CHELSEA BRIDGE is a bridge over the
River Thames in west
connecting Chelsea on the north bank to
Battersea on the south bank.
There have been two Chelsea Bridges, on the site of what was an
ancient ford .
Chelsea Bridge was proposed in the 1840s as part of a major
development of marshlands on the south bank of the Thames into the new
Battersea Park . It was a suspension bridge intended to provide
convenient access from the densely populated north bank to the new
park. Although built and operated by the government, tolls were
charged initially in an effort to recoup the cost of the bridge. Work
on the nearby
Chelsea Embankment delayed construction and so the
bridge, initially called VICTORIA BRIDGE, did not open until 1858.
Although well-received architecturally, as a toll bridge it was
unpopular with the public, and Parliament felt obliged to make it
toll-free on Sundays. The bridge was less of a commercial success than
had been anticipated, partly because of competition from the newly
built Albert Bridge nearby. It was acquired by the Metropolitan Board
of Works in 1877, and the tolls were abolished in 1879.
The bridge was narrow and structurally unsound, leading the
authorities to rename it
Chelsea Bridge to avoid the Royal Family's
association with a potential collapse. In 1926 it was proposed that
the old bridge be rebuilt or replaced, due to the increased volume of
users from population growth, and the introduction of the automobile .
It was demolished during 1934–1937, and replaced by the current
structure, which opened in 1937.
The new bridge was the first self-anchored suspension bridge in
Britain, and was built entirely with materials sourced from within the
British Empire . During the early 1950s it became popular with
motorcyclists , who staged regular races across the bridge. One such
meeting in 1970 erupted into violence, resulting in the death of one
man and the imprisonment of 20 others.
Chelsea Bridge is floodlit from
below during the hours of darkness, when the towers and cables are
illuminated by 936 feet (285 m) of light-emitting diodes . In 2008 it
achieved Grade II listed status. In 2004 a smaller bridge, Battersea
Footbridge, was opened beneath the southern span, carrying the Thames
Path beneath the main bridge.
* 1 Background
* 2 Victoria Bridge (Old Chelsea Bridge)
* 2.1 Design and construction
* 2.2 Opening
* 2.3 Abolition of tolls
* 3 New
* 3.1 Design and construction
* 3.2 Temporary wartime bridge
* 3.3 Motorcycle gangs
* 4 Present-day
* 5 Notes and references
* 6 Further reading
Battersea in 1891, showing (left to right) Old
Battersea Bridge, Albert Bridge, Victoria (now Chelsea) Bridge and
Grosvenor Railway Bridge.
The Red House Inn was an isolated inn on the south bank of the River
Thames in the marshlands by
Battersea fields, about one mile (1.6 km)
east of the developed street of the prosperous farming village of
Battersea . Not on any major road, its isolation and lack of any
police presence made it a popular destination for visitors from London
Westminster since the 16th century, who would travel to the Red
House by wherry , attracted by Sunday dog fighting , bare-knuckle
boxing bouts and illegal horse racing . Because of its lawless
Battersea Fields was also a popular area for duelling , and
was the venue for the 1829 duel between the then Prime Minister the
Duke of Wellington and the Earl of Winchilsea .
The town of Chelsea , on the north bank of the Thames about three
miles (4.8 km) west of Westminster, was an important industrial
centre. Although by the 19th century its role as the centre of the
British porcelain industry had been overtaken by the West Midlands ,
its riverside location and good roads made it an important centre for
the manufacture of goods to serve the nearby and rapidly growing
Chelsea Waterworks Company occupied a site on the north bank of
the Thames opposite the Red House Inn. Founded in 1723, the company
pumped water from the Thames to reservoirs around
a network of hollow elm trunks. As
London spread westwards, the
former farmland to the west became increasingly populated, and the
Thames became seriously polluted with sewage and animal carcasses. In
1852 Parliament banned water from being taken from the Thames
Teddington , forcing the
Chelsea Waterworks Company to
move upstream to
Seething Wells .
Battersea and Chelsea had been linked by the modest
Battersea Bridge . As
London grew following the advent of the
railways, Chelsea began to become congested, and in 1842 the
Commission of Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues recommended the
building of an embankment at Chelsea to free new land for development,
and proposed the building of a new bridge downstream of Battersea
Bridge and the replacement of
Battersea Bridge with a more modern
In the early 1840s
Thomas Cubitt and
James Pennethorne had proposed a
plan to use 150,000 tons of rocks and earth from the excavation of the
Royal Victoria Dock
Royal Victoria Dock to infill the marshy
Battersea Fields and create a
large public park to serve the growing population of Chelsea. In
Commissioners of Woods and Forests purchased the Red House
Inn and 200 acres (0.81 km2) of surrounding land, and work began on
the development that would become
Battersea Park . It was expected
that with the opening of the park the volume of cross river traffic
would increase significantly, putting further strain on the
Consequently, in 1846 an Act of Parliament authorised the building of
a new toll bridge on the site of an ancient ford exactly one mile (1.6
km) downstream of
Battersea Bridge. The approach road on the
southern side was to run along the side of the new park, while that on
the northern side was to run from
Sloane Square , through the former
Chelsea Waterworks site, to the new bridge. Although previous toll
bridges in the area had been built and operated by private companies,
the new bridge was to be built and operated by the government, under
the control of the Metropolitan Improvement Commission , despite
protests in Parliament from Radicals objecting to the Government
profiting from a toll-paying bridge. It was intended that the bridge
would be made toll-free once the costs of building it had been
VICTORIA BRIDGE (OLD CHELSEA BRIDGE)
Engineer Thomas Page was appointed to build the bridge, and presented
the Commission with several potential designs, including a seven-span
stone bridge, a five-span cast iron arch bridge, and a suspension
bridge . The Commission selected the suspension bridge design, and
work began in 1851 on the new bridge, to be called the Victoria
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Chelsea Bridge as seen from
Battersea in 1858, shortly
after opening. The
Victoria Tower of the Palace of
shown under construction in the background.
Page's design was typical of suspension bridges of the period, and
consisted of a wrought iron deck and four 97-foot (30 m) cast iron
towers supporting chains, which in turn supported the weight of the
deck. The towers rested on a pair of timber and cast iron piers .
The towers passed through the deck, meaning that between the towers
the road was seven feet (2.1 m) narrower than on the rest of the
bridge. Although work had begun in 1851 delays in the closure of the
Chelsea Waterworks, which only completed its relocation to Seething
Wells in 1856, caused lengthy delays to the project, and the
Edinburgh -made ironwork was only transported to the site in 1856.
Victoria Bridge was 703 feet (214 m) long with a central span of 333
feet (101 m), and the roadway was 32 feet (9.8 m) wide with a
7-foot-6-inch (2.29 m) footpath on either side, making a total width
of 47 feet (14 m). Large lamps were set at the tops of the four
towers, which were only to be lit when Queen Victoria was spending the
night in London. The central span was inscribed with the date of
construction and the words "Gloria Deo in Excelsis" ("Glory to God in
the Highest"). It took seven years to build, at a total cost of
£90,000 (about £8.17 million in 2017). The controversial tolls
were collected from octagonal stone tollhouses at each end of the
As with the earlier construction of nearby
Battersea Bridge, during
excavations workers found large quantities of Roman and Celtic weapons
and skeletons in the riverbed, leading many historians to conclude
that the area was the site of
Julius Caesar 's crossing of the Thames
during the 54 BC invasion of Britain . The most significant item
found was the Celtic
La Tène style bronze and enamel
, one of the most important pieces of Celtic military equipment found
in Britain, recovered from the riverbed during dredging for the piers.
A fairy structure, with its beautiful towers, gilded and painted to
resemble light coloured bronze, and crowned with globular lamps,
diffusing light all around. _Illustrated
London News _, 25 September
On 31 March 1858 Queen Victoria, accompanied by two of her daughters
and _en route_ to the formal opening of
Battersea Park, crossed the
new bridge and declared it officially open, naming it the Victoria
Bridge; it was opened to the public three days later, on 3 April
1858. The design met with great critical acclaim, particularly from
London News _.
Shortly after its opening, concerns were raised about the bridge's
safety. Following an inspection by
John Hawkshaw and Edwin Clark in
1861, an additional support chain was added on each side. Despite the
strengthening there were still concerns about its soundness, and a
weight limit of 5 tons was imposed. At the same time, the name was
changed from Victoria Bridge to Chelsea Bridge, as the government was
concerned about the reliability of suspension bridges and did not want
a potential collapse to be associated with the Queen. Battersea
(top), Victoria (centre) and Vauxhall (bottom) bridges, 1859
Although reasonably well used, it was unpopular with the public, who
objected to being obliged to pay tolls to use it. On 4 July 1857,
almost a year before the bridge's opening, a demonstration against the
tolls attracted 6,000 residents. Concerns were raised in Parliament
that poorer industrial workers in Chelsea, which had no large parks of
its own, would be unable to afford to use the new park in Battersea.
Bowing to public pressure, shortly after the bridge opened Parliament
declared it free to use for pedestrians on Sundays, and in 1875 it was
also made toll-free on public holidays. Additionally, because the
main lights were only turned on when Queen Victoria was staying in
London, it was poorly used at night. Despite this, the new Battersea
Park was extremely popular, particularly the sporting facilities; on 9
January 1864 the park staged the world's first official game of
association football .
ABOLITION OF TOLLS
In 1873 the privately owned Albert Bridge , between Chelsea and
Battersea bridges, opened. Although Albert Bridge was not as
successful as intended at luring customers from
Chelsea Bridge and
soon found itself in serious financial difficulties, it nonetheless
caused a sharp drop in usage of Chelsea Bridge. In 1877 the
Metropolis Toll Bridges Act was passed, which allowed the Metropolitan
Board of Works (MBW) to buy all
London bridges between Hammersmith and
Waterloo bridges and free them from tolls. Ownership of Chelsea
Bridge was transferred to the MBW in 1877 at a cost of £75,000 (about
£5.99 million in 2017), and on 24 May 1879 Chelsea Bridge, Battersea
Bridge and Albert Bridge were declared toll free by the Prince of
Wales in a brief ceremony, after which a parade of Chelsea Pensioners
marched across the bridge to
Battersea Park. Its kiosques and
gilt finials, its travesty of Gothic architecture in cast iron, its
bad construction and its text of 'Gloria Deo in Excelsis' above the
arch between the piers, are redolent of 1851, the year of the Great
Exhibition , the _locus classicus_ of bad art, false enthusiasms and
Reginald Blomfield , 1921
By the early 20th century,
Chelsea Bridge was in poor condition. It
was unable to carry the increasing volume of traffic caused by the
London and the increasing popularity of the automobile ;
between 1914 and 1929 use of the bridge almost doubled from 6,500 to
12,600 vehicles per day. In addition, parts of its structure were
beginning to work loose, and in 1922 the gilded finials on the towers
had to be removed because of concerns that they would fall off.
Architectural opinion had turned heavily against Victorian styles and
Chelsea Bridge was now deeply unpopular with architects; former
President of the
Royal Institute of British Architects Reginald
Blomfield spoke vehemently against its design in 1921, and there were
few people supporting the preservation of the old bridge. In 1926 the
Royal Commission on Cross-river Traffic recommended that Chelsea
Bridge be rebuilt or replaced.
NEW CHELSEA BRIDGE
With four lanes of traffic, the new bridge's roadway is much
wider than that of its predecessor.
In 1931 the
London County Council (LCC) proposed demolishing Chelsea
Bridge and replacing it with a modern six-lane bridge at a cost of
£695,000 (about £42.6 million in 2017). Because of the economic
crisis of the
Great Depression the Ministry of Transport refused to
fund the project and the LCC was unable to raise the funds elsewhere.
However, in an effort to boost employment in the
Battersea area, which
had suffered badly in the depression, the Ministry of Transport agreed
to underwrite 60% of the costs of a cheaper four-lane bridge costing
£365,000 (about £22.4 million in 2017), on condition that all
materials used in the building of the bridge be sourced from within
British Empire .
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Being self-anchored, the bridge uniquely in
London has no
anchoring abutments .
In 1934 a temporary footbridge which had previously been used during
rebuilding works on
Lambeth Bridge was moved into place alongside
Chelsea Bridge, and demolition began. The new bridge, also called
Chelsea Bridge, was designed by LCC architects
G. Topham Forrest and
E. P. Wheeler and built by
Holloway Brothers (London) . Much wider
than the older bridge at 64 feet (20 m) wide, it has a 40-foot (12 m)
wide roadway and two 12-foot (3.7 m) wide pavements cantilevered out
from the sides of the bridge. Uniquely in London,
Chelsea Bridge is a
self-anchored suspension bridge , the first of the type to be built in
Britain. The horizontal stresses are absorbed by stiffening girders
in the deck itself and the suspension cables are not anchored to the
ground, relieving stress on the abutments which are built on soft and
London clay . The piers of the new bridge were built on the
site of the old bridge's piers, and are built of concrete , faced with
granite above the low-water point. Each side of the bridge has a
single suspension cable, each made up of 37 1 7⁄8-inch (23mm)
diameter wire ropes bundled to form a hexagonal cable. As was agreed
with the Ministry of Transport, all materials used in the bridge came
from the British Empire; the steel came from
the granite of the piers from
Cornwall , the timbers of
the deck from
British Columbia and the asphalt of the roadway from
Trinidad . As a self-anchored bridge, the suspension cables
attach directly to the deck and do not extend to the ground.
Because the self-anchored structure relies on the roadway itself to
absorb stresses, the suspension cables could not be installed until
the roadway was built; however, until the cables were in place the
roadway could not be supported. To resolve this problem, Topham had
the roadway built in sections, supported on very tall barges . The
barges were floated into place at low tide, and the rising tide was
used to lift the sections above the height of the piers. As the tide
ebbed, the roadway dropped into place.
The recently built
Battersea Power Station then dominated most views
of the area, so it was decided that the bridge's appearance was
unimportant. Consequently, in contrast to the heavily ornamented 1858
bridge, the new bridge has a starkly utilitarian design and the only
ornamentation consists of two ornamental lamp posts at each entrance.
Each features a gilded galleon on top of a coat of arms . The outward
facing sides of all four posts show the LCC coat of arms of the Lion
of England , St George\'s Cross and the barry wavy lines representing
the Thames; the inward faces on the south side show the dove of peace
of the Metropolitan Borough of
Battersea , that on the northwest
corner shows the winged bull, lion, boars' heads and stag of the
Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea , and that on the northeast corner the
portcullis and Tudor roses of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of the Metropolitan Borough of
Battersea on a
Chelsea Bridge lamp post
The new bridge was completed five months ahead of schedule and within
the £365,000 budget. It was opened on 6 May 1937 by the Prime
Minister of Canada ,
William Lyon Mackenzie King , who was in London
for the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth .
TEMPORARY WARTIME BRIDGE
Two years after the bridge's opening the
Second World War
Second World War broke out.
Because of their close proximity to
Chelsea Barracks it was expected
that enemy bombers would target the three road bridges in the area,
and a temporary bridge was built parallel to Chelsea Bridge. As with
the four other temporary Thames bridges built in this period, it was
built of steel girders supported by wooden stakes; however, despite
its flimsy appearance it was a sturdy structure, capable of supporting
tanks and other heavy military equipment. As it turned out, no enemy
action took place in the area, and all three bridges survived the war
undamaged. The temporary bridge was dismantled in 1945.
Beginning in the 1950s
Chelsea Bridge became a favourite meeting
place for motorcyclists , who would race across the bridge on Friday
nights. On 17 October 1970 a serious confrontation took place on
Chelsea Bridge between the
Essex and Chelsea chapters of the Hells
Angels , and rival motorcycle gangs the
Road Rats , Nightingales ,
Windsor Angels and Jokers . Around 50 people took part in the fight;
weapons used included motorcycle chains , flick knives and at least
one spiked flail . One member of the Jokers was shot with a sawn-off
shotgun and fatally wounded, and 20 of those present were sentenced
to between one and twelve years imprisonment.
Chelsea Bridge's illuminations
In the 1970s
Chelsea Bridge was painted bright red and white,
prompting a number of complaints from
Chelsea F.C. fans that Chelsea
Bridge had been painted in Arsenal colours. In 2007 it was
redecorated in a less controversial red, blue and white colour scheme.
Chelsea Bridge is now floodlit from beneath at night and 936 feet
(285 m) of light-emitting diodes strung along the towers and
suspension chains, intended to complement the illuminations of the
nearby Albert Bridge. Although motorcyclists still meet on the
bridge, following complaints from residents about the noise their
racing has been curtailed.
Chelsea Bridge was declared a Grade II listed structure in 2008,
providing protection to preserve its character from further
Battersea Park still retains Cubitt and Pennethorne's
original layout and features, including a riverfront promenade , a
formal avenue through the centre of the park and multiple animal
On the eastern side of the bridge at the southern end a major new
residential development of 600 homes called
Chelsea Bridge Wharf has
been built, as part of long term plans to regenerate the
long-derelict former industrial sites around
Battersea Power Station.
Battersea Footbridge curves beneath Chelsea Bridge.
To link the new developments around
Battersea Power Station to
Battersea Park, in 2004 a new curved footbridge was built beneath the
southern end of Chelsea Bridge. The footbridge was built offsite in
four sections, transported by road to the King George V Dock where it
was assembled, and the completed structure floated down the river and
hoisted into position. It is planned that once the riverfront in the
area has been opened to the public, following the completion of the
Battersea Power Station into a commercial development,
the new bridge will form part of the
Thames Path . The new bridge
curves out from the bank, overhanging the river bank by 33 feet (10
m), and cost £600,000 to build.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ Between the 1801 and 1881 censuses, the population of Battersea
rose from 3,000 to 107,000.
* ^ Although embankments have raised the water level and a channel
in the centre of the river is now dredged , the river is very shallow
at this point. In 1948, after dredging had been suspended owing to the
Second World War
Second World War , it was possible to walk across the river at low
* ^ As it shows no signs of battle damage, it is believed that the
shield was cast into the river as a votive offering and was never used
in battle. The shield is now on display in the
British Museum while a
replica is housed in the Museum of
* ^ An earlier unofficial match had been played under Football
Association rules on 19 December 1863 in
Mortlake between Barnes Club
Richmond F.C. , both of whom later went on to join the Rugby
Football Union .
* ^ Although Thames bridges were traditionally opened by members of
the Royal family or leading
London politicians, King was invited to
perform the ceremony in honour of the roadway's being lined with
Douglas Fir .
* ^ "Thames Bridges Heights". Port of
London Authority. Retrieved
23 August 2011.
* ^ Cookson 2006 , p. 316.
* ^ "Name: CHELSEA BRIDGE List entry Number: 1393009". Historic
England. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Cookson 2006 , p. 130.
* ^ Roberts 2005 , p. 112.
* ^ Cookson 2006 , p. 118.
* ^ Roberts 2005 , p. 111.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Cookson 2006 , p. 131.
* ^ Matthews 2008 , p. 65.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts 2005 , p. 130.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cookson 2006 , p. 134.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Roberts 2005 , p. 114.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Matthews 2008 , p. 76.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Matthews 2008 , p. 75.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Davenport 2006 , p. 69.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Cookson 2006 , p. 132.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Pay, Lloyd & Waldegrave 2009 , p. 68.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are
based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average
Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)",
* ^ Roberts 2005 , p. 61.
* ^ _Illustrated
London News_, 28 September 1858, quoted in Cookson
2006 , p. 132.
* ^ Matthews 2008 , p. 72.
* ^ Pay, Lloyd & Waldegrave 2009 , p. 70.
* ^ Cookson 2006 , p. 147.
* ^ "The Freeing of the Bridges". _The Times_. 28 June 1880. p. 12.
* ^ Roberts 2005 , p. 113.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Cookson 2006 , p. 135.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cookson 2006 , p. 136.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Davenport 2006 , p. 70.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Smith 2001 , p. 37.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Matthews 2008 , p. 77.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cookson 2006 , p. 137.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts 2005 , p. 116.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts 2005 , p. 115.
* ^ "Philips LEDs light Snow Castle and Chelsea Bridge". _LEDs
Magazine_. 13 February 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
* ^ "Noisy bikers \'destroy our peace\'". BBC News. 24 June 2006.
Retrieved 24 August 2011.
* ^ "
London bridges get listed status". BBC News. 26 November 2008.
Retrieved 24 August 2011.
* ^ McGhie, Caroline (24 July 2002). "The Regeneration Game".
_Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "On The Waterfront". _New Civil Engineer_. 8 July
2004. Retrieved 6 June 2009. (subscription required)
* ^ "First Steps". _New Civil Engineer_. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 6
June 2009. (subscription required)
* Cookson, Brian (2006). _Crossing the River_. Edinburgh:
Mainstream. ISBN 978-1-84018-976-6 .
OCLC 63400905 .
* Davenport, Neil (2006). _Thames Bridges: From Dartford to the
Source_. Kettering: Silver Link Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85794-229-3 .
* Matthews, Peter (2008). _London's Bridges_. Oxford: Shire. ISBN
OCLC 213309491 .
* Pay, Ian; Lloyd, Sampson; Waldegrave, Keith (2009). _London's
Bridges: Crossing the Royal River_. Wisley: Artists' and
Photographers' Press. ISBN 978-1-904332-90-9 .
OCLC 280442308 .
* Roberts, Chris (2005). _Cross River Traffic_. London: Granta. ISBN
* Smith, Denis (2001). _Civil Engineering Heritage
London and the
Thames Valley_. London: Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-7277-2876-0 .
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