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The Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
was a superbolide caused by an approximately 20-metre near-Earth asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC), with a speed of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (60,000[5]–69,000 km/h or 40,000[5]–42,900 mph).[6][7] It quickly became a brilliant superbolide meteor over the southern Ural region. The light from the meteor was brighter than the Sun, visible up to 100 km (62 mi) away. It was observed over a wide area of the region and in neighbouring republics. Some eyewitnesses also felt intense heat from the fireball. Due to its high velocity and shallow angle of atmospheric entry, the object exploded in an air burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast, at a height of around 29.7 km (18.5 mi; 97,000 ft).[7][8] The explosion generated a bright flash, producing a hot cloud of dust and gas that penetrated to 26.2 km (16.3 mi), and many surviving small fragmentary meteorites, as well as a large shock wave. The bulk of the object's energy was absorbed by the atmosphere, with a total kinetic energy before atmospheric impact estimated from infrasound and seismic measurements to be equivalent to the blast yield of a nuclear weapon in the 400–500 kiloton (about 1.4–1.8 PJ) range – 26 to 33 times as much energy as that released from the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima.[9] The object was undetected before its atmospheric entry, in part because its radiant was close to the Sun. Its explosion created panic among local residents, and about 1,500 people were injured seriously enough to seek medical treatment. All of the injuries were due to indirect effects rather than the meteor itself, mainly from broken glass from windows that were blown in when the shock wave arrived, minutes after the superbolide's flash. Some 7,200 buildings in six cities across the region were damaged by the explosion's shock wave, and authorities scrambled to help repair the structures in sub-freezing temperatures. With an estimated initial mass of about 12,000–13,000 metric tons[7][8][10] (13,000–14,000 short tons, heavier than the Eiffel Tower), and measuring about 20 metres in diameter, it is the largest known natural object to have entered Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
since the 1908 Tunguska event, which destroyed a wide, remote, forested, and very sparsely populated area of Siberia. The Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
is also the only meteor confirmed to have resulted in a large number of injuries. No deaths were reported. The earlier-predicted and well-publicized close approach of a larger asteroid on the same day, the roughly 30-metre 367943 Duende, occurred about 16 hours later; the very different orbits of the two objects showed they were unrelated to each other.

Contents

1 Initial reports 2 Atmospheric entry 3 Injuries and damage 4 Reactions 5 Frequency 6 Origin 7 Meteorites

7.1 Media coverage

8 Impactor orbital parameters 9 Coincidental asteroid approach 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Initial reports[edit]

The meteor's path in relation to the ground.

Local residents witnessed extremely bright burning objects in the sky in Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, and Orenburg Oblasts, the Republic of Bashkortostan, and in neighbouring regions in Kazakhstan,[11][12][13] when the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia.[14][15][16][17][18] Amateur videos showed a fireball streaking across the sky and a loud boom several minutes afterwards.[19][20][21] Some eyewitnesses also felt intense heat from the fireball.[22] The event began at 09:20:21 Yekaterinburg time,[7][8] several minutes after sunrise in Chelyabinsk, and minutes before sunrise in Yekaterinburg. According to eyewitnesses, the bolide appeared brighter than the sun,[12] as was later confirmed by NASA.[23] An image of the object was also taken shortly after it entered the atmosphere by the weather satellite Meteosat
Meteosat
9.[24][25] Witnesses in Chelyabinsk said that the air of the city smelled like "gunpowder",[24] "sulfur" and "burning odors" starting about 1 hour after the fireball and lasting all day.[8] Atmospheric entry[edit]

Illustrating all "phases", from atmospheric entry to explosion.

The visible phenomenon due to the passage of an asteroid or meteoroid through the atmosphere is called a meteor.[26] If the object reaches the ground, then it is called a meteorite. During the Chelyabinsk meteoroid's traversal, there was a bright object trailing smoke, then an air burst (explosion) that caused a powerful blast wave. The latter was the only cause of the damage to thousands of buildings in Chelyabinsk and its neighbouring towns. The fragments then entered dark flight (without the emission of light) and created a strewn field of numerous meteorites on the snow-covered ground (officially named Chelyabinsk meteorites). The last time a similar phenomenon was observed in the Chelyabinsk region was the Kunashak meteor shower of 1949, after which scientists recovered about 20 meteorites weighing over 200 kg in total.[27] The Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
is thought to be the biggest natural space object to enter Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
since the 1908 Tunguska event,[28][29][30] and the only one confirmed to have resulted in a large number of injuries,[31][Note 1] although a small number of panic-related injuries occurred during the Great Madrid Meteor
Meteor
Event of 10 February 1896.[32] Preliminary estimates released by the Russian Federal Space Agency indicated the object was an asteroid moving at about 30 km/s in a "low trajectory" when it entered Earth's atmosphere. According to the Russian Academy of Sciences, the meteor then pushed through the atmosphere at a velocity of 15 km/s.[17][24][33] The radiant (the apparent position of origin of the meteor in the sky) appears from video recordings to have been above and to the left of the rising Sun.[34] Early analysis of CCTV
CCTV
and dashcam video posted online indicated that the meteor approached from east by south, and exploded about 40 km south of central Chelyabinsk above Korkino at a height of 23.3 km (14.5 miles, 76,000 feet), with fragments continuing in the direction of Lake Chebarkul.[1][35][36][37] On 1 March 2013 NASA published a detailed synopsis of the event, stating that at peak brightness (at 09:20:33 local time), the meteor was 23.3 km (14.5 miles, 76,000 feet) high, located at 54.8°N, 61.1°E. At that time it was travelling at about 18.6 km/s (11.6 mi/s), (about 67,000 km/h, or about 41,750 mph) —almost 60 times the speed of sound.[1][38] In November 2013, results were published based on a more careful calibration of dashcam videos in the field weeks after the event during a Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
field study, which put the point of peak brightness at 29.7 km altitude and the final disruption of the thermal debris cloud at 27.0 km, settling to 26.2 km, all with a possible systematic uncertainty of +/− 0.7 km.[7][8]

A sample found by Ural Federal University
Ural Federal University
scientists at Lake Chebarkul. The object is part of the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

The United States space agency NASA
NASA
estimated the diameter of the bolide at about 17–20 m and has revised the mass several times from an initial 7,700 tonnes (7,600 long tons; 8,500 short tons),[14] until reaching a final estimate of 10,000 tonnes[14][39][40][41][42] (11,000 short tons, greater than the total weight of the Eiffel Tower).[1][43] The air burst's blast wave, when it hit the ground, produced a seismic wave which registered on seismographs at magnitude 2.7.[44][45][46] The Russian Geographical Society
Russian Geographical Society
said the passing of the meteor over Chelyabinsk caused three blasts of different energy. The first explosion was the most powerful, and was preceded by a bright flash, which lasted about five seconds. Initial newspaper altitude estimates ranged from 30–70 km, with an explosive equivalent, according to NASA, of roughly 500 kilotonnes of TNT (2,100 TJ), although there is some debate on this yield[47][48] (500 kt is exactly the same energy released by the Ivy King
Ivy King
nuclear explosion in 1952). According to a paper in 2013, all these ~500 kiloton yield estimates for the meteor airburst are "uncertain by a factor of two because of a lack of calibration data at those high energies and altitudes."[7][8] The hypocentre of the explosion was to the south of Chelyabinsk, in Yemanzhelinsk
Yemanzhelinsk
and Yuzhnouralsk. Due to the height of the air burst, the atmosphere absorbed most of the explosion's energy.[49][50] The explosion's blast wave first reached Chelyabinsk and environs between less than 2 minutes 23 seconds[51] and 2 minutes 57 seconds later.[52] The object did not release all of its kinetic energy in the form of a blast wave as some 90 kilotons of TNT (about 3.75 × 1014 joules, or 0.375 PJ) of the total energy of the main airburst's fireball was emitted as visible light according to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,[1][53] and two main fragments survived the primary airburst disruption at 29.7 kilometres (18.5 mi); they flared around 24 kilometres (15 mi), with one falling apart at 18.5 kilometres (11.5 mi) and the other remaining luminous down to 13.6 kilometres (8.5 mi),[8] with part of the meteoroid continuing on its general trajectory to punch a hole in the frozen Lake Chebarkul, an impact that was fortuitously captured on camera and released in November 2013.[54][55]

Play media

This visualization shows the aftermath observations by NASA
NASA
satellites and computer models projections of the plume and meteor debris trajectory around the atmosphere. The plume rose to an altitude of 35 km and once there, it was rapidly blown around the globe by the polar night jet.[56]

The infrasound waves given off by the explosions were detected by 20 monitoring stations designed to detect nuclear weapons testing run by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission, including the distant Antarctic station, some 15,000 kilometres (9,300 mi) away. The blast of the explosion was large enough to generate infrasound returns, after circling the globe, at distances up to about 85,000 kilometres (53,000 mi). Multiple arrivals involving waves that travelled twice around the globe have been identified. The meteor explosion produced the largest infrasounds ever to be recorded by the CTBTO
CTBTO
infrasound monitoring system, which began recording in 2001,[57][58][59] so great that they reverberated around the world several times, taking over a day to dissipate.[60] Additional scientific analysis of US military infrasound data was aided by an agreement reached with US authorities to allow its use by civilian scientists, implemented only about a month before the Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
event.[18][60]

A full view of the smoke trail with the bulbous section corresponding to a mushroom cloud's cap.

A preliminary estimate of the explosive energy by Astronomer Boris Shustov, director of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
Institute of Astronomy, was 200 kilotonnes of TNT (840 TJ),[61] another using empirical period-yield scaling relations and the infrasound records, by Peter Brown of the University of Western Ontario
University of Western Ontario
gave a value of 460–470 kilotonnes of TNT (1,900–2,000 TJ) and represents a best estimate for the yield of this airburst; there remains a potential "uncertainty [in the order of] a factor of two in this yield value".[62][63] Brown and his colleagues also went on to publish a paper in November 2013 which stated that the "widely referenced technique of estimating airburst damage does not reproduce the [Chelyabinsk] observations, and that the mathematical relations found in the book The Effects of Nuclear Weapons which are based on the effects of nuclear weapons—[which is] almost always used with this technique—overestimate blast damage [when applied to meteor airbursts]".[64] A similar overestimate of the explosive yield of the Tunguska airburst also exists; as incoming celestial objects have rapid directional motion, the object causes stronger blast wave and thermal radiation pulses at the ground surface than would be predicted by a stationary object exploding, limited to the height at which the blast was initiated-where the object's "momentum is ignored".[65] Thus a meteor airburst of a given energy is "much more damaging than an equivalent [energy] nuclear explosion at the same altitude."[66][67] The seismic wave produced when the primary airburst's blast struck the ground yields a rather uncertain "best estimate" of 430 kilotons (momentum ignored),[67] corresponding to the seismic wave which registered on seismographs at magnitude 2.7.[44][45][46]

A picture taken of the smoke trail with the double plumes visible either side of the bulbous "mushroom cloud" cap.

Brown also states that the double smoke plume formation, as seen in photographs, is believed to have coincided near the primary airburst section of the dust trail (as also pictured following the Tagish Lake fireball), and it likely indicates where rising air quickly flowed into the centre of the trail, essentially in the same manner as a moving 3D version of a mushroom cloud.[68] Photographs of this smoke trail portion, before it split into two plumes, show this cigar-shaped region glowing incandescently for a few seconds.[69] This region is the area in which the maximum of material ablation occurred, with the double plume persisting for a time and then appearing to rejoin or close up.[70] Injuries and damage[edit]

Shattered windows in the foyer of the Chelyabinsk Drama Theatre

The blast created by the meteor's air burst produced extensive ground damage over an irregular elliptical area around a hundred kilometres wide, and a few tens of kilometres long,[71] with the secondary effects of the blast being the main cause of the considerable number of injuries. Russian authorities stated that 1,491 people sought medical attention in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk Oblast
within the first few days.[3] Health officials said 112 people had been hospitalised, with two in serious condition. A 52-year-old woman with a broken spine was flown to Moscow for treatment.[24] Most of the injured were hurt by the secondary blast effects of shattered, falling or blown-in glass.[24][72] The intense light from the meteor, momentarily 30 times brighter than the Sun,[48] also produced injuries, leading to over 180 cases of eye pain, and 70 people subsequently reported temporary flash blindness.[73] Twenty people reported ultraviolet burns similar to sunburn, possibly intensified by the presence of snow on the ground.[73] Vladimir Petrov, when meeting with scientists to assess the damage, reported that he sustained so much sunburn from the meteor that the skin flaked only days later.[74] A fourth-grade teacher in Chelyabinsk, Yulia Karbysheva, was hailed as a hero after saving 44 children from imploding window glass cuts. Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, Karbysheva thought it prudent to take precautionary measures by ordering her students to stay away from the room's windows and to perform a duck and cover maneuver. Karbysheva, who remained standing, was seriously lacerated when the blast arrived and window glass severed a tendon in one of her arms; none of her students, whom she ordered to hide under their desks, suffered cuts.[75]

The collapsed roof over the warehouse section of a zinc factory in Chelyabinsk

After the air blast, car alarms went off and mobile phone networks were overloaded with calls.[76] Office buildings in Chelyabinsk were evacuated. Classes for all Chelyabinsk schools were cancelled, mainly due to broken windows.[24] At least 20 children were injured when the windows of a school and kindergarten were blown in at 09:22.[77] Following the event, government officials in Chelyabinsk asked parents to take their children home from schools.[78] Approximately 600 m2 (6,500 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory collapsed during the incident.[79] Residents in Chelyabinsk whose windows were smashed quickly sought to cover the openings with anything available, to protect themselves against temperatures of −15 °C (5 °F).[80] Approximately 100,000 home-owners were affected, according to Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk Oblast
Governor Mikhail Yurevich.[81] He also said that preserving the water pipes of the city's district heating was the primary goal of the authorities as they scrambled to contain further post-explosion damage.[24] By 5 March 2013 the number of damaged buildings was tallied at over 7,200, which included some 6,040 apartment blocks, 293 medical facilities, 718 schools and universities, 100 cultural organizations, and 43 sport facilities, of which only about one and a half percent had not yet been repaired.[4] The oblast's governor estimated the damage to buildings at more than 1 billion rubles[82] (approximately US$33 million). Chelyabinsk authorities said that broken windows of apartment homes, but not the glazing of enclosed balconies, would be replaced at the state's expense.[83] One of the buildings damaged in the blast was the Traktor Sport Palace, home arena of Traktor Chelyabinsk of the Kontinental Hockey League
Kontinental Hockey League
(KHL). The arena was closed for inspection, affecting various scheduled events, and possibly the postseason of the KHL.[84] The irregular elliptical disk shape/"spread-eagled butterfly"[85] ground blast damage area, produced by the airburst,[86] is a phenomenon first noticed upon studying the other larger airburst event: Tunguska.[87]

Reactions[edit] The Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
struck without warning. Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia, confirmed a meteor had struck Russia and said it proved that the "entire planet" is vulnerable to meteors and a spaceguard system is needed to protect the planet from similar objects in the future.[19][88] Dmitry Rogozin, the deputy prime minister, proposed that there should be an international program that would alert countries to "objects of an extraterrestrial origin",[89] also called potentially hazardous objects. Colonel General Nikolay Bogdanov, commander of the Central Military District, created task forces that were directed to the probable impact areas to search for fragments of the asteroid and to monitor the situation. Meteorites
Meteorites
(fragments) measuring 1 to 5 cm (0.39 to 1.97 in) were found 1 km (0.62 mi) from Chebarkul
Chebarkul
in the Chelyabinsk region.[90] On the day of the impact, Bloomberg News reported that the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs had suggested the investigation of creating an "Action Team on Near-Earth Objects", a proposed global asteroid warning network system, in face of 2012 DA14's approach.[91][92] As a result of the impact, two scientists in California proposed directed-energy weapon technology development as a possible means to protect Earth from asteroids.[93][94] Further information: Asteroid
Asteroid
impact avoidance Frequency[edit] It is estimated that the frequency of airbursts from objects 20 metres across is about once in every 60 years.[95] There have been three incidents in the previous century involving a comparable energy yield or higher: the 1908 Tunguska event, the 1930 Curuçá River event, and in 1963 off the coast of Prince Edward Islands
Prince Edward Islands
in the Indian Ocean.[96] Two of those were over unpopulated areas. Centuries before, the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, of an unknown magnitude, apparently caused 10,000 deaths.[97] While modern researchers are skeptical about that 10,000 deaths figure, the Tunguska event
Tunguska event
would have been devastating over a highly populous district.[97] Origin[edit] Based on its entry direction and speed of 19 kilometres/second, the Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
apparently originated in the asteroid belt between Mars
Mars
and Jupiter. It was probably a fragmented asteroid. The meteorite has veins of black material which had experienced high-pressure shock and were once partly melted, due to a previous collision. The metamorphism in the chondrules in the meteorite samples indicates the rock making up the meteor had a history of collisions and was once several kilometres below the surface of a much larger LL-chondrite asteroid. The Chelyabinsk asteroid probably entered an orbital resonance with Jupiter
Jupiter
(a common way for material to be ejected from the asteroid belt) which increased its orbital eccentricity until its perihelion was reduced enough for it to able to collide with the Earth.[98] Meteorites[edit] Further information: Chelyabinsk meteorite

Strewnfield map of recovered meteorites (253 documented find locations, status of 18 July 2013).

In the aftermath of the air burst of the body, a large number of small meteorites fell on areas west of Chelyabinsk, generally at terminal velocity, about the speed of a piece of gravel dropped from a skyscraper.[99] Analysis of the meteor showed that all resulted from the main breakup at 27–34 km altitude.[7] Local residents and schoolchildren located and picked up some of the meteorites, many located in snowdrifts, by following a visible hole that had been left in the outer surface of the snow. Speculators were active in the informal market that emerged for meteorite fragments.[99] In the hours following the visual meteor sighting, a 6-metre (20 ft) wide hole was discovered on Lake Chebarkul's frozen surface. It was not immediately clear whether this was the result of an impact; scientists from the Ural Federal University
Ural Federal University
collected 53 samples from around the hole the same day it was discovered. The early specimens recovered were all under 1 centimetre (0.39 in) in size and initial laboratory analysis confirmed their meteoric origin. They are ordinary chondrite meteorites and contain 10% iron. The fall is officially designated as the Chelyabinsk meteorite.[2] The Chelyabinsk meteor was later determined to come from the LL chondrite
LL chondrite
group.[100] The meteorites were LL5 chondrites having a shock stage of S4, and had a variable appearance between light and dark types. Petrographic changes during the fall allowed estimates that the body was heated between 65 and 135 degrees during its atmospheric entry.[101]

A 112.2 gram (3.96 oz) Chelyabinsk meteorite
Chelyabinsk meteorite
specimen, one of many found within days of the airburst, this one between the villages of Deputatsky and Emanzhelinsk. The broken fragment displays a thick primary fusion crust with flow lines and a heavily shocked matrix with melt veins and planar fractures. Scale cube is 1 cm (0.39 in).

In June 2013, Russian scientists reported that further investigation by magnetic imaging below the location of the ice hole in Lake Chebarkul
Chebarkul
had identified a 60-centimetre (2.0-foot)-size meteorite buried in the mud at the bottom of the lake. Before recovery began, the chunk was estimated to weigh roughly 300 kilograms (660 lb).[102] Following an operation lasting a number of weeks, it was raised from the bottom of the Chebarkul
Chebarkul
lake on 16 October 2013. With a total mass of 654 kg (1,442 lb), this is the largest found fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteorite. Initially, it tipped and broke the scales used to weigh it, splitting into three pieces.[103][104] In November 2013, a video from a security camera was released showing the impact of the fragment at the Chebarkul
Chebarkul
lake.[7][105] This is the first recorded impact of a meteorite on video. From the measured time difference between the shadow generating meteor to the moment of impact, scientists calculated that this meteorite hit the ice at about 225 metres per second, 64 percent of the speed of sound.[7] Media coverage[edit]

External video

Meteor
Meteor
air burst

Two videos, first from a car and from street on YouTube

Extensive dashcam footage from the atmospheric entry onwards on YouTube

Explosion eyewitness on YouTube

Bright light and sound recorded by a stationary surveillance camera on YouTube

Video of meteor explosion that stirred panic in Urals region on YouTube

The Russian government put out a brief statement within an hour of the event. The news was first reported by the hockey site Russian Machine Never Breaks before heavy coverage by the international media and the Associated Press
Associated Press
with the Russian government's confirmation less than two hours afterwards.[106][107][108] Less than 15 hours after the meteor impact, videos of the meteor and its aftermath had been viewed millions of times.[109] The number of injuries caused by the asteroid led the Internet-search giant Google to remove a Google Doodle from their website, created for the predicted pending arrival of another asteroid, 2012 DA14.[110] New York City planetarium director Neil deGrasse Tyson
Neil deGrasse Tyson
stated the Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
was unpredicted because no attempt had been made to find and catalogue every 15-metre near-Earth object.[111] Doing so would be very difficult, and current efforts only aim at a complete inventory of 150-metre near-Earth objects. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System, on the other hand, could now predict some Chelyabinsk-like events a day or so in advance, when their radiant is not close to the Sun. On 27 March 2013, a broadcast episode of the NOVA science television series titled " Meteor
Meteor
Strike" documented the Chelyabinsk meteor, including the large amounts of meteoritic science revealed by the numerous videos of the airburst posted online by ordinary citizens. The NOVA program called the video documentation and the related scientific discoveries of the airburst "unprecedented". The documentary also discussed the much greater tragedy "that could have been" had the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
more steeply.[60][112] Impactor orbital parameters[edit]

Preliminary orbital solutions for impacting asteroid

Source Q q a e i Ω ω

AU

(°)

Popova, Jenniskens, Emel'yanenko et al.; Science[7] 2.78 ±0.20 0.74 ±0.02 1.76 ±0.16 0.58 ±0.02 4.93 ±0.48° 326.442 ±0.003° 108.3 ±3.8°

Lyytinen via Hankey; AMS[113] 2.53 0.80 1.66 0.52 4.05° 326.43° 116.0°

Zuluaga, Ferrin; arXiv[114] 2.64 0.82 1.73 0.51 3.45° 326.70° 120.6°

Borovicka, et al.; IAU[115] 2.33 0.77 1.55 0.50 3.6° 326.41° 109.7°

Zuluaga, Ferrin, Geens; arXiv[116] 1.816 0.716 1.26 ± 0.05 0.44 ± 0.03 2.984° 326.5° ± 0.3° 95.5° ± 2°

Chodas, Chesley; JPL
JPL
via Sky and Telescope[117] 2.78 0.75 1.73 0.57 4.2°

Insan[118]

1.5 0.5 3°

Proud; GRL[119] 2.23 0.71 1.47 0.52 4.61° 326.53° 96.58°

de la Fuente Marcos; MNRAS: Letters[120] 2.48 0.76 1.62 0.53 3.97° 326.45° 109.71°

Q = Aphelion, q = Perihelion, a = Semi-major axis, e = Eccentricity, i = Inclination, Ω = Ascending node longitude, ω = Argument of perihelion

Multiple videos of the Chelyabinsk superbolide, particularly from dashboard cameras and traffic cameras which are ubiquitous in Russia, helped to establish the meteor's provenance as an Apollo asteroid.[115][121] Sophisticated analysis techniques included the subsequent superposition of nighttime starfield views over recorded daytime images, as well as the plotting of the daytime shadow vectors shown in several online videos.[60] The radiant of the impacting asteroid was located in the constellation Pegasus in the Northern hemisphere.[114] The radiant was close to the Eastern horizon where the Sun
Sun
was starting to rise.[114] The asteroid belonged to the Apollo group of near-Earth asteroids,[114][122] and was roughly 40 days past perihelion[113] (closest approach to the Sun) and had aphelion (furthest distance from the Sun) in the asteroid belt.[113][114] Several groups independently derived similar orbits for the object, but with sufficient variance to point to different potential parent bodies of this meteoroid.[119][120][123] The Apollo asteroid
Apollo asteroid
2011 EO40 is one of the candidates proposed for the role of the parent body of the Chelyabinsk superbolide.[120] Other published orbits are similar to the 2-kilometre-diameter asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 to suggest they had once been part of the same object;[124] they may not be able to reproduce the timing of the impact.[120] Coincidental asteroid approach[edit]

Comparison of the former orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteor
(larger elliptical blue orbit) and asteroid 2012 DA14
2012 DA14
(smaller circular blue orbit), showing that they are dissimilar.

Preliminary calculations rapidly showed that the object was unrelated to the long-predicted close approach of the asteroid 367943 Duende, that flew by Earth 16 hours later at a distance of 27,700 km.[14][125][126] The Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory,[34] Russian sources,[127] the European Space Agency,[128] NASA[14] and the Royal Astronomical Society[129] all indicated the two objects could not have been related because the two asteroids had widely different trajectories. See also[edit]

Tunguska event Asteroid
Asteroid
impact avoidance Impact event List of meteor air bursts Near-Earth object

Notes[edit]

^ Historical, normally accurate, Chinese records of the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event describe over 10,000 deaths, but have never been confirmed.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Yeomans, Don; Chodas, Paul (1 March 2013). "Additional Details on the Large Fireball Event over Russia on Feb. 15, 2013". NASA/ JPL
JPL
Near-Earth Object Program Office. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Note that [the] estimates of total energy, diameter and mass are very approximate.  NASA's webpage in turn acknowledges credit for its data and visual diagrams to:

Peter Brown (University of Western Ontario); William Cooke (Marshall Space Flight Center); Paul Chodas, Steve Chesley and Ron Baalke (JPL); Richard Binzel (MIT); and Dan Adamo.

^ a b "Chelyabinsk". Meteoritical Bulletin Database. The Meteoritical Society. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013.  ^ a b Число пострадавших при падении метеорита приблизилось к 1500 [The number of victims of the meteorite approached 1500] (in Russian). РосБизнесКонсалтинг [RBC]. 18 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013.  ^ a b "Meteorite-caused emergency situation regime over in Chelyabinsk region". Russia Beyond The Headlines. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Interfax. 5 March 2013.  ^ a b Atkinson, Nancy (15 February 2013). "Airburst Explained: NASA Addresses the Russian Meteor
Meteor
Explosion". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.  ^ "O. P. Popova,et al. Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite
Meteorite
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Meteorite
Recovery, and Characterization". Science. 342 (6162): 1069–1073. Bibcode:2013Sci...342.1069P. doi:10.1126/science.1242642. PMID 24200813. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g "O. P. Popova, et al. Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite
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Meteorite
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Asteroid
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Attribution

This article contains portions of text translated from the corresponding article of the Russian. A list of contributors can be found there in its history section.

Further reading[edit]

Balcerak, E. (2013). "Nuclear test monitoring system detected meteor explosion over Russia". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 94 (42): 384. Bibcode:2013EOSTr..94S.384B. doi:10.1002/2013EO420010.  Barry, Ellen; Kramer, Andrew E. (15 February 2013). "Shock Wave of Fireball Meteor
Meteor
Rattles Siberia, Injuring 1,200". NYTimes.com.  (website). Also published as " Meteor
Meteor
Explodes, Injuring Over 1,000 in Siberia". New York Times
New York Times
(New York ed.). 16 February 2013. p. A1.  (print). Borovička, J.; Spurný, P.; Brown, P.; Wiegert, P.; Kalenda, P.; Clark, D.; Shrbený, L. (2013). "The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor". Nature. 503 (7475): 235–237. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..235B. doi:10.1038/nature12671. PMID 24196708.  Brown, P. G.; Assink, J. D.; Astiz, L.; Blaauw, R.; Boslough, M. B.; Borovička, J.; Brachet, N.; Brown, D.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Ceranna, L.; Cooke, W.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Drob, D. P.; Edwards, W.; Evers, L. G.; Garces, M.; Gill, J.; Hedlin, M.; Kingery, A.; Laske, G.; Le Pichon, A.; Mialle, P.; Moser, D. E.; Saffer, A.; Silber, E.; Smets, P.; Spalding, R. E.; Spurný, P.; Tagliaferri, E.; et al. (2013). "A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors". Nature. 503 (7475): 238–241. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..238B. doi:10.1038/nature12741. PMID 24196713.  Gorkavyi, N.; Rault, D. F.; Newman, P. A.; Da Silva, A. M.; Dudorov, A. E. (2013). "New stratospheric dust belt due to the Chelyabinsk bolide". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (17): 4728–4733. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.4728G. doi:10.1002/grl.50788.  Gorkavyi, N. N.; Taidakova, T. A.; Provornikova, E. A.; Gorkavyi, I. N.; Akhmetvaleev, M. M. (2013). "Aerosol plume after the Chelyabinsk bolide". Solar System Research. 47 (4): 275–279. Bibcode:2013SoSyR..47..275G. doi:10.1134/S003809461304014X.  Kohout, Tomas; Gritsevich, Maria; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Yakovlev, Grigoriy A.; Haloda, Jakub; Halodova, Patricie; Michallik, Radoslaw M.; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri (2013). "Mineralogy, reflectance spectra, and physical properties of the Chelyabinsk LL5 chondrite – Insight into shock-induced changes in asteroid regoliths". Icarus. 228 (1): 78–85. arXiv:1309.6081 . Bibcode:2014Icar..228...78K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.09.027.  Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Pilger, C.; Mialle, P.; Brown, D.; Herry, P.; Brachet, N. (2013). "The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO
CTBTO
infrasound sensors". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (14): 3732–3737. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3732L. doi:10.1002/grl.50619.  Miller, Steven D.; Straka, William; Bachmeier, Scott (5 November 2013). "Earth-viewing satellite perspectives on the Chelyabinsk meteor event". Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. 110 (45): 18092–18097. Bibcode:2013PNAS..11018092M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307965110.  Popova, Olga P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Emel’yanenko, Vacheslav; Kartashova, Anna; Biryukov, Eugeny; Khaibrakhmanov, Sergey; Shuvalov, Valery; Rybnov, Yurij; Dudorov, Alexandr; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Badyukov, Dmitry D.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Gural, Peter S.; Albers, Jim; Granvik, Mikael; Evers, Läslo G.; Kuiper, Jacob; Kharlamov, Vladimir; Solovyov, Andrey; Rusakov, Yuri S.; Korotkiy, Stanislav; Serdyuk, Ilya; Korochantsev, Alexander V.; Larionov, Michail Yu.; Glazachev, Dmitry; Mayer, Alexander E.; Gisler, Galen; Gladkovsky, Sergei V.; Wimpenny, Josh; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Yamakawa, Akane; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Roeske, Sarah; Botto, Nicholas W.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Le, Loan; Ross, Daniel; Ziegler, Karen; Nakamura, Tomoki; Ahn, Insu; Lee, Jong Ik; Zhou, Qin; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Qiu-Li; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Hiroi, Takahiro; Sears, Derek; Weinstein, Ilya A.; Vokhmintsev, Alexander S.; Ishchenko, Alexei V.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillipe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Nagao, Keisuke; Haba, Makiko K.; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Mikouchi, Takashi; (the Chelyabinsk Airburst Consortium) (2013). "Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite
Meteorite
Recovery, and Characterization". Science. 342 (6162): 1069–1073. Bibcode:2013Sci...342.1069P. doi:10.1126/science.1242642. PMID 24200813.  Proud, S. R. (2013). "Reconstructing the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor using satellite observations". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (13): 3351–3355. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3351P. doi:10.1002/grl.50660.  Tauzin, B.; Debayle, E.; Quantin, C.; Coltice, N. (2013). "Seismoacoustic coupling induced by the breakup of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (14): 3522. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3522T. doi:10.1002/grl.50683.  Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald (1994). " Meteorite
Meteorite
falls in China and some related human casualty events". Meteoritics. 29 (6): 864–871. Bibcode:1994Metic..29..864Y. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1994.tb01101.x. ISSN 0026-1114. 

Synopsis: "A calculation based on the number of casualty events in the Chinese meteorite records suggests that the probability of a meteorite striking a human is far greater than previous estimates."

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2013 Russian meteor event.

" Meteor
Meteor
vapour trail from space". Image captured by EUMETSAT satellite.  "Satellite views of meteor vapor trail over Russia". CIMSS Satellite Blog.  Метеоритный удар по Челябинску [Collection of videos and photographs of the meteor and resulting damage]. Chelyabinsk website (in Russian).  "The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor". Animations hosted by Paul Wiegert.  "Postcards from Chelyabinsk – SETI Institute Colloquium Series (Peter Jenniskens) (video)". SETI institute.  " Meteor
Meteor
Strike". NOVA documentary broadcast, 53 minutes, aired 27 March 2013. PBS. Includes extensive scientific analysis of the worldwide infrasound monitoring network data from which the megaton energy estimates were made.  Animation of meteor explosion, by "Strip the Cosmos"

v t e

Modern impact events

On Earth

Pre-2000

1490 Ch'ing-yang 1783 Great Meteor 1860 Great Meteor 1908 Tunguska 1913 Great Meteor
Meteor
Procession 1930 Curuçá River 1938 Chicora meteor 1947 Sikhote-Alin meteorite 1969 Murchison meteorite 1972 Great Daylight Fireball 1990 Earth-grazing meteoroid

Post-2000

2002 Eastern Mediterranean 2002 Vitim 2007 Carancas 2008 TC3
2008 TC3
impact 2009 Sulawesi superbolide 2012 Sutter's Mill meteorite 2012 UK meteoroid 2012 Novato meteorite 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor

Chelyabinsk meteorite

2014 AA
2014 AA
impact 2014 Ontario fireball 2015 Kerala meteorite 2015 Thailand bolide WT1190F
WT1190F
impact 2017 China bolide

On Jupiter

1994 Comet
Comet
Shoemaker–Levy 9 2009 Jupiter
Jupiter
impact 2010 Jupiter
Jupiter
impact

Lists

Asteroid
Asteroid
close approaches to Earth Comets Bolides

Meteor
Meteor
air bursts Meteorite
Meteorite
falls

Minor planets

crossing Earth's orbit

See also

Asteroid
Asteroid
impact avoidance Bolide Earth-grazing fireball Meteor
Meteor
procession Meteor
Meteor
shower Meteorite Meteoroid Near-Earth object Potentially hazardous object

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Planetary defense

Main topics

Asteroid Bolide Earth-grazing fireball Impact event

List of meteor air bursts

Meteor
Meteor
procession Meteor
Meteor
shower Meteorite Meteoroid Near-Earth object Potentially hazardous object

Defense

Asteroid
Asteroid
impact avoidance Asteroid
Asteroid
close approaches Earth-crossing minor planets Gravity tractor Ion Beam Shepherd Damage scales

Palermo scale Torino scale

Space probes

Dawn Deep Impact DART Halley Armada Hayabusa Hayabusa2

MASCOT

NEAR Shoemaker NEA Scout New Horizons OSIRIS-REx PROCYON Rosetta

Philae

Stardust

NEO tracking

ATLAS Catalina Sky Survey LINEAR LONEOS NEAT NEOSSat NEOCam NEODyS OGS Telescope Orbit@home Pan-STARRS SCAP Sentinel Space Telescope Sentry Spacewatch WISE

Organizations

B612 Foundation Japan Spaceguard
Spaceguard
Association Meteoritical Society NEOShield Spaceguard The Spaceguard
Spaceguard
Foundation Space Situational Awareness Programme Planetary Defense Coordination Office

Potential threats

1950 DA 1994 WR12 101955 Bennu 2002 MN (410777) 2009 FD 2010 RF12 99942 Apophis

Films / video

The End of the World (1916) When Worlds Collide (1951) Gorath
Gorath
(1962) The Green Slime
The Green Slime
(1968) The Paradise Syndrome
The Paradise Syndrome
(1968) A Fire in the Sky
A Fire in the Sky
(1978) Meteor
Meteor
(1979) NOVA: Doomsday Asteroid
Asteroid
(1995) Asteroid
Asteroid
(1997) Deep Impact (1998) Armageddon (1998) Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) Judgment Day (1999) Post Impact
Post Impact
(2004) Deadly Skies (2006) Super Comet: After the Impact (2007) Impact (2009) NOVA: Last Extinction (2009) Meteor
Meteor
Storm (2010) HORIZON: Asteroids–The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (2010) Melancholia (2011) NOVA: Meteor
Meteor
Strike (2013) NOVA: Asteroid: Doomsday or Payday? (2013) Impact Earth (2015)

v t e

2013 in space

« 2012 2014 »

Launches

Space probes

LADEE Mars
Mars
Orbiter Mission MAVEN Chang'e 3

Yutu

Space observatories

IRIS Hisaki Gaia

Impact events

Chelyabinsk meteor

Chelyabinsk meteorite

Novae

Nova
Nova
Centauri 2013 V339 Delphini

Comets

C/2011 L4
C/2011 L4
(PANSTARRS) C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) C/2012 K1
C/2012 K1
(PANSTARRS) C/2012 S1 (ISON) C/2013 A1
C/2013 A1
(Siding Spring) P/2013 P5
P/2013 P5
(PANSTARRS) C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

NEOs

Asteroid
Asteroid
close approaches (7888) 1993 UC (52760) 1998 ML14 (285263) 1998 QE2 (163364) 2002 OD20 (277475) 2005 WK4 2006 BL8 2011 BT15 2012 YQ1 2013 EC 2013 ET 2013 MZ5 2013 PJ10 2013 TV135 2013 XY8 2013 YP139 367943 Duende 3361 Orpheus

Exoplanets

DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b Gliese 504 b Gliese 667 Cd Gliese 667 Ce Gliese 667 Cf Gliese 667 Cg Gliese 667 Ch HD 106906 b HD 95086 b Kepler-37b Kepler-37c Kepler-37d Kepler-61b Kepler-62b Kepler-62c Kepler-62d Kepler-62e Kepler-62f Kepler-65 Kepler-66 Kepler-67 Kepler-68b Kepler-68c Kepler-68d Kepler-69b Kepler-69c Kepler-76b Kepler-78b Kepler-87c PSO J318.5-22 ROXs 42Bb

Miscellaneous

GRB 130427A Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall Herschel Space Observatory
Herschel Space Observatory
(end of mission) The Day the Earth Smiled

Category:2012 in space — Category:2013 in space — Category:2

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