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CHENPI, CHEN PI, or CHIMPI (Chinese : 陈皮; pinyin : _chénpí_; literally: "preserved peel") is sun-dried tangerine peel used as a traditional seasoning in Chinese cooking and traditional medicine . They are aged by storing them dry. They have a pungent and bitter taste. First taste of its herb is slightly sweet and aftertaste is bitter. Their attribute is warm. Chenpi
Chenpi
has a common name, ‘ju pi’ or mandarin orange peel.

Chenpi
Chenpi
contains volatile oils, nobiletin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, tangeridin, citromitin, synephrine, carotene, cryptoxanthin, inositol, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine utilizes the alcohol extracts of several citrus peels for specific health properties, including those extracted from mandarin orange and bitter orange .

CONTENTS

* 1 Identification * 2 History * 3 Production method * 4 Preparation

* 5 Uses

* 5.1 Cuisine

* 5.2 Medicine

* 5.2.1 Precaution of Usage

* 6 Availability * 7 See also * 8 References

IDENTIFICATION

Chenpi
Chenpi
that is big in size have a surface integrated with deep-red scarfskin and white interior, and plenty of flesh heavy oil plus dense fragrance and pungency is of its best quality.

In general, old-aged Chenpi
Chenpi
tends to have a higher quality. Since the products produced in Xinhui are of the best quality owing to rich supply of citrus, it is often called Xinhui Pi or Guang Chen Pi. It is normally cut into shreds before serving and presenting in the raw form. Sun-dried tangerine peels(Chenpi)

HISTORY

The practice of getting citrus peels originated from Song Dynasty and has lasted for seven hundred years. Chenpi
Chenpi
was of high popularity until Ming and Qing Dynasties. It was shipped to foreign provinces by businessmen from Xinhui in Guangdong
Guangdong
. Due to its significant medical effect, a famous Qing doctor named Ye Gui (1667-1746) prescribed Chenpi
Chenpi
as one of the ingredients in ‘Erchen Tang’, a decoction consisting of two old drugs. Chenpi
Chenpi
business brought wealth to Xinhui peasants and it also extended to food processing, logistics areas which forms a food production chain. However, there was a decline of Chenpi
Chenpi
business in the 1990s until late 2002 when Chenpi
Chenpi
farmers helped set up the Chenpi
Chenpi
Industrial Association with support from Xinhui Agriculture Bureau and Business Federation, to which Chenpi regained its popularity since.

PRODUCTION METHOD

Xinhui chenpi is famous for its special production technique, where emphasis is put on peeling and storage methods. People can also do it at home.

* Wash tangerine peel with water and dry it with a towel. * Peel off the skin into three equal parts with the base connecting to each other. (Do not scratch the pulp, as the juice inside would contaminate the quality of the final product.) * Remove the peel carefully, and turn it over after the peel softens. * Dry the peel with sunlight. * Store the peel in a dry and cool place; or seal it in an air-tight container and dry under sunlight regularly to ensure the peel is in good condition. * After years of aging, the peel would transform into Chenpi.

PREPARATION

Prior to consumption, chenpi is soaked and rinsed with cold water until it becomes soft; the soaking time is recommended to be no longer than half an hour with a view to retaining its flavour. Afterwards, the white pith is gently scraped off from the softened peel.

USES

CUISINE

Some tong sui desserts such as red bean soup will use this ingredient occasionally. Chenpi
Chenpi
is used to make the Hunanese dish orange chicken . It can be also utilised for other kinds of food and beverage such as porridge, duck and pigeon, mooncakes, green bean soup, jam and wine. Drinking _chenpi_ infused tea is beneficial to sore throat and helps with poor appetite and digestive problems.

MEDICINE

Chenpi
Chenpi
is a common ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine , where they are used in regulation of ch\'i (or qi), fortification of the Spleen, elimination of dampness, treating abdominal distension , to enhance digestion , and to reduce phlegm . It solves digestion problem by relieving intestinal gas and bloating. Chenpi
Chenpi
can improve problems of pain, poor appetite, vomiting and hiccups. Its alcohol extracts relieve cough with copious sputum.

Based on pharmacological studies, Chenpi
Chenpi
has bioactive properties which prevent smooth muscle contraction in gastrointestinal tract, gastric ulcer and gastric acid secretion. It has stimulatory effects on heart muscle and increase of coronary artery blood flow. Besides, it has anti-allergic and antibacterial effects.

There is a well-known Chenpi-made medicine named ‘snake gallbladder and tangerine peel powder’. One of its functions is to treat wind-heat which affects human’s lung. It will cause fever, cough, expectoration of phlegm and difficult breathing. The powder can also treat sequelae of heart disharmonies.

Precaution Of Usage

When Chenpi
Chenpi
is used with carotenoid s, subacute oral toxicity arises. Carotene-rich foods include baked sweet potato, cooked carrots, cooked dark green vegetables (e.g. spinach) etc. It should be used cautiously to patients suffering from vomiting of blood. Prolonged use of large doses may finally harm qi.

Traditional Chinese Medicine urges caution in using Chenpi
Chenpi
when red symptoms occur such as red tongue or redness in the face. In addition, pregnant women or those who have menstrual problems should use it carefully. Small doses may lead to inhibition of uterus contraction while large doses will cause stimulation of it.

AVAILABILITY

Whole citrus peel is readily available from most herbal markets and specialty food stores. Some stores also sell citrus peel powder or capsules.

Starting from around 2010, rampant land development for commercial and residential use in China has cause the decrease of farmland especially those in Xinhui, affecting the supply of Xinhui citrus and consequently Chenpi
Chenpi
production. This in turn contributes majorly to the price increase of Chenpi.

Price of Chenpi
Chenpi
rises with the length of its history. Based on data in late 2014, Xinhui Chenpi
Chenpi
aged one year costs around 140 HKD per kilogram while those aged 10 years cost 600 to 800 HKD per kilo. Chenpi
Chenpi
stored for more than 20 years can reach as nearly as 24,000 RMB per kilogram. 65-year Chenpi
Chenpi
even costs 23,000 RMB per tael . Wholesale price of Chenpi
Chenpi
costs 40 to 70 HKD per pound.

SEE ALSO

* Zest (ingredient) * Jujube * List of dried foods * Prune * Succade * Food portal

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Balch, Phyllis A. (2002). _Prescription for Herbal Healing_. Penguin. p. 47. ISBN 9780895298690 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Xu Li (2002). _Chinese Materia Medica: Combinations and Applications_. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 272–273. ISBN 1901149021 . * ^ "Chen Pi - TCM Wiki". _old.tcmwiki.com_. Retrieved 2016-03-24. * ^ "Citrus Peel (Chen Pi)". _www.chineseherbshealing.com_. Retrieved 2016-03-24. * ^ "景盛庄". _www.chenpi.hk_. Retrieved 2016-03-24. * ^ "新會廣陳皮網 陳皮 新會陳皮 新會特產 陳皮網 新會柑 新會皮 柑皮 陳皮文化 茶枝柑廣陳皮產地 陳皮原料 陳皮食療 陳皮功效 中藥陳皮 廣東特產". _www.xhgcp.com_. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2016-03-24. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lee, Sharon (10 September 2012). "Herb: Dried Tangerine Peel". _www.chinesesouppot.com_. Retrieved 24 March 2016. * ^ Lo, Eileen Yin-Fei (1999). "Poultry and Other Fowl". _The Chinese Kitchen_. calligraphy by San Yan Wong (1st ed.). New York, New York: William Morrow and Company . p. 314. ISBN 0-688-15826-9 . ORANGE CHICKEN _Chun Pei Gai Pan_ Traditionally this Hunan recipe contained what is called chun pei, or ‘old skin,’ to describe the dried citrus peel used in its preparation. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Liu Yanze; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Junzeng (18 May 2015). _Dietary Chinese Herbs: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Evidence_. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 335–337. ISBN 9783211994481 . * ^ Yeung. Him-Che. _Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas_. 1985. Los Angeles: Institute of Chinese Medicine. * ^ Zhu, Chun-Han (1 January 1989). _Clinical Handbook of Chinese Prepared Medicines_. Paradigm Publications. p. 80. ISBN 9780912111438 . * ^ Brand, Eric; Wiseman, Nigel (1 January 2008). _间明中药学_ (in Chinese). Paradigm Publications. p. 225. ISBN 9780912111827 . * ^ "Citrus peel (chen pi)". _www.acupuncturetoday.com_. Retrieved 2016-03-24. * ^ "陳皮有價有市 愈老愈值錢 - 東方日報". _orientaldaily.on.cc_. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2016. * ^ "吳煒龍: 陳皮的價值". _信報_. Retrieved 2016-03-24.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to MANDARIN ORANGE PEELS _.

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Cantonese cuisine

MAIN DISHES

* Bao yu * Bird\'s nest soup * Buddha\'s delight * Cantonese seafood soup * Chinese steamed eggs * Congee * Crispy fried chicken * Dragon tiger phoenix * Hot pot * Seafood birdsnest * Shark fin soup * Snake bite chicken * Soy sauce chicken * Subgum * Sweet and sour pork * White boiled shrimp * White cut chicken * Wonton noodles * Yangzhou fried rice

DIM SUM AND YUM CHA

* Annin tofu * Beef tripe * Cha siu bao * Chicken feet * Coconut bar * Har gow * Jian dui * Jiaozi
Jiaozi
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milk curd * Lo mai chi * Mooncake * Red bean soup * Sausage bun * Tong sui * White sugar sponge cake
White sugar sponge cake

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES

* Fermented bean curd * Five-spice powder * XO sauce

INGREDIENTS

* Beef ball * Black bean paste * Chenpi * Fermented black beans * Fish ball * Fish slice * Frog legs * Garland chrysanthemum * Kai-lan * Mantis shrimp * Pig\'s ear * Prawn ball * Rapeseed * Saang mein * Sea cucumber * Shahe fen * Shrimp roe noodles * Spare ribs * Suan cai * Tofu skin * Wonton * Yi mein * Yin yang fried rice * Zha cai

OTHERS

* Chinese herb tea * Dried shredded squid

* Cantonese restaurant * Beijing cuisine * Shanghai cuisine * Hong Kong cuisine * Macanese cuisine * Chinese cuisine * History of Chinese cuisine

Links: ------ /wiki/Simplified_Chinese_characters /wiki/Pinyin /wiki/Tangerine /wiki/Peel_(fruit) /wiki/Chinese_cuisine /wiki/Traditional_Chinese_medicine /wiki/Chinese_herbology#Four_Natures /#cite_note-:2-1 /#cite_note-:0-2