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The Chennai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is the third longest metro system in India after Delhi Metro and Hyderabad metro. The system commenced service in 2015 after partially opening the first phase of the project. The network consists of two colour-coded lines covering a length of . The Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL), a joint venture between Government of India and the Government of Tamil Nadu built and operates the Chennai Metro. The system has a mix of underground and elevated stations and uses standard gauge. The services operate daily between 4:30 and 23:00 with a varying frequency of 5 to 14 minutes. As of November 2019, about 121,000 people use the service on a daily basis. There are 52 trains with four coaches each, making a total of 208 coaches, operating in the first phase and its extension. The system has also planned to takeover the existing Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System by 2021, which would be upgraded to operate using the rolling stock of the Chennai Metro. CMRL was recognised by the International Association of Public Transport in 2011. Construction of the first stretch began in June 2009, which spanned the seven stations Koyambedu to Alandur over a distance of and began operation on 29 June 2015. As of February 2021, Chennai Central to St. Thomas Mount on the Green line and Wimco Nagar to Chennai International Airport on Blue line are commercially operational which brings the total operational network to making it the third largest operating metro system in India, after the Delhi metro () and Hyderabad metro ().


History




Background

Chennai had an established Chennai Suburban Railway network that spanned from Beach to Tambaram, which dates back to 1931 and operated on a metre-gauge line. This service is now being continued after conversion to broad gauge line. The suburban network also consists of two more suburban lines, the west bound Chennai CentralArakkonam suburban service and the North Line, Chennai Suburban connecting Chennai Central–Gummidipoondi service which began operations in 1985 from the Moore Market Complex. The two above-mentioned lines were being operated from the main platforms of Chennai Central station until 1985 after which they were shifted to the adjacent Moore Market Complex. The first phase of Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System between Chennai Beach and Thirumayilai opened in 1997 with extension to Velachery in 2007. Modeled after the Delhi Metro, a similar modern metro rail system was planned for Chennai by Delhi Metro chief E Sreedharan due to his special interest in the Chennai city.

Planning

In 2007–08, was sanctioned for preliminary work, which included a Detailed Project Report to be prepared by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. The project was approved by the state cabinet on 7 November 2007 and was to be executed by a Special Purpose Vehicle, the Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL). Seven lines were planned by the DMRC for the Chennai Metro network. Planning commission gave in-principle approval for the project on 16 April 2008. On 21 November 2009, a deal was signed with the Japan Banking Corporation for a loan.

Construction

In February 2009, Hyderabad-based Soma Enterprise was awarded a contract for the construction of a long viaduct along the Inner Ring Road. In March 2009, a five-member consortium led by Egis Rail SA, France was awarded 30 million contract for general consultancy contract. On 20 May, CMRL started to evaluate the integration of metro corridor with the planned grade separator at the junction of Arcot Road and Jawaharlal Nehru Road. The construction started on 10 June 2009 with the piling work for the elevated viaduct between Koyambedu and Ashok Nagar stretch. In July 2009, tenders were invited for supplying rolling stock and construction of elevated viaducts for Phase I of the metro. In January 2011, Larsen and Toubro was awarded the contract for elevated viaducts for . In March 2011, Chennai Metro reached an agreement with the Government of Japan for a loan of for the second phase. In June, tenders for the elevated stations of the first phase were awarded to Consolidated Construction Consortium Limited. In August 2010, the contract for supplying rolling stock was awarded to Alstom at a cost of . It was announced that the first phase would be extended by and Larsen and Toubro was awarded a contract to construct a depot at Koyambedu. In December 2010, DMRC submitted a report for extending Corridor-I from Washemenpet to Wimco Nagar, a distance of at an estimated cost of . In January 2011, a contract for design and construction of track works was awarded to a joint venture of L&T and Alstom and a contract for supply of lifts and escalators was awarded to a joint venture of Johnson Lifts and SJEC Corporation. In February 2011, contracts were awarded for the construction of underground sections of the first phase. The contract for power supply and overhead electrification was awarded to Siemens for . Contracts for automatic fare collection (AFC), tunnel ventilation and air conditioning were awarded to Nippon Signal, Emirates Trading Agency and Voltas for , and . On 7 April 2012, the Madras High Court dismissed a petition filed by the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage challenging the demolition of a building on Anna Salai. In July 2012, the first tunnel boring machine was launched and by October 2012, eleven machines were commissioned to bore tunnels along the underground stretch by three consortiums, namely Afcons-Transtonnelstroy, L&T and SUCG, Gammon India and Mosmetrostroy involved in the construction. On 6 November 2013, the test run along a stretch of track was conducted. On 14 February 2014, the maiden trial run for the metro was conducted between the Koyambedu and Ashok Nagar stations. In August 2014, the metro received the statutory speed certification clearance from the Research Design and Standards Organisation. In January 2015, a report was submitted to the Commissioner of Metro Rail Safety for approval. In April 2015, the Commissioner of Metro Rail Safety inspected the rolling stock and submitted a report to the Railway Board. On 29 June 2015, commercial operations started between Alandur and Koyambedu stations. Almost a year later, on 21 September 2016, commercial operations commenced between Chennai International Airport metro station and Little Mount. Commercial operations commenced in the first underground line between Thirumangalam metro station to Nehru Park metro station on 14 May 2017. The underground stretches – Nehru Park metro station to Chennai Central metro station and Saidapet metro station to AG-DMS metro station were opened a year later on 25 May 2018. On 10 February 2019, the underground stretch from AG-DMS to Washermanpet of blue line was opened, completing phase 1 of the metro.

Tunneling

Tunnels for the Chennai Metro were drilled using Tunnel boring machines (TBMs) brought from Russia and China. In December 2011, two TBMs were shipped to Chennai from China. A total of 12 TBMs were deployed from July 2012, 8 from Germany, 2 from China, and 1 each from the United States and Japan. The first tunnel work commenced in July 2012 from Nehru Park to Egmore for a distance of 948 meters. By December 2017, upon completion of the tunneling work of the Chennai Metro, all the machines were shipped backed to their origin countries. Each TBM weighed 850 tonnes and was able to drill hard surfaces, creating tunnel passages to connect underground stations. The length of the TBMs was about 85 to 90 meters. Tunnels were bored 50 feet below the surface, and each kilometer of tunneling cost 3,000 million. The average length of tunneling was 6 to 8 meters a day.

Network



Phase I

The original Blue Line covers the Anna Salai stretch and Green Line covers the Poonamallee High Road and Inner Ring Road. Phase I and its extension has a total of 208 coaches (52 trains with 4 coaches each).

Phase I Extension

Phase I extension is a northern extension of the Blue Line running from Washermanpet metro station to Wimco Nagar. The line runs underground for the first until Tondiarpet after which it becomes elevated along the Thiruvottriyur high road and consists of a total of nine stations. The total cost of this project is 37,700 million and is funded by Japanese International Cooperation Agency. The trial runs were conducted successfully in December 2020 and the line opened for passenger traffic on 14 February 2021. In 2018, a southern extension of the Blue Line from Airport Station, which is currently the southern terminus, to the upcoming Kilambakkam Bus Terminus was announced. In 2019, Larsen and Toubro were engaged by CMRL to conduct the feasibility study, but as of 2021 construction has not started.

Phase II

Metro man E.Sreedharan, in 2013, stressed on the need of a greater expansion of Chennai metro network by undertaking subsequent phases. In December 2016, it was announced that Chennai Metro Phase 2 would be for spreading across 104 stations. In July 2017, in a suo motu statement in the State Legislative Assembly, an extension in Phase II, involving an additional cost of 38,500 million to the original phase II cost of 850,470 million, was announced. This will involve extension of Line 4 from Lighthouse up to Poonamallee, with the MadhavaramSholinganallur and Lighthouse–Poonamallee lines intersecting at Alwarthirunagar. The key focus for Phase 2 is to provide a stable connectivity between the northern (Madhavaram, Thiruvottriyur, Redhills) and southern suburbs (Siruseri, Sholinganallur) and the east parts of Chennai (Light house, Mylapore) to the western part of Chennai city (Porur) and also to western suburb (Poonamallee). Tamil Nadu Road Development Corporation (TNRDC) has also proposed an elevated four-lane corridor for the IT corridor from Taramani to Siruseri. CMRL will construct its piers on top of the flyover built by TNRDC. The lines 3, 4 and 5 are proposed to have 48, 28 and 46 stations, respectively. Around of phase 2 is planned to be underground and the rest to be elevated. A depot is also proposed at Madhavaram, similar to the existing depot at Koyambedu. And the present estimate for the phase 2 is at Rs. 61,000 crore and approval has been received from the state government. Foundation stone for phase 2 was laid on 20 November 2020 and construction for the phase is expected to begin in 2021 once approval is received from the central government. The preparatory work for the second phase of Chennai Metro Rail project has been hit due to delay in the selection of the general consultant (GC) after concerns were raised by more than 50% of bidders on the CMRL shortlisting companies based on their technical qualifications. Addressing an event in Chennai, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday 14 February 2021 said the Centre has set aside Rs 63,000 crore in this year’s Budget for the second phase of Chennai Metro totaling 196 km, which is one of the largest projects sanctioned for any city in one-go. The map and list of stations for all 3 proposed lines to be part of Phase 2 has also been published by CMRL. There are also plans to extend the Poonamallee line up to proposed township of Tirumazhisai in the western part of the city by CMRL. Phase 2 is expected to be completed by 2026. Phase 2 will have trains with three and six coaches, making a total of 414 coaches. The stations in phase II will be smaller at compared with in phase I. Phase II will have three depots, namely, Madhavaram (27.8 hectares), SIPCOT (), and Poonamallee ().


MRTS Takeover


The Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System is anticipated to be handed over to CMRL by the Southern Railway. All the stations from Velachery to Beach will be upgraded with the facilities of the metro stations which includes tracks, security, ticketing system and the rolling stock.


Financials


When the project was initiated in 2007, the estimated cost of the first phase was with a forecasted 5% increase. As of 2014, the cost for the first phase escalated to . The cost for the second phase was estimated at with the project funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). JICA has sanctioned concessional loan amounts of for the project. Phase 2 is to be funded partially by JICA, AIIB, ADB and NDB.

Operations

Chennai Metro runs in standard gauge measuring and the lines are double-tracked. The rail tracks were manufactured in Brazil and the raw material was supplied by Tata Steel. The average speed of operation is and maximum speed is . Chennai Metro operates trains from 4:30 AM to 11:00 PM with a frequency of one train every 4.5 minutes in peak hours and every 15 minutes in lean hours. CMRL plans to increase the frequency to one train every 2.5 minutes once footfalls reach 600,000 passengers a day.

Ticketing

The minimum fare is 10 and the maximum fare is 50. The first car in each train is a ladies class compartment. There are four types of tickets issued by CMRL for travel in Chennai metro. They are 1. Single journey tokens, which need to be purchased each time for every journey at the ticket counter or in ticket vending machines available at all stations. The rates vary between rupees 10 and rupees 60 for one journey. 2. Stored value cards (SVC) are pre-paid, rechargeable, travel cards that can be purchased at any ticket counter against a refundable deposit of rupees 50. They can be recharged up to a maximum of rupees 2000. Frequent users of Chennai metro can use this card. They can be recharged at any ticket counter or in automated ticket vending machines available at all stations. A discount of 10% is applicable for the users of SVC. Therefore, the rates vary between rupees 9 and rupees 54 for a single journey. 3. Trip Cards are for persons traveling between the same two stations regularly. The fares are discounted by 20% and are available in 3 types namely, 10 trips valid for 30 days, 30 trips valid for 90 days, and 60 trips valid for 180 days. 4. Tourist Cards provide the cardholders unlimited rides on the Chennai Metro for 1 day. It costs 150 rupees of which 50 rupees is a refundable deposit which can be claimed back on returning the card. This is ideal for persons visiting the city for a short period of time and planning to travel to their destinations by metro. Starting from the Diwali day, 27 October 2019, CMRL announced that there will be a discount of 50% for all journeys taken on Sundays and public holidays. This discount will be applicable with single journey tokens (rupees 5 to rupees 30) and Stored Value Cards (rupees 4 to rupees 27).


Order of Operation




Administration and maintenance

The Chennai metro has a depot at Koyambedu with ballast-less tracks of . It covers an area of and houses 36 trains. The depot houses maintenance workshops, stabling lines, a test track and a washing plant for the trains. It also houses the Operational Control Centre (OCC) where the movement of trains and real-time CCTV footages obtained from the stations and on-board cameras is monitored. The company plans to build a headquarters building near the facility. To prevent corrosion of train surfaces due to bird droppings, the depot has been fitted with ultrasonic bird repellers and bird strobe lights to prevent birds from entering the depot. In 2018, CMRL began constructing an elevated depot at Wimco Nagar at a cost of 2,300 million to maintain and park trains running between Washermanpet and Wimco Nagar. The elevated depot covers an area of 3.5 ha, with provision to station 12 trains. Other facilities in the depot include three inspections lines, one emergency repair line, and a small plant for washing trains. There are also plans to build a multi-storey commercial building above the depot.

Infrastructure



Rolling Stock

For Phase I, Alstom was awarded the contract to supply 168 coaches to Chennai Metro at a cost of in 2010. Alstom supplied 42 train-sets (metropolis model) composed of four coaches each with each car measuring in length and can accommodate 319 passengers. The trains have a first-class compartment and a women's section with 14 seats in the first-class car and 44 seats in the normal car. The first nine trains were imported from Brazil and the remaining were manufactured at a new facility set up at Sri City, Tada about from Chennai. As a part of phase 1 extension Alstom further supplied 10 trains with 4 coaches each making a total of 52 coaches operating in phase 1 and its extension.The trains are air-conditioned with electrically operated automatic sliding doors and a regenerative braking system. The cars operate on 25 KV AC through an overhead catenary system with a maximum speed of .

Power

The trains are connected to the grid via overhead electric cables and are equipped with regenerative braking with a capacity to recover 30–35% of the energy during braking. The metro will require an average of 70 MW of power daily and the electricity will be supplied by Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. Chennai Metro is also planning to use solar power for five of its stations on the elevated corridor, with a production capacity of 200 KW.

Stations

A total of 32 stations have been constructed along the two lines of the first phase with 20 underground stations. In the underground sections, a walkway runs along the length with cross passages every for the maintenance and emergency evacuation. The underground stations have an average width of to and go up to deep from the ground level. However, the length of the stations, both underground and elevated, in Phase 1 extension is only to save space. The elevated stations have three levels, namely, street, concourse and platform with the concourse level at an average height of and platforms for boarding at above the street level. Underground stations have two levels and are air-conditioned. The metro stations are equipped to be disabled and elderly friendly, with automatic fare collection system, announcement system, electronic display boards, escalators and lifts. The stations are equipped with non-slippery flooring with grip-rails, audio announcements and Braille facilities to help visually challenged passengers. Paid parking facilities are available for two wheelers at all but three stations and in select stations for four wheelers. parking charges can be paid for through the stored value cards.

Gallery

File:Arumbakkam metro station.jpg|Arumbakkam Metro Station File:Alandur station concourse.jpg|Arignar Anna Alandur Metro Station Concourse File:Chennai Metro Interior 1.jpg|Chennai Metro Interior File:Train at Alandur station (2).jpg|Train at Arignar Anna Alandur Metro Station File:Chennai Metro (20330374978).jpg

Connections

The metro system will provide connections with various other transportation modes in the city. * Chennai Suburban Railway: Washermanpet, Chennai Fort, Chennai Park, M.G.R Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Guindy, Meenambakkam, Tirusulam and St Thomas Mount * Chennai MRTS: Chennai Fort, Park Town, Chintadripet and St Thomas Mount * Chennai Metropolitan Transport Corporation: Broadway, M.G.R Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Anna Nagar, Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G.R Bus Terminus, Vadapalani, Ashok Nagar, DMS, Saidapet, Guindy and St Thomas Mount * Southern Railway: M.G.R Chennai Central and Egmore * Chennai International Airport * State Express Transport Corporation: Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G.R Bus Terminus * Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation: Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G.R Bus Terminus, Vadapalani and Guindy * Chennai Contract Carriage Bus Terminus: Koyambedu As of November 2019, the CMRL has plans to build a 15-km light rail between Tambaram and Velachery connecting with the Chennai MRTS at the Velachery station. Unlike the Metro, the Light Rails can take sharp turns and travel through dense and narrow stretches.

Accidents & Incidents

In August 2012, a construction worker was killed and six others were seriously injured due to a crane boom failure near Pachaiyappa's College. On 10 January 2013, a 22-year-old construction worker was killed and three others were injured at a Metro Rail site on Railway Station Road between Alandur and St Thomas Mount. On 11 January 2014, a crane toppled over, killing a 20-year-old construction worker and seriously injuring one other worker. The accident took place at 6:45 am at the construction site of the Saidapet station. On 17 June 2015, a 30-year-old Software Engineer L Giridharan was killed on the spot when an iron rod fell on him at an under construction Metro Rail station near Officers Training Academy at St Thomas Mount around 9 am. The iron rod also hit a motorcyclist, who escaped with minor injuries.


Criticisms


Chennai metro is the second most expensive in terms of ticket cost per kilometer in the country after Mumbai. In 2019, the Madras High Court questioned the state government on the scientific method it adopted in constructing the tunnels without disturbing the water bodies in the city.


Network Map




See also



References



External links

* {{authority control Category:2015 establishments in Tamil Nadu Category:Transport in Chennai Category:Government of Chennai Category:Airport rail links in India Category:25 kV AC railway electrification Category:Standard gauge railways in India Category:Railway lines opened in 2015