Milton Keynes.
From 1950 to 1974 the town was part of South Buckinghamshire
constituency; since boundary changes made ahead of the February 1974
Chesham has been in the
Chesham & Amersham
Chesham Town Hall
The current constituency is solidly Conservative, and has never
returned a non-Tory candidate. The current MP is Cheryl Gillan. The
Conservative Party again won the constituency at the 2015 General
Election with a 59.1% share of the vote; the next most popular party
was UKIP, represented by Alan Stevens, with 13.75% of the vote,
Labour, Ben Davies with 12.7%, for the Liberal Democrats Kirsten
Johnson with 9.0% and
UK Green Party
UK Green Party Gill Walker on 5.5%. Local
turnout at the last election was 71.8%.
Chesham formed part of
Poor Law Union
Poor Law Union from 1835 and Amersham
Rural Sanitary District from 1875. From 1884 the town was administered
Chesham Local Government District, which was succeeded in 1894
Chesham Urban District under the Local Government Act 1894.When the
Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972 came into effect on 1 April 1974 the urban
district was abolished in favour of the Chiltern district and the
civil parish was given town council status. At town council level,
Chesham is divided into 9 electoral wards and 19 councillors. The
political composition of the council as at May 2015 was: Conservative
14; Liberal Democrat 2; Labour 1; and Independent 2. A town mayor is
elected by the council on an annual basis.
Coat of Arms
The various colours of the
Chesham Coat of Arms, created in 1974, are
the same as those of
Buckinghamshire County arms. The Chiltern
woodlands are denoted by two beech trees. The river Chess is
recognised in the black and white chequers and rooks. The swan is
inherited from the Dukes of Buckingham. The lilies relate to St Mary,
patron saint of the parish church. The buck's head is borrowed from
the arms of The Cavendish family, which owned most of the parish
lands. The motto is from the Epistle to the Galatians, Chapter V,
Veolia Water Central
Veolia Water Central supplies drinking water to the town extracted
River Chess and Misbourne and from aquifers in the Chiltern
Thames Water undertakes waste water treatment and has a sewage
treatment works beside the
River Chess on Latimer Road to the south of
Chiltern District Council is responsible for waste
management and collection and disposal is currently carried out on its
behalf by Serco.
EDF Energy provides electricity supply for the town.
NHS Primary Care Trust
NHS Primary Care Trust (PCT) has overall
responsibility for provision of health services to the local
community. Since the closure of the town's cottage hospital in 2004
the nearest hospitals are
Amersham Hospital, Wycombe General Hospital
Stoke Mandeville Hospital
Stoke Mandeville Hospital the latter providing accident and
emergency services. After several years of uncertainty, in 2008 the
PCT confirmed it was proceeding with the
Chesham Healthzone Project.
Planning approval was granted by the District Council in June 2009 for
the purpose-built health facility comprising, two GP practices, a
pharmacy, consulting, clinical and treatment rooms. Originally
scheduled to open in 2010, phase 1 of the Chess Medical Centre opened
in December 2011.
Chesham Fire Station
Thames Valley Police
Thames Valley Police headquartered in Kidlington, Oxfordshire is
accountable for delivery of policing through the town's three
Neighbourhood Policing Teams.
Buckinghamshire Fire and Rescue Service
Aylesbury oversees the town's fire and rescue services. There
is a fire station located in
Bellingdon Road which is supplemented by
services from the station at
Amersham and other nearby towns.
Ambulance services are managed by
South Central Ambulance Service
South Central Ambulance Service NHS
Trust based in Bicester, Oxford. The nearest ambulance station for the
town is located in Amersham.
Salvation Army Citadel
The oldest church building in
Chesham is St. Mary's Church which dates
from at least the 12th century.
Chesham has a long history of
religious dissent, such as the persecuted Lollards, followers of the
John Wycliffe tradition. One of them
Thomas Harding was martyred on
White Hill, near Dungrove Farm, in 1532. There is a memorial to local
Lollards in Amersham, and memorials to
Thomas Harding in the
churchyard and on White Hill. The 17th, 18th and 19th centuries saw
the rapid growth of non-conformism especially Baptists. During the
civil war there were groups of Quakers,
Baptists and Presbyterians.
Broadway Baptist Church dates back to at least 1706 and had its 300th
anniversary celebrations in
Chesham in 2006. Its roots are in the
Berkhamsted Baptist Church which dates back to 1640.
In the present day,
Chesham has four Baptist churches (Broadway
Baptist, Trinity Baptist, Newtown Baptist and Hivings Free Church) and
Anglican churches (St Mary's, Christ Church in Waterside and
Emmanuel in Newtown).
There is a United Reformed Church, formerly called the Congregational
Church, in The Broadway, there was a
Gospel Hall in Station Road
(which closed at the end of 2008), a
Roman Catholic church (St
Columba's) in Berkhampstead Road (built in 1960), a
Bellingdon Road, a
Salvation Army Citadel in Broad St (closed in
2015), Hiving's Free Church in Upper Belmont Road, an historic Quaker
Friends Meeting House
Friends Meeting House in
Bellingdon Road, The King's Church
charismatic fellowship which meets at
Chesham Park Community College.
Almost all of the Christian churches of
Chesham work collectively as
part of the Churches Together for
Chesham (CTfC) group, which has 16
churches in membership. Other religious groups include Chesham
Spiritualist Church in Higham Road, and the Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's
Second World War
Second World War the first recorded
Jewish congregation was
founded on families evacuated from London who used to meet at the
cricket pavilion. After the war they combined with the Jewish
Amersham which met at the synagogue in
Amersham-on-the-Hill until 1968. This was succeeded by a Liberal
Judaism community formed in 1990 which now meets at
During the second half of the 20th century a
Muslim community became
established in the town.
Chesham Mosque the first purpose-built mosque
was completed in 2005 and is located in
Demographics based on 2011 census for the population of
Chesham parish in 2011 was 21,483 comprising 10,600 male
and 10,883 female
Status = 51.2% Married, 0.2% Civil p,ship, 34.5% Single (incl widowed,
Housing = 67.6% owner occ'd, 0.9% shared ownership, 20.6% rented (pub)
10.1% rented (private)
Car ownership = 83% of households in the town own a car.
Work/studying = 54% employed, 13.2% self-employed, 2.4% Studying,
Not working = 12.9% retired, 5.9% unemployed, 5.0% caring for family,
2.8% = unable to work
Travel to work = 66.0% car, 11.5% train, 2.4% bus, 1.8% motor/bi
cycle, 10.0% on foot, 6.8% at home.
† prior to boundary changes in 1974 reducing size of
In contrast to other towns in south Buckinghamshire, Chesham
historically was not well served by road transport links. The stage
coach bypassed the town and, unlike Amersham, there were no turnpikes
and consequently roads were poorly maintained. Significant change
occurred in the post
Second World War
Second World War period with the opening of the
M1 motorway. The A416 now runs through the town, from
Berkhamsted, and connects the town to the more recently upgraded A41.
The A416 was diverted around the High Street and later upgraded to be
dual-lane. Although these improvements enable more through traffic,
traffic congestion has increased. Chesham's High Street was
pedestrianised in 1990 and the benefits to the High Street have been
felt ever since. Whilst some of the previous bustle has been lost, the
impact of pedestrianisation has generally been positive.
Chesham tube station
Chesham tube station, close to the town centre, is the terminus for
Chesham branch, a single track spur off the London Underground
Metropolitan line connecting to Chalfont and Latimer station. It was
opened in July 1889. The original plan involved the extension of the
line from the station to the
LNWR at Berkhamsted, but the idea was
abandoned as the
Metropolitan line reached
Amersham and thence
Aylesbury. There were some sizeable goods yards beyond the station,
which were closed and now function as Waitrose's car park except for
one portion occupied by a coal merchants.
In 1959 electrification of the
Metropolitan line to
Chesham provided a
more reliable connection to London. Following the cessation of London
Underground services to
Aylesbury in 1961 and the closure of Ongar in
Chesham has become the furthest location served from central
London, in terms of both distance and travelling time. Prior to
December 2010, apart from a few direct trains to London at peak times,
a shuttle service operated to and from Chalfont and Latimer station.
Since then the town has benefited from direct trains to London all
National Rail connections are
Amersham station, although
the LU line also connects directly to Chalfont & Latimer station,
from where the
Metropolitan line and
National Rail Chiltern Railways
provide a joint service with
Metropolitan line trains travelling to
Baker Street station and
Chiltern Railways trains travelling to
Marylebone station. There is also access to London via Berkhamsted
railway station on the West Coast Main Line.
Bus companies running local services include Arriva, Carousel Buses,
Red Rose and Redline.
Residential areas of the town are connected with the central
Chesham is also connected by services to nearby
Amersham, and further afield to High Wycombe, Hemel Hempstead, and
Uxbridge. Less frequent services run to
Aylesbury and to
Car usage and parking
There are six pay and display car parks in the town, managed by
Chiltern District Council. This demand for parking reflects the
relatively high car usage, a result of both affluence and the limited
public transport provision in rural areas. As a consequence Chiltern
District has the 4th highest carbon footprint of all local
There is limited provision for cycle use within the town. The town is
one setting off point for exploring the Chilterns and cycling heritage
trails have been developed by the district authority, two of which are
centred on countryside around Chesham.
Luton airport is 15 miles away and
Heathrow airport 22 miles away. The
Bovingdon stack is directly above the town.
Between the 1960s and the mid-1990s Primary education provision in
Chesham as elsewhere in the county was organised into First (ages
4–8) and Middle (ages 8 – 12) with some Combined Schools
taking pupils across the whole age range (4 -12). In 1996 the
arrangements were modified and the age of transfer to Secondary
education was changed to age 11. Today, the schools still retain some
elements of the previous arrangement reflected also in their names.
There are six Primary Schools within
Chesham with catchment areas
based on post codes: – Elmtree First School, Newtown Infant School,
Brushwood Junior School,
Thomas Harding Junior School, Ivingswood
Academy (previously Little Spring Primary School), Waterside Combined
School. Attendance by
Chesham children at some of the village schools
close to the town is also popular.
At secondary level
Buckinghamshire continues to operate a system of
selective education with pupils sitting the eleven plus exam to
determine entry to either a
Grammar school or Secondary Modern School
(also known locally as an Upper School). Two Secondary Schools are
located in the town: –
Chiltern Hills Academy, a co-educational
England Academy, previously known as
Chesham Park Community
College which was formed from the merger of Lowndes School and
Cestreham School) and
Chesham Grammar School, a co-educational grammar
school, which until May 2010 was called
Chesham High School. Chesham
also falls within the catchment areas of two further grammar schools,
Dr Challoner's Grammar School
Dr Challoner's Grammar School for boys' in
Amersham and Dr Challoner's
High School for girls in Little Chalfont.
In the Chiltern and
South Bucks area around
Chesham and over the
county border in
Hertfordshire there are also a number of independent
fee-paying schools providing education between ages 4–13 and up to
Chesham Preparatory School is an independent school which
opened in 1938 in the town and shortly after relocated to the
Chesham at Orchard Leigh, providing fee-paying and
Special, further and adult education provision
Chesham is the location of a nationally renowned
Heritage House School which first opened in April 1968 and caters for
pupils between the ages of 2 to 19 with severe learning
Further education college
Amersham & Wycombe
College was founded in 1973 and has one of its four campuses in the
town on the former Cestreham Senior Boys School at Lycrome Road. The
college caters for a range of student cohorts with 2000 students on
full-time courses and 5000 on a part-time bases. Adult learning
comprising a range of provision including academic, vocational and
leisure courses, is provided a four sites in the town.
Learning Centre in Charteridge Lane, ElmTree School, ElmTree Hill, The
Douglas McMinn Centre in East Street and The White Hill Centre White
Hill. The Chess Valley section of the Chiltern University of the
Third Age (U3A) was formed in October 2008 in response to increasing
demand for activities in the area and meets at St Mary's Church.
Culture and recreation
The Elgiva Theatre
The Elgiva Hall opened on its original location in 1976.In 1998,
having made way for an enlarged supermarket development the Elgiva was
rebuilt as a purpose-built theatre on its current site and reopened as
the New Elgiva. Now rebranded The Elgivait is a 300 seated/400
standing capacity theatre, with a Dolby Digital 35mm cinema and is
owned and managed by
Chesham Town Council. The Elgiva presents a
wide-ranging programme of professional and amateur theatre
productions, musicals, comedy, dance, one night shows and concerts,
pantomimes, films, exhibitions and other public and private events by
both professional and community organisations. The Little Theatre by
the Park is a facility owned by the Town Council and leased to the
Little Theatre Trustees. It is the home to the
Chesham Bois Catholic
Players and used by other local theatre companies and is used for
dance and exercise groups.
Chesham Museumis a newly established museum for the town and
surrounding area which opened in 2004 having first been conceived in
1981. Initially it was housed in temporary premises at The Stables
behind the Gamekeeper's Lodge Pub in
Bellingdon Road. Since October
2009 it has been located at 15 Market Square.There is also an
annual Schools of
Chesham carnival, Beer festival and bi-annual
Chesham Library opened in
Chesham in 1923 in a room at Cemetery Lodge
Berkhamsted Road. In 1927, it moved into new premises at 33 High
Street on the Broadway which it shared with
Chesham Urban District
Council. After the war it expanded. A children's section was added in
1952. In 1971 the library moved to Elgiva Lane, a site it shared with
the Elgive Theatre prior to the latter's relocation to new premises.
Since then it has been updated to provide better access and improved
internal facilities including the evolution of the reference library
into a Study Centre. It also houses a special collection of Victorian
era children's books including some previously owned by Florence
The White Hill Centre, the site of an old school, is run by Chesham
and District Community Association and since 1976 has provided
educational, recreational social activities and facilities for
societies and the local community to meet. Opposite the town
centre is Lowndes Park, a large park with playgrounds and formerly an
open air paddling pool. There is a large pond in the park, known as
Skottowe's Pond. Lowndes Park was donated to the town of
1953. Prior to this it was part of the garden that belonged to the
Lowndes family. The Moor, originally an island created by the
diversion of the Chess to power mills is today an open space used for
recreation and the location for travelling fairs which moved from
their traditional location in the town centre in 1938. There are two
public swimming pools in the town. An outdoor pool at the Moor in
Waterside and a roofed pool (and leisure centre), next to Chesham
Grammar School at the top of White Hill. The Town Council manages 227
allotments spread across three sites. There are 135 footpaths in
Chesham area and in May 2010 the town became the first in the
Chilterns to be recognised as a "Walkers are Welcome Town".
Chesham United F.C.
Chesham United F.C. is the local football club which plays in the
Southern League. At the end of the 2009–2010 season it was promoted
to the Premier Division. It was formed in 1917 through the merger
Chesham Generals (the team of the
Chesham General Baptist church
now called Broadway Baptist Church), which was founded in 1887, and
Chesham Town FC (started as the football team of Christ Church,
Waterside), a founding member of the Southern League which started out
in 1894 as
Chesham FC. The club's most successful period was during
the 1967–68 season when it reached the final of the FA Amateur Cup
at Wembley but lost out to
Leytonstone F.C. 1-0 in front of a crowd of
54,000. The club has struggled financially and performance-wise over
recent years but has recently had a cash injection from a new
Chesham cricket club
Chesham cricket club was founded in 1848 and is
one of the oldest clubs in the Thames Valley Cricket League. Its home
ground is at Amy Lane. In addition to four senior Saturday XIs it also
runs two Sunday XIs and a women's side.
Chesham also has a Junior
section, which competes in
Buckinghamshire and national
Rugby union Club ('The Stags'), was founded
in 1980 and play rugby for boys ,girls and adult men and women at
Chiltern Hills Academy. The Stags also run netball teams playing in
local leagues for girls and women.
Town twinning and cultural exchanges
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom
Chesham has twinned with three towns in other countries. It is
organised by the
Chesham Town Twinning Association. The first link-up
was in 1980 with Friedrichsdorf, at the foot of the
near Frankfurt, Germany. Next followed the association with
Houilles, a commune of Paris, France, in 1986 and thirdly, in
1995 a tie-up with Archena, in the Murcia region of Spain. Some
organisations also have international links. Emmanuel Church is linked
with a church in Prague, Czech Republic.
Chesham British Legion is
linked with its Canadian equivalent in Buckingham, Quebec. Ley Hill
Methodist Church is linked with Skopje
Methodist Church in Macedonia.
Media, communications and filmography
Local news media
The local newspaper covering
Chesham and the surrounding area,
although it no longer has an office based in the town, is the
Buckinghamshire Examiner founded in 1889. Another Buckinghamshire
newspaper with a circulation area covering
Chesham is the Bucks Free
Press. The non-commercial community news blog dedicated to Chesham
and nearby villages is Chiltern Voice. There is also a community
website where residents can discuss local issues.
TV and mobile phone signals
Due to its position in a fold in the hill, TV and radio reception in
Chesham can be poor and the town now has its own TV mast. In the
Chesham was one of the last towns in the south east to receive
BBC2, and parts of it still cannot receive Channel 5. Houses taking
their TV reception from the
Chesham transmitter have vertically
polarised aerials, whilst those in a good enough position receive
their signal from the
Crystal Palace Transmitter
Crystal Palace Transmitter in London with
horizontally polarised aerials – they always could receive BBC2
(and indeed Channel 4 & Channel 5). Digital terrestrial television
coverage is patchy for much the same reason. Mobile phone reception
can be poor in the steeper parts of
Chesham and outlying villages.
The following TV series and episodes included filming in Chesham's Old
Town and pedestrianised High Street:
The Professionals Close Quarters (1978) –
Hammer House of Horror: Carpathian Eagle (1980) – Lowndes Park: The
Silent Scream (1980) – 68 Broad Street
Inspector Morse The Day of the Devil (1993) – High Street
Midsomer Murders: The Axeman Cometh (2007) – Market Sq; Written in
Blood (1997) – High St and Old Town; Sins of Commission –
High St; Things that Go Bump in the Night (2004) – Market Sq; The
Black Book – 15 Market Sq (2009); The Sword of Guillaume (2010) High
St, Broadway War Memorial
Nuzzle and Scratch (2009) –
CBeebies programme, Toy Shop episode
filmed on the high street outside Harvey Johns
Scoop (2009) – High Street and Town
Chucklevision Well Suited (2000) – High Street (opening scene)
Black Mirror: "The National Anthem" (2011) – desolate shots of the
High Street and of an area near The Vale are shown near the end
The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game – 73 Church Street appears as Alan Turing's
lodging house in Bletchley, and also appears briefly in Dirk Bogarde
The Password Is Courage
The Password Is Courage (1962)
Doctor Foster – The Chess Medical Centre
Aneurin "Nye" Bevan, Labour politician and father of the National
Health Service, moved to
Asheridge Farm near Chesham, where he died 6
Val Biro children's author of the Gumdrop books lived in
1955 to 1969. He died in 2014 aged 92.
Alfred Alexander Burt
Alfred Alexander Burt served in the Great War and 'for most
conspicuous bravery at Cuinchy, France on 27 September 1915 was a
recipient of the Victoria Cross. He lived in the town until his death,
in 1962, aged 67.
Thomas Pownall Boultbee d.1884 was a clergyman who on his death was
buried in the town where he and his son both preached.
Alice Connor, actress, attended
Chartridge Combined School in Chesham.
Roger Crab, who lived in what is now The Drawingroom Art Gallery and
Restaurant, in Francis Yard was an eccentric who
Lewis Carroll is
supposed to have based his "Mad Hatter" character from Alice in
Andrew Davis b.1944 is British Conductor who was born in nearby
Asheridge and grew up in the town.
William John 'Bill' Edrich. Cricketer Middlesex, MCC, Norfolk,
Edward Field b.1828 in
Chesham was a
Rear Admiral in the Royal Navy
and later a member of parliament.
Stephen Fry spent part of his childhood in Chesham, attending Chesham
Prep School as detailed in his autobiography Moab is my Washpot. He
lived in Stanley Avenue.
Joan Gardner b.1911 in
Chesham became an actress of stage and screen.
Thomas Harding, 16th-century English religious dissident. He was from
Chesham and was executed as a
Lollard in 1532. He fought for the right
to read the scriptures in English. He was accused of heresy and
Chesham parish church. He was found guilty and was
burnt at the stake in 1532, at
Chesham in the Pell, near Botley.
Charles Townsend Harrison art historian and critic was born in Chesham
Rob Hoey, comedian, actor and musician, lives in Chesham.
Eddie Howe, the manager of
AFC Bournemouth was born in neighbouring
Amersham but grew up in Chesham.
Alex Horne, standup comedian currently lives in Chesham.
Mary Ingham, author was born in the town in 1947.
D. H. Lawrence, (1885–1930) the novelist and poet, rented a cottage
Bellingdon near Chesham, while he was working on The Rainbow from
1914 to 1915.
Arthur Lasenby Liberty, founder of the famous Liberty store in London,
lived in a house next to the George & Dragon in the High Street.
William Lowndes (1652–1724) British Politician and Secretary to the
Treasury who built and lived at Bury House as did many of his
relatives and descendants
Harold Mattingly d.1964 was a historian and numismatist who lived and
is buried in the town.
Margaret Mee, (1909–1988) born in the town and attended Dr
Challoner's Grammar School, Amersham. Studied art, and with her
husband, Greville Mee moved to
Brazil where she taught art and became
a renowned botanical artist, particularly the flora of the Amazon
Earl Mountbatten of Burma used to stay, as a child, with his family
for summer holidays in Germains House in Fullers Hill.
Arthur T. F. Reynolds
Arthur T. F. Reynolds (1909–2001) was born in the town and later
Protestant missionary in China and Japan. He was the author
or translator of a number of books.
Milton Rosmer, film actor, director and screenwriter was living in the
town at the time of his death in 1971.
Irene Rooke, theatre and film actress, married to
Milton Rosmer and
lived the latter period of her life until her death in 1958 in the
Ghayasuddin Siddiqui, leading Islamic intellectual and community
leader. Founder and director of the
Muslim Institute and of the Muslim
Parliament of Great Britain. Lives in Chesham.
Guy Siner, who starred in
'Allo 'Allo! currently resides in Chesham.
Francis Wilson, TV weatherman. Used to live in Chesham.
Nearby towns, villages and hamlets
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (December 2013)
Baines, Arnold &, Birch, Clive (1994).
Chesham Century. England:
Quotes Limited. ISBN 0-86023-549-1.
Baines, Arnold & Foxell, Shirley. "The Life & Times of Thomas
Lollard Martyr" Clive Foxell 2010
Branigan, Keith (1967). The distribution and development of
Romano-British occupation in the Chess Valley. Records of
Buckinghamshire. 18. pp. 136–49.
Foxell, Clive "The Lowndes
Chesham Estate- the early photographs"
Clive Foxell 2011
Foxell, Clive "The Ten Cinemas of Chesham" Clive Foxell 2010
Hay, David and Joan (1994). Hilltop Villages of the Chilterns.
England: Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85033-505-1.
Hepple, Leslie &, Doggett, Alison (1971). The Chilterns. England:
Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85033-833-6.
Hunt, Julian (1977).
Chesham A Pictorial History. England: Phillimore
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Piggin, George (1993). Tales of Old Chesham. England: Highgate
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Rance, Eva (1991). Eva's Story,
Chesham Since the Turn of the Century.
England: The Book Castle. ISBN 1-871199-85-9.
Seabright, Colin J (2004).
Chesham Images of England. England:
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Fletcher, Keith (2008).
Chesham at Work. England: Hawkes Books.
Rees, Neil; Hart, Sheila (2011). The Church by the Woods. England:
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place-names (4th ed.), Oxford: OUP
^ British History on line Parish of Chenies, Retrieved 5 August 2013
^ Davis, K Rutherford (1982), Britons and Saxons : the Chiltern
region 400–700=1st, Chichester: Phillimore
English Heritage National Survey of Conservation Areas at Risk, June
2009 Retrieved, 1 July 2009
Chesham conservation area 'safe' Bucks Examiner 29 June 2009,
Retrieved, 1 July 2009
^ a b Core Strategy for
Chiltern District Council
January 2011 Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved
Buckinghamshire records lowest UK overnight temperature".
bbc.co.uk. BBC Beds, Herts and Bucks. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20
^ "CCold snap to finally end after record-breaking sub-zero
temperatures". telegraph.co.uk. Daily Telegraph. 12 February 2012.
Retrieved 12 February 2012.
^ "World Weather Online Averages for
Chesham 2007–08". MSN
Retrieved 16 March 2013
Chesham Town Clock Tower
Chesham War Memorial and Roll of Honour
^ Brewers in
Chesham Chap 34
Chesham rated for its High Streets's distinctiveness
Amersham Constituency 2015 election results BBC
online, Accessed 10 May 2015
^ Civic Heraldry of Thames Valley –
Chesham Town Accessed 18
^ Thumbs up for
Chesham Healthzone Bucks Examiner June 12 2009
Retrieved, 14 June 2009
Chesham Healthzone project – Bucks NHS PCT Archived 22 July 2011
at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved, 19 May 2009
^ Chesham's Healthzone to open its doors this month Bucks Examiner
02-12-2011 Retrieved, 6 December 2011
Jewish Community website, Retrieved 18 May 2009
^ Neighbourhood statistics Religion Census 2011, Accessed 1 February
^ Neighbourhood statistics Age 2011 census, Accessed 1 February 2013
^ Neighbourhood statistics Ethnic Group Census 2011 , Accessed 1
^ Census returns for
Chesham 1801 -1901 Genuki
England and ireland
June 8, 2008 Archived 20 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Neighbourhood statistics 2011 census, Accessed 1 February 2013
Chesham parish 2001 Census Data Published by Chiltern DC 2004
Chesham Shuttle Before the Through Trains". Chiltern Voice.
Chesham. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 9
^ Bus Services Serving
Chesham Bucks County Council[permanent dead
link] Retrieved 27 August 2009
^ Chiltern Community Partnership Archived 13 June 2011 at the Wayback
Machine. Retrieved, 27 August 2009
^ Chiltern DC Claire Partnership Cycling Heritage Routes Archived 25
March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved, 27 August 2009
^ Bucks County Council Schools Archived 25 September 2006 at the
Buckinghamshire Admission Information Archived 25 September 2006 at
the Wayback Machine.
Chesham Preparatory School[permanent dead link]
^ Heritage House School[permanent dead link]
Amersham and Wycombe College Archived 27 May 2008 at the Wayback
^ CC Adult Learning site[permanent dead link]
^ Chess Valley U3A Retrieved 2009_07_24
^ Elgive Hall opens 1976
Chesham Musical Theatre Archived 16 May 2008
at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved, 2009_07_23
Chesham Museum homepage Archived 3 August 2012 at Archive.is
^ Victorian Children's books in
Chesham Library Archived 10 February
2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ White Hill Centee Retrieved 14 June 2009
Chesham Town Council allotments, Retrieved 27 August 2009
^ 'Walkers Are Welcome'
Chesham Town Council, Acceseed 21 May 2010
Chesham first Chilterns town to officially welcome walkers Bucks
Examiner, Accessed 21 May 2010
Chesham United_clinch promotion with 4 0 win This is London Accessed
25 May 2010
Chesham United F.C.
Chesham United F.C. History of the Club
Chesham Cricket Club
^ "Partnerstädte – Friedrichsdorf".
Friedrichsdorf Town Council (in
Friedrichsdorf 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
^ "Bienvenue au Comité de Jumelage de Houilles". Comité de Jumelage
Houilles (in French). Retrieved 16 July 2013.
^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media
Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July
Chesham Town Twinning Association Archived 6 December 2008 at the
Bucks Free Press
Bucks Free Press Archived 22 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Chiltern Voice
Chesham transmitter Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback
^ IMDB Location search Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Midsummer Murders Locations Retrieved May 11 2009
^ Wallace, Sam (10 December 2015). "
Eddie Howe reveals the personal
story behind his remarkable ascent with Bournemouth". The
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Broadway Baptist Church
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Emmanuel Church, Chesham
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Newtown Evangelical Baptist Church
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St. Columba's Catholic Church[permanent dead link]
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