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The Chengdu J-7 (Chinese: 歼-7; third generation export version F-7; NATO reporting name: Fishcan[1]) is a People's Republic of China fighter aircraft. It is a license-built version of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, and thus shares many similarities between the two types.[2]

During 30 March 1962, the Soviet Union and China signed a technology transference arrangement pertaining to the MiG-21. Allegedly, while various kits, components, completed aircraft and associated documents were delivered to the Shenyang Aircraft Factory, the design documentation was incomplete, thus Chinese designers made efforts to reverse engineer the aircraft. While the two aircraft are greatly similar, areas of difference include the hydraulic systems and internal fuel arrangements. During March 1964, domestic production of the J-7 reportedly commenced at the Shenyang Aircraft Factory, however due to various factors, including the Cultural Revolution, mass production was only truly achieved during the 1980s. Numerous models of the J-7 were developed, featuring improvements in areas such as the armaments, avionics, and wing design.

It has been principally operated by the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) while numerous other operators have also procured the type. Production of the J-7 was terminated during 2013. To date, the type remains in service with both the PLAAF and multiple export customers.[3][4]

Design and development

Background

In the 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union shared a great proportion of its conventional weapons technology with its neighbour, the People's Republic of China. One such example is the MiG-19, which was locally produced by China as the Shenyang J-6 from as early as 1952.[5] During the same decade, the even more capable MiG-21 had been developed by the Soviets; this fighter, being inexpensive but fast, suiting the strategy of forming large groups of 'people's fighters' to overcome the technological advantages of Western aircraft. However, the Sino-Soviet split abruptly ended initial cooperation efforts; between 28 July 28 and 1 September 1960, the Soviet Union withdrew its advisers from China, resulting in the project coming to a halt in China.

During February 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev unexpectedly wrote to Mao Zedong to inform him that the Soviet Union was willing to transfer MiG-21 technology to China, and he asked the Chinese to promptly send their representatives to the Soviet Union to discuss arrangements. The Chinese viewed this offer as a Soviet gesture to make peace, while suspicious, they were nonetheless eager to take up the Soviet offer of an aircraft deal. A delegation headed by General Liu Yalou, the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and himself a Soviet military academy graduate, was dispatched to Moscow immediately; the Chinese delegation was given three days to visit the MiG-21's production facility, which was previously off-limits to foreigners. The visit's authorization was personally given by Nikita Khrushchev, and on 30 March 1962, the technology transfer deal was signed.[citation needed]

Establishing production

However, given the state of political relations between the two countries, the Chinese were not optimistic about gaining the technology, and allegedly made preparations to reverse engineer the aircraft.[5] Russian sources state that several complete MiG-21s were sent to China, flown by Soviet pilots, while MiG-21Fs in kit form was also s

During 30 March 1962, the Soviet Union and China signed a technology transference arrangement pertaining to the MiG-21. Allegedly, while various kits, components, completed aircraft and associated documents were delivered to the Shenyang Aircraft Factory, the design documentation was incomplete, thus Chinese designers made efforts to reverse engineer the aircraft. While the two aircraft are greatly similar, areas of difference include the hydraulic systems and internal fuel arrangements. During March 1964, domestic production of the J-7 reportedly commenced at the Shenyang Aircraft Factory, however due to various factors, including the Cultural Revolution, mass production was only truly achieved during the 1980s. Numerous models of the J-7 were developed, featuring improvements in areas such as the armaments, avionics, and wing design.

It has been principally operated by the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) while numerous other operators have also procured the type. Production of the J-7 was terminated during 2013. To date, the type remains in service with both the PLAAF and multiple export customers.[3][4]

In the 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union shared a great proportion of its conventional weapons technology with its neighbour, the People's Republic of China. One such example is the MiG-19, which was locally produced by China as the Shenyang J-6 from as early as 1952.[5] During the same decade, the even more capable MiG-21 had been developed by the Soviets; this fighter, being inexpensive but fast, suiting the strategy of forming large groups of 'people's fighters' to overcome the technological advantages of Western aircraft. However, the Sino-Soviet split abruptly ended initial cooperation efforts; between 28 July 28 and 1 September 1960, the Soviet Union withdrew its advisers from China, resulting in the project coming to a halt in China.

During February 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev unexpectedly wrote to Mao Zedong to inform him that the Soviet Union was willing to transfer MiG-21 technology to China, and he asked the Chinese to promptly send their representatives to the Soviet Union to discuss arrangements. The Chinese viewed this offer as a Soviet gesture to make peace, while suspicious, they were nonetheless eager to take up the Soviet offer of an aircraft deal. A delegation headed by General Liu Yalou, the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and himself a Soviet military academy graduate, was dispatched to Moscow immediately; the Chinese delegation was given three days to visit the MiG-21's production facility, which was previously off-limits to foreigners. The visit's authorization was personally given by Nikita Khrushchev, and on 30 March 1962, the technology transfer deal was signed.[citation needed]

Establishing production

However, given the state of political relations between the two countries, the Chinese were not optimistic about gaining the technology, and allegedly made preparations to reverse engineer the aircraft.[5] Russian sources state that several complete MiG-21s were sent to China, flown by Soviet pilots, while MiG-21Fs in kit form was also sent along with parts and technical documents. As the Chinese had expected, following the delivery of kits, parts and documents to Shenyang Aircraft Factory five months after the deal was signed, it was discovered that some technical documents provided by the Soviets were incomplete and that several parts could not be used.[citation needed]

China set about to engineer the aircraft for local production; in doing so, they successfully solved 249 major issues and reproduced eight major technical documents that were not provided by the Soviet Union. One of the major flaws was with the hydraulic systems, which grounded up to 70% of some squadron's aircraft until upgrades were made. Another major modification was to the fuel storage, increasing the aircraft's stability. The MiG-21 carries most of its fuel in the forward fuselage, causing the center of gravity to shift and become unstable after about 45 minutes of operation. The J-7 has redesigned fuel tanks and significantly larger drop tanks in order to maintain a more stable center of gravity, and therefore better Longitudinal static stability. The cockpit was also revised to replace the Soviet ejection seat, which was deemed to be unacceptable. The forward opening canopy was replaced by a standard rear-

During February 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev unexpectedly wrote to Mao Zedong to inform him that the Soviet Union was willing to transfer MiG-21 technology to China, and he asked the Chinese to promptly send their representatives to the Soviet Union to discuss arrangements. The Chinese viewed this offer as a Soviet gesture to make peace, while suspicious, they were nonetheless eager to take up the Soviet offer of an aircraft deal. A delegation headed by General Liu Yalou, the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and himself a Soviet military academy graduate, was dispatched to Moscow immediately; the Chinese delegation was given three days to visit the MiG-21's production facility, which was previously off-limits to foreigners. The visit's authorization was personally given by Nikita Khrushchev, and on 30 March 1962, the technology transfer deal was signed.[citation needed]

However, given the state of political relations between the two countries, the Chinese were not optimistic about gaining the technology, and allegedly made preparations to reverse engineer the aircraft.[5] Russian sources state that several complete MiG-21s were sent to China, flown by Soviet pilots, while MiG-21Fs in kit form was also sent along with parts and technical documents. As the Chinese had expected, following the delivery of kits, parts and documents to Shenyang Aircraft Factory five months after the deal was signed, it was discovered that some technical documents provided by the Soviets were incomplete and that several parts could not be used.[citation needed]

China set about to engineer the aircraft for local production; in doing so, they successfully solved 249 major issues and reproduced eight major technical documents that were not provided by the Soviet Union. One of the major flaws was with the hydraulic systems, which ground

China set about to engineer the aircraft for local production; in doing so, they successfully solved 249 major issues and reproduced eight major technical documents that were not provided by the Soviet Union. One of the major flaws was with the hydraulic systems, which grounded up to 70% of some squadron's aircraft until upgrades were made. Another major modification was to the fuel storage, increasing the aircraft's stability. The MiG-21 carries most of its fuel in the forward fuselage, causing the center of gravity to shift and become unstable after about 45 minutes of operation. The J-7 has redesigned fuel tanks and significantly larger drop tanks in order to maintain a more stable center of gravity, and therefore better Longitudinal static stability. The cockpit was also revised to replace the Soviet ejection seat, which was deemed to be unacceptable. The forward opening canopy was replaced by a standard rear-hinged canopy, which was jettisoned prior to ejection. The re-engineering effort was largely successful, as the Chinese-built J-7 showed only minor differences in design and performance from the original MiG-21.[6]

During March 1964, domestic production of the J-7 reportedly commenced at the Shenyang Aircraft Factory. However, mass production efforts were severely hindered by an unexpected social and economic problem—the Cultural Revolution—that resulted in poor initial quality and slow progress. Achieving full domestic production had involved not only the local assembly of the aircraft itself, but the production of its various components and systems, including its turbojet powerplant.[7] As a consequence, full-scale production of the J-7 was only truly achieved during the 1980s, by which time the original aircraft design was showing its age. By the 1980s, quantity production of the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter was well underway in the United States; this relatively-affordable single-engined western fighter was considerably more agile than the J-7, even with the former carrying a greater payload.[8]

In 1987, the J-7E was released, having a greatly improved wing, among other improvements. It was roughly 45% more maneuverable, and its takeoff and landing performance was greatly increased. It was also equipped with a helmet mounted sight, as well as being the first MiG-21 variant to be equipped with HOTAS and a multipurpose display. Many of the electronic components were British in origin, such as the gun sight and the multi purpose display. The aircraft is capable of using PL-8/Python 3 missiles with both the helmet mounted sight or the radar fire control, but the two are not connected. The pilot may use only one system at a time.[6]

In the mid 1980s, Pakistan requested an aircraft with greater radar capabilities. Both the standard radar and the British Marconi radar were plagued by ground clutter, but China did not have any experience with air to ground radar at the time. In 1984, Pakistan provided assistance by having their American-trained F-16 pilots provi

In the mid 1980s, Pakistan requested an aircraft with greater radar capabilities. Both the standard radar and the British Marconi radar were plagued by ground clutter, but China did not have any experience with air to ground radar at the time. In 1984, Pakistan provided assistance by having their American-trained F-16 pilots provide training on proper ground attack radar operation, which enabled the Chinese to develop the J-7M. In the late 1980s, the J-7MP and J-7PG introduced significant upgrades to the radar system by converting to an Italian FIAR Grifo-7 radar, more than tripled the effective range of the radar, as well as greatly increased the maximum angle for target detection.[9]

The J-7 only reached its Soviet-designed capabilities in the mid 1980s. Being relatively affordable, it was widely exported as the F-7, often with Western systems incorporated, such as to Pakistan. There are over 20 different export variants of the J-7, some of which are equipped to use European weaponry, such as French R.550 Magic missiles. The Discovery Channel's Wings Over The Red Star series claims that the Chinese intercepted several Soviet MiG-21s en route to North Vietnam (during the Vietnam War), but these aircraft did not perform in a manner consistent with their original specifications, suggesting that the Chinese actually intercepted down-rated aircraft that were intended for export, rather than fully capable production aircraft. For this reason, the Chinese had to re-engineer the intercepted MiG-21 airframes in order to achieve their original capabilities. China later developed the Shenyang J-8 based both on the expertise gained by the program, and by utilizing the incomplete technical information acquired from the Soviet Ye-152 developmental jet.[10][11]

During May 2013, production of the J-7 was permanently terminated, bringing to a close a period of manufacturing stretching almost 50 years.[12]

During August 2005, Namibia ordered 12 F-7NMs for its air force; chinese sources reported the delivery in November 2006. The model procured is believed to be a variation of the F-7PG acquired by Pakistan with Grifo MG radar.[13]

Nigeria

In early 2008, Nigeria procured 12 F-7NI fighters and three FT-7NI trainers to replace its existing inventory of MiG-21 fighters.[14] On 20 September 2018, one pilot was killed after two Nigerian F-7Ni aircraft crashed into Katamkpe Hill, Abuja while rehearsing for an aerial display to mark Nigeria's 58th Independence Anniversary celebrations.[15]

Sudan

During the lengthy Second Sudanese Civil War, Sudan procured a number of F-7s. In November 1993, it was reported that Iran had allegedly financed Sudan's purchase of around 20 Chinese ground-attack aircraft, having pledged $17 million in financial aid to the Sudanese government and arranged for $300 million in Chinese arms to be delivered to the Sudanese Army.[16]

Tanzania

The Tanzanian Air Force deployed its F-7As during the Uganda–Tanzania War against Uganda and Libya, fought between 1978 and 1979. Forming a major component of Tanzania's combat aircraft, the type facilitated the defeat of the nominally stronger Uganda Army Air Force during the air campaign.[17][18]

Zimbabwe

During the 1980s, Zimbabwe initiated a policy of intervention in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), resulting in around six F-7s being deployed to the Lubumbashi IAP, and subsiquently to a similar installation near Mbuji-Mayi. From there, AFZ F-7s flew dozens of combat air patrols, attempting in vain to intercept transport aircraft being used to bring supplies and troops from Rwanda and Burundi to the Congo. Starting in late October 1998, F-7s of the No.5 Squadron commenced an aerial offensive in east-central Congo; this began with a series of air strikes that first targeted airfields in Gbadolite, Dongo and Gmena, and then rebel and Rwandan communications and depots in the Kisangani area on November 21.[19]

Europe

Albania

The stationing of F-7As in north of the country near the border successfully checked Yugoslav incursions into Albanian airspace.[20]

East and Southeast Asia

China

Throughout the mid 1990s, the PLAAF began to replace its J-7B inventory with the substantially redesigned and improved J-7E variant. The wings of the J-7E have been changed to a unique "double delta" design offering improved aerodynamics and increased fuel capacity, and the J-7E also features a more powerful engine and improved avionics. The newest version of the J-7, the J-7G, entered service with the PLAAF in 2003.[citation needed]

The principal role of the J-7 in Chinese service is to provide local air defence and tactical air superiority. Large numbers are to be employed to deter enemy air operations.[citation needed]

Myanmar

During the 1990s, Myanmar reportedly established four squadrons of F-7s, which have been primarily used for air defense duties. Technical difficulties have reportedly plagued the fleet early on, as well as a dissatisfaction with their ground-attack performance.[21] Since the acquisition, Myanmar has improved the F-7 fleet's capabilities via a modernisation programme. A series of upgrades were allegedly performed by a combination of Chinese and In early 2008, Nigeria procured 12 F-7NI fighters and three FT-7NI trainers to replace its existing inventory of MiG-21 fighters.[14] On 20 September 2018, one pilot was killed after two Nigerian F-7Ni aircraft crashed into Katamkpe Hill, Abuja while rehearsing for an aerial display to mark Nigeria's 58th Independence Anniversary celebrations.[15]

Sudan
During the lengthy Second Sudanese Civil War, Sudan procured a number of F-7s. In November 1993, it was reported that Iran had allegedly financed Sudan's purchase of around 20 Chinese ground-attack aircraft, having pledged $17 million in financial aid to the Sudanese government and arranged for $300 million in Chinese arms to be delivered to the Sudanese Army.[16]

Tanzania
The Tanzanian Air Force deployed its F-7As during the Uganda–Tanzania War against Uganda and Libya, fought between 1978 and 1979. Forming a major component of Tanzania's combat aircraft, the type facilitated the defeat of the nominally stronger Uganda Army Air Force during the air campaign.[17][18]

Zimbabwe

During the 1980s, Zimbabwe initiated a policy of intervention in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), resulting in around six F-7s being deployed to the Lubumbashi IAP, and subsiquently to a similar installation near Mbuji-Mayi. From there, AFZ F-7s flew dozens of combat air patrols, attempting in vain to intercept transport aircraft being used to bring supplies and troops from Rwanda and Burundi to the Congo. Starting in late October 1998, F-7s of the No.5 Squadron commenced an aerial offensive in east-central Congo; this began with a series of air strikes that first targeted airfields in Gbadolite, Dongo and Gmena, and then rebel and Rwandan communications and depots in the Kisangani area on November 21.[19]

Yugoslav incursions into Albanian airspace.[20]

East and Southeast Asia

  • On April 8, 2008, Squadron Leader Morshed Hasan died when F-7 of Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) crashed in Ghatail upazila of Tangail.The pilot ejected from the aircraft but was critically injured when its parachute malfunctioned. He died at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka after he had been rescued from the scene.[59]
  • On May 6, 2010, a Chinese PLAAF J-7 crashed due to engine failure near Jinan, China.[60]
  • On April 13, 2011, a Chinese PLAAF J-7 crashed near Liu Jiang County and Xin Cheng County, Liu Zhou City during a training flight.[61]
  • On December 4, 2012, a Chinese PLAAF J-7 crashed into a residential building in Shantou, Guangdong province.[62] 4 civilians were injured as a result of the crash.[63]
  • On June 29, 2015, Flight Lieutenant Tahmid went missing when F-7MB of Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) crashed into Bay of Bengal. The Aircraft took off around 10:27am from the Johurul Haque air base, lost contact with the control room around 11:10am which later crashed in the Bay of Bengal in Patenga around 11:30am.[64][65]
  • On 24 November 2015, flying officer Marium Mukhtiar – the first female fighter pilot in the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), died when a twin-seat FT-7PG crashed at PAF Base M.M. Alam near Kundian in Punjab province on a training mission. Both pilots ejected, but she succumbed to injuries received on landing. She was occupying the rear seat for Instrument Flight Rules training.[66][67]
  • On November 23, 2018, Wing Commander Arif Ahmed Dipu died when F-7BG of Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) crashed in Tangail's Madhupur upazila on a training mission.The fuel tanker of the aircraft reportedly caught fire once it used weaponry in the sky, leading the pilot to eject in low altitude.[68][69]
  • On 7 January 2020, Pakistan Air Force (PAF) F-7 crashed while on a routine operational training mission near Mianwali. Both pilots lost their lives in the crash.[70]

See also

Related development

References

Citations

  1. ^ "CHINA EQUIPMENT" (PDF). Office of Naval Intelligence. United States Office of Naval Intelligence. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  2. ^ J7, Sino Defence, archived from the original on 16 July 2006.
  3. ^ Medeiros, Cliff, Crane and Mulvenon 2005, p. 162.
  4. ^ "China's Expert Fighter Designer Knows Jets, Avoids America's Mistakes". International Relations and Security Network. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  5. ^ a b Medeiros, Cliff, Crane and Mulvenon 2005, p. 160.
  6. ^ a b Civil Airworthiness Certification: Former Military High-Performance Aircraft.
  7. ^ Medeiros, Cliff, Crane and Mulvenon 2005, p. 170.
  8. ^ Medeiros, Cliff, Crane and Mulvenon 2005, pp. 160-161.
  9. ^ Civil Airworthiness Certification: Former Military High-Performance Aircraft P.2-59 to 2–62.
  10. ^ "Global Aircraft -- J-7 Fishbed". Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  11. ^ Civil Airworthiness Certification: Former Military High-Performance Aircraft. By Miguel Vasconcelos, United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. pp. 2-51.
  12. ^ a b c Larson, Caleb (1 April 2020). "Iran's F-7 Fighter Is A Copy of a J-7 Fighter from China (That Copies a MiG-21)". nationalinterest.org.
  13. ^ Transfers of major conventional weapons. 1950 to 2011. Archived 16 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
  14. ^ Jane's Defence Weekly; 21 January 2009, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p16-16
  15. ^ Brown, Daniel (29 September 2018). "1 pilot killed after 2 Nigerian F-7Ni fighter jets reportedly collide in midair". Business Insider.
  16. ^ "A Deadly Love Triangle". Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  17. ^ Cooper & Fontanellaz 2015, pp. 30, 42.
  18. ^ Brzoska & Pearson 1994, p. 207.
  19. ^ General characteristics

    Performance

    • Maximum speed: 2,200 km/h (1,400 mph, 1,200 kn) IAS
    • Maximum speed: Mach 2
    • Stall speed: 210 km/h (130 mph, 110 kn) IAS
    • Combat range: 850 km (530 mi, 460 nmi)
    • Ferry range: 2,200 km (1,400 mi, 1,200 nmi)
    • Service ceiling: 17,500 m (57,400 ft)
    • Rate of climb: 195 m/s (38,400 ft/min)

    Armament

    • Guns: 2× 30 mm Type 30-1 cannon, 60 rounds per gun
    • Hardpoints: 5 in total – 4× under-wing, 1× centreline under-fuselage with a capacity of 2,000 kg maximum (up to 500 kg each)[58],
    • Rockets: 55 mm rocket pod (12 rounds), 90 mm rocket pod (7 rounds)
    • Missiles: ** Air-to-air missiles: PL-2, PL-5, PL-7, Armament

      • Guns: 2× 30 mm Type 30-1 cannon, 60 rounds per gun
      • Hardpoints: 5 in total – 4× under-wing, 1× centreline under-fuselage with a capacity of 2,000 kg maximum (up to 500 kg each)[58],
      • Rockets: 55 mm rocket pod (12 rounds), 90 mm rocket pod (7 rounds)
      • Missiles: ** Air-to-air missiles: PL-2Avionics

        • FIAR Grifo-7 mk.II radar

        Accidents and incidents

        References

        Citations

        1. ^ "CHINA EQUIPMENT" (PDF). Office of Naval Intelligence. United States Office of Naval Intelligence. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
        2. ^ J7, Sino Defence, archived from the original on 16 July 2006.
        3. ^ Medeiros, Cliff, Crane and Mulvenon 2005, p. 162.
        4. <

          References