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The cheetah /ˈtʃiːtə/ ( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae
Felinae
that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN
IUCN
Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures.[1] It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly 70 to 90 cm (28 to 35 in) at the shoulder, and weighs 21–72 kg (46–159 lb). Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within 100–300 m (330–980 ft), charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of 112 km/h (70 mph) in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about 64 km/h (40 mph). Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah
Cheetah
cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti
Serengeti
region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitats – dry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Subspecies

3 Genetics

3.1 King cheetah

4 Characteristics

4.1 Anatomy

5 Ecology and behaviour

5.1 Social organisation 5.2 Home ranges and territories

5.2.1 Vocalisations 5.2.2 Other methods 5.2.3 Display behaviour

5.3 Hunting and competitors 5.4 Speed and acceleration

5.4.1 Adaptations 5.4.2 Recorded values

5.5 Reproduction 5.6 Mortality

6 Distribution and habitat

6.1 Africa 6.2 Asia

7 Status and threats 8 Conservation measures

8.1 In Africa 8.2 In Asia

9 Interaction with human beings

9.1 Taming 9.2 In captivity 9.3 In culture

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology The vernacular name "cheetah" is derived from cītā (Hindi: चीता), which in turn comes from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word citrakāyaḥ (चित्रकायः) meaning "bright" or "variegated". The first recorded use of this word has been dated back to 1610.[2][3] An alternative name for the cheetah is "hunting leopard".[4] The scientific name of the cheetah is Acinonyx jubatus.[5] The generic name Acinonyx
Acinonyx
originated from the combination of two Greek words: akinetos means motionless, and onyx means claw.[6][7] A rough translation of the word would be "non-moving claws", a reference to the limited retractability (capability of being drawn inside the paw) of the claws of the cheetah relative to other cats'. The specific name jubatus means "maned" in Latin, referring to the dorsal crest of this animal.[8] Taxonomy

Lynx

Lynx
Lynx
rufus (Bobcat)

L. canadensis (Canadian lynx)

L. pardinus (Iberian lynx)

L. lynx (Eurasian lynx)

Puma

Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus (Cheetah)

Puma concolor (Cougar)

Herpailurus
Herpailurus
yagouaroundi (Jaguarundi)

Felis

Felis
Felis
chaus (Jungle cat)

F. nigripes (Black-footed cat)

F. silvestris silvestris (European wildcat)

F. margarita (Sand cat)

F. silvestris lybica (African wildcat)

F. catus (Domestic cat)

One version of the Puma lineage, depicted along with the Lynx
Lynx
and Felis
Felis
lineages of the family Felidae[9][10]

The cheetah is the only extant species of the genus Acinonyx. It belongs to Felinae, the subfamily of Felidae
Felidae
that also includes lynxes, wildcats, and the puma. The species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
in his 1775 publication Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.[5] The cheetah's closest relatives are the cougar (Puma concolor) and the jaguarundi ( Herpailurus
Herpailurus
yagouaroundi).[11] These three species together form the Puma lineage, one of the eight lineages of Felidae.[9][12][13] The sister group of the Puma lineage is a clade of smaller Old World
Old World
cats that includes the genera Felis, Otocolobus
Otocolobus
and Prionailurus.[10][14] Although the cheetah is an Old World
Old World
cat, molecular evidence indicates that the three species of the Puma lineage evolved in North America two to three million years ago, where they possibly had a common ancestor during the Miocene.[15] They possibly diverged from this ancestor 8.25 million years ago.[12] The cheetah diverged from the puma and the jaguarundi around 6.7 million years ago.[16] A genome study suggests that cheetahs experienced two genetic bottlenecks in their history, the first about 100,000 years ago and the second about 12,000 years ago, greatly lowering their genetic variability. These bottlenecks may have been associated with migrations across Asia and into Africa (with the current African population founded about 12,000 years ago), and/or with a depletion of prey species at the end of the Pleistocene.[17] Cheetah
Cheetah
fossils found in the lower beds of the Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
site in northern Tanzania
Tanzania
date back to the Pleistocene.[18] The extinct species of Acinonyx
Acinonyx
are older than the cheetah, with the oldest known from the late Pliocene; these fossils are about three million years old.[19] These species include Acinonyx
Acinonyx
pardinensis ( Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch), notably larger than the modern cheetah, and A. intermedius (mid- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period).[20] While the range of A. intermedius stretched from Europe to China, A pardinensis spanned over Eurasia
Eurasia
as well as eastern and southern Africa.[19] A variety of larger cheetah believed to have existed in Europe fell to extinction around half a million years ago.[4] Extinct
Extinct
North American cats resembling the cheetah had historically been assigned to Felis, Puma or Acinonyx. However, a phylogenetic analysis in 1990 placed these species under the genus Miracinonyx.[21] Miracinonyx exhibited a high degree of similarity with the cheetah. However, in 1998, a DNA
DNA
analysis showed that Miracinonyx inexpectatus, M. studeri, and M. trumani (early to late Pleistocene epoch), found in North America,[20] are more closely related to the cougar than modern cheetahs.[10] Subspecies In 1775, Schreber described a stuffed cheetah skin from the Cape of Good Hope.[22] In the 19th and 20th centuries, several cheetah specimen were described and proposed as subspecies. The following table is based on the classification of the species provided in Mammal Species
Species
of the World.[5] It also reflects the classification used by IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
assessors and the revision by the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force:[11]

Subspecies Distribution Image

Southern African cheetah
Southern African cheetah
(A. j. jubatus) (Schreber, 1775), syn. A. j. raineyi[11] Heller, 1913 This is the nominate cheetah subspecies.[5] It occurs in Southern and East African countries including Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. It is regionally extinct in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi.[1] In 2007, the Southern African population was roughly estimated at less than 5,000 to maximum 6,500 adult individuals.[23][24] In 2010, it was reported to persist in Iona National Park in southwestern Angola.[25] It was introduced in the Hlane Royal National Park
Hlane Royal National Park
of Swaziland
Swaziland
and reintroduced in Malawi's Liwonde National Park.[26][27] Since 1999, the population suffered a massive decline in Zimbabwe.[28][29] as well as in Mozambique following the civil wars during 1980s and 1990s.[1] It is thought to have been separated from the Asiatic cheetah
Asiatic cheetah
nearly 0.32–0.67 million years ago.[30]

Asiatic cheetah
Asiatic cheetah
(A. j. venaticus) Griffith, 1821 This subspecies is confined to Iran, and is thus the only surviving cheetah population in Asia. It has been classified as Critically Endangered.[31] In 2007, the total population was estimated at 60 to 100 individuals including juveniles.[32] In 2017, fewer than 50 individuals were thought to be remaining in three subpopulations that are scattered over 140,000 km2 (54,000 sq mi) in Iran’s central plateau.[33] It used to occur from the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and to Turkey, Central Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan to India.[14]

Northeast African cheetah
Northeast African cheetah
(A. j. soemmeringii) Fitzinger, 1855 This subspecies occurs in South Sudan, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea.[1] It is closely related to A. j. jubatus. Results of a phylogeographic analysis indicate that the two subspecies diverged between 16,000 and 72,000 years ago.[30]

Northwest African cheetah
Northwest African cheetah
(A. j. hecki) Hilzheimer, 1913 This subspecies occurs in Northwestern Africa including Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Niger. Small populations are known to exist in the Ahaggar and Tassili N'Ajjer National Parks.[34] In 2003, a population of 20 to 40 individuals was estimated to survive in Ahaggar National Park.[35] In Niger, cheetahs have been recorded in the Aïr Mountains, Ténéré, Termit Massif, Talak and Azaouak valley. In 1993, a population of 50 individuals were estimated in Ténéré. In Benin, the cheetah occurs in Pendjari National Park
Pendjari National Park
and W National Park. Its status is obscure in Burkina Faso, where individuals may be confined to the southeastern region. With the total population estimated at less than 250 mature individuals, it is listed as Critically Endangered.[36]

Genetics The diploid number of chromosomes in the cheetah is 38, the same as in most other felids (though for the ocelot and the margay the number is 36).[14] A remarkable feature of the cheetah is its unusually low genetic variability in comparison to other felids. Consequently, individuals show considerable genetic similarity to one another,[37][38][39] as illustrated by skin grafts, electrophoretic evidence and reproductive surveys.[40] A prolonged period of inbreeding, following a genetic bottleneck during the last ice age, is believed to be the reason behind this anomaly.[41] The consequences of such genetic uniformity might include a low sperm count, decreased sperm motility, deformed flagella, difficulty in captive breeding and susceptibility to disease.[19][40] King cheetah

King cheetah. Note the distinctive coat pattern.

The king cheetah is a variety of cheetah with a rare mutation for cream-coloured fur marked with large, blotchy spots and three dark, wide stripes extending from their neck to the tail.[42] In 1926 Major A. Cooper wrote about an animal he had shot near modern-day Harare. Describing the animal, he noted its remarkable similarity to the cheetah, but the body of this individual was covered with fur as thick as that of a snow leopard and the spots merged to form stripes. He suggested that it could be a cross between a leopard and a cheetah. After further similar animals were discovered, it was established they were similar to the cheetah in having non-retractable claws – a characteristic feature of the cheetah.[43][44] English zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock
Reginald Innes Pocock
described it as a new species by the name of Acinonyx
Acinonyx
rex ("rex" being Latin
Latin
for "king", the name translated to "king cheetah");[44] However, he changed his position on its species status in 1939. English hunter-naturalist Abel Chapman considered it to be a colour morph of the spotted cheetah.[8][45] Since 1927 the king cheetah has been reported five more times in the wild; an individual was photographed in 1975.[46] In May 1981 two spotted sisters gave birth at the De Wildt Cheetah
Cheetah
and Wildlife Centre (South Africa), and each litter contained one king cheetah. Each sister had mated with a wild male from the Transvaal region (where king cheetahs had been recorded). Further king cheetahs were later born at the Centre. They have been known to exist in Zimbabwe, Botswana
Botswana
and northern Transvaal. In 2012 the cause of this alternative coat pattern was found to be a mutation in the gene for transmembrane aminopeptidase Q (Taqpep), the same gene responsible for the striped "mackerel" versus blotchy "classic" patterning seen in tabby cats.[47] Hence, genetically the king cheetah is simply a variety of the common cheetah and not a separate species. This case is similar to that of the black panthers.[42] The appearance is caused by a mutation in a recessive gene. As a result, if two mating cheetahs have the same gene, then a quarter of their offspring can be expected to be king cheetahs.[13] Characteristics

Cheetah
Cheetah
portrait showing the black "tear mark" running from the corner of the eye down the side of the nose

The cheetah is a felid with several distinctive features – a slender body, deep chest, spotted pelage, a small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and a long spotted tail.[48] Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats.[13] The head-and-body length ranges from 112–150 centimetres (44–59 in).[48] Adult cheetahs average 70–90 cm (28–35 in) at the shoulder, and weigh 21–72 kilograms (46–159 lb).[48][49] It is taller than the leopard, which stands nearly 55–70 centimetres (22–28 in) at the shoulder. The weight range of the cheetah overlaps with that of the leopard, which weighs 28–65 kilograms (62–143 lb).[48] On the other hand, the cheetah is significantly shorter than the lion, whose average height is nearly 120 centimetres (47 in). Moreover, it is much lighter than the lion, among which females weigh 126 kilograms (278 lb) and the much heavier males weigh 186 kilograms (410 lb).[48] Based on measurements, the smallest cheetahs have been reported from the Sahara, northeastern Africa and Iran.[16] A sexually dimorphic species, males are generally larger than females.[50] The head is small and rounded.[51] Saharan cheetah have narrow canine faces.[16] Small, short, and rounded, the ears are marked by black patches on the back; the edges and base of the ears are tawny. The high-set eyes have round pupils.[50][52] The whiskers, shorter and fewer in number than those of other felids, are fine and inconspicuous.[53] The pronounced tear streaks are unique to the cheetah. These streaks originate from the corner of the eyes and run down the nose to the mouth. Their role is obscure – they may be serving as a shield for the eyes against the sun's glare, a helpful feature as the cheetah hunts mainly during the day; another purpose could be to define facial expressions.[16]

Close view of a Southern African cheetah
Southern African cheetah
at Kruger National Park. Note the light build, slender body, spotted coat and long tail.

Basically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat of the cheetah is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. The upper parts are in stark contrast to the underbelly, which is completely white.[48] Each spot measures nearly 3.2–5.1 centimetres (1.3–2.0 in) across.[54] Every cheetah has a unique pattern of spots on its coat; hence, this serves as a distinct identity for each individual.[19][16][54] Cheetah
Cheetah
fur is short and often coarse. Fluffy fur covers the chest and the ventral side.[48] Several colour morphs of the cheetah have been identified, including melanistic and albino forms.[55] Black cheetah have been observed in Kenya
Kenya
and Zambia. In 1877–1878, English zoologist Philip Sclater
Philip Sclater
described two partially albino specimens from South Africa.[13] A ticked (tabby) cheetah was photographed in Kenya
Kenya
in 2012.[56] Juveniles are typically dark with long, loose, blue to grey hair.[48] A short mane, about 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long, on the neck and the shoulders, is all that remains of the cape in adults.[13] The exceptionally long and muscular tail measures 60–80 centimetres (24–31 in), and ends in a bushy white tuft.[57] While the first two-thirds of the tail are covered in spots, the final part is marked with four to six dark rings or stripes.[13][54] The arrangement of the terminal stripes of the tail differs among individuals, but the stripe patterns of siblings are very similar. In fact, the tail of an individual will typically resemble its siblings' to a greater extent than it resembles its mother's or any other individual's.[13] The cheetah is sometimes confused with the leopard, and can be distinguished by its small round spots in contrast to the leopard's rosettes[58] in addition, the leopard lacks the tear streaks of the cheetah.[59] The cougar possesses neither the tear streaks nor the spotted coat pattern of the cheetah.[19] The serval has a form very similar to that of the cheetah but is significantly smaller. Moreover, it has a shorter tail and spots that fuse to form stripes on the back.[60] Anatomy

The skull of the cheetah is relatively short, and the sagittal crest is poorly developed.

Being in the genus Acinonyx, the morphology of the cheetah differs notably from the big cats (genus Panthera).[61] The face and the jaw are unusually shortened and the sagittal crest is poorly developed, possibly to reduce weight and enhance speed. In fact, the skull resembles that of the smaller cats. Another point of similarity to the small cats is the long and flexible spine, in contrast to the stiff and short one of other large felids.[62] A 2001 study of felid morphology stated that the truncation of the development of the middle phalanx bone in the cheetah at a relatively younger age than other felids could be a major reason for the peculiar morphology of the cheetah.[61] Interestingly, the cheetah appears to show convergent evolution with canids in morphology as well as behaviour. For example, the cheetah has a relatively long snout, long legs and deep chest, tough foot pads and blunt, semi-retractable claws; moreover, its hunting behaviour resembles that of canids.[63] In the 2001 study, it was observed that the claws of cheetah have features intermediate between those of felids and the wolf.[61] In the Puma lineage, the cheetah's skull morphology is similar to that of the puma – both have short, wide skulls – while that of the jaguarundi is different.[64] The cheetah has a total of 30 teeth; the dental formula is 3.1.3.13.1.2.1. The deciduous dentition is 3.1.23.1.2. The sharp, narrow cheek teeth help in tearing flesh, whereas the small and flat canine teeth bite the throat of the prey to suffocate it. Males have slightly bigger heads with wider incisors and longer mandibles than females.[19] The muscles between the skull and jaw are short, and thus do not allow the cheetah to open its mouth as much as other cats.[13] Digitigrade
Digitigrade
animals, the cheetah have tough foot pads that make it convenient to run on firm ground. The hind legs are longer than the forelegs. The relatively longer metacarpals, metatarsals (of the lower leg), radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula increase the length of each jump. The straightening of the flexible vertebral column also adds to the length.[19] Cheetahs have a high concentration of nerve cells, arranged in a band in the centre of the eyes. This arrangement, called a "visual streak", significantly enhances the sharpness of the vision. Among the felids, the visual streak is most concentrated and efficient in the cheetah.[62] The nasal passages are short and large; the smallness of the canines helps to accommodate the large nostrils.[19] The cheetah is unable to roar due to the presence of a sharp-edged vocal fold within the larynx.[19][65] The paws of the cheetah are narrower than those of other felids.[19] The slightly curved claws lack a protective sheath and are weakly retractable (semi-retractable).[48][50] This is a major point of difference between the cheetah and the big cats, which have fully retractable claws, and a similarity to canids.[62] Additionally, the claws of the cheetah are shorter as well as straighter than those of other cats.[13] Absence of protection makes the claws blunt;[16] however, the large and strongly curved dewclaw is remarkably sharp.[66] Ecology and behaviour

Southern African cheetahs rest in shade in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

A group of cheetahs at Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa

Cheetahs are diurnal (active mainly during the day),[48] whereas leopards, tigers, and lions are nocturnal (active mainly at night);[67][68][69] diurnality allows better observation and monitoring of the animal.[40] Hunting is the major activity throughout the day; peaks are observed during dawn and dusk indicating crepuscular tendencies.[16] Groups rest in grassy clearings after dusk, though males and juveniles often roam around at night. The cheetah is an alert animal; individuals often inspect their vicinity at observation points such as elevations. Even while resting, they take turns at keeping a lookout.[13] Social organisation Apart from the lion, the cheetah is the only cat that is gregarious; however, female cheetahs tend to remain solitary.[51] Tim Caro, of the University of California, Davis, identified the various social classes and their longevity. Pregnant and nursing females, a few adolescents, and males who have not joined any groups are typically solitary. Non-lactating females, their cubs, adolescent siblings, and several males will form their own groups. A loose association between individuals of the opposite sex can be observed during the breeding season.[40] These social groups typically keep away from one another.[50] Adult males are typically gregarious despite their territoriality, and may group together for life and form "coalitions". These groups collectively defend their territories. In most cases, a coalition will comprise brothers born in the same litter who stayed together after weaning.[70] However, if a cub is the only male in the litter, then two or three lone males may form a small group, or a lone male may join an existing group. Males in coalitions establish territories that ensure maximum access to females. Solitary males may or may not be territorial. Some males alternate between solitude and coalitions, whichever ensures encounters with a greater number of females.[16] Although a coalition, due to its larger membership, demands a greater amount of resources than do the solitary males or their groups, the coalition has a greater chance of encountering and acquiring females for mating.[40] Females are not territorial, and live alone or with their offspring. Juveniles form mixed-sex groups after weaning, but most of the young females stay back with their mother, with whom they do not show any significant interaction. Males eventually mature and try to acquire territories.[48][51] Home ranges and territories

Southern African male marking his territory in southern Namibia

Female East African cheetah with her cubs in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

Males in coalitions establish territories in locations that ensure maximum access to females.[16] Males exhibit marking behaviour – territories, termite mounds, trees, common tracks and junctions, and trees are marked by urine, faeces, and claw scratches.[70] The sizes can be location specific. For example, territories range from 33 to 42 km2 (13 to 16 sq mi) in the Serengeti, while in the Phinda Private Game Reserve, the size can be 57 to 161 km2 (22 to 62 sq mi). Territorial solitary males establish considerably larger territories, as large as 777 km2 (300 sq mi) in the Serengeti
Serengeti
or 1,390 km2 (540 sq mi) in central Namibia. A 1987 study of the social organisation in males showed that territoriality depends on the size and age of the males and the membership of the coalition. It concluded that solitary as well as grouped males have a nearly equal chance of coming across females, but the males in coalitions are notably healthier and have better chances of survival than their solitary counterparts.[71] In the Serengeti, only 4% of the solitary males hold territories, while those who joined coalitions were far more successful. The average period for which territories are held is four months for singletons, seven-and-a-half months for pairs, and 22 months for trios.[48] Males exhibit pronounced marking behaviour – territories, termite mounds, trees, common tracks, and junctions are marked by urine, faeces, and claw scratches.[70] Males marking their territory by urination stand less than a metre away from a tree or rock surface with the tail raised, pointing the penis either horizontally backward or 60° upward.[40] Territorial clashes can take place between two coalitions, or coalitions and solitary males; fights, however, are rarely gruesome. Another major reason for fights is to acquire dominance in the breeding season. These can even involve cannibalism.[16] Unlike male and other felines, female cheetahs do not establish territories. Instead, they live in unguarded areas, known as "home ranges". Though home ranges often overlap, there is hardly any interaction between the females. Females are regular visitors to male territories.[16] The size of a home range depends mainly on the availability of prey. The greater the density of prey animals in an area, the smaller the home range of a female cheetah there. In areas with nomadic prey animals (such as the Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
in the Serengeti
Serengeti
and the springbok in the Kalahari Desert), the home ranges cover hundreds of square kilometres. In contrast, home ranges are merely 100–200 square kilometres (39–77 sq mi) large where sedentary prey, such as the impala in the Kruger National Park, is available.[51] Vocalisations

Calls of adult cheetahs. Purr, hiss, growl, chirr, meow, chirp, howl.

The cheetah is a vocal felid.[72] A wide variety of cheetah vocalisations have been identified by several terms, but most of these lack a detailed acoustic description, which makes it difficult to assess reliably which term denotes which sound. In 2010 Robert Eklund (of the University of Göteborg, Sweden) and colleagues published a detailed report on the purring of the cheetah and compared it with that observed in other felids.[73] The cheetah purrs when content, or to greet known individuals. A characteristic of purring is that it is realised on both egressive and ingressive airstreams.[74][75][76][77][78] Other vocalisations Eklund identified include:[79]

Growling: Often accompanied by hissing and spitting, the cheetah growls to show its annoyance, or when faced with danger. A study showed that growls consist of numerous short pulses with a combined duration of up to five seconds.[80] Moaning or yowling: This is an escalated version of growling and is often combined with it. It is typically displayed when the danger increases. A study found that yowls could last as long as two seconds.[80] Agonistic vocalisations: Eklund used this term as a reference to a combination of growls, moans, and hisses that is followed by spitting, a feature more conspicuous in cheetah than in other cats. In addition to spitting, the cheetah will hit the ground with its front paws.

R. D. Estes has listed, in addition to the aforementioned vocalisations, some other sounds made by the cheetah:[48]

Bleating: Similar to the meow of the domestic cat, the cheetah can bleat, and sometimes moan, when a larger predator deprives it of its prey. Chirping or stutter-barking: A cheetah chirps when excited (for instance, when gathered around a kill). This vocalisation can also be used at social meetings, during courtship, or in attempting to find another; the chirp of a mother searching for her cubs, which sounds more like the yelp of a dog than the chirp of a bird, can be heard up to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away. A study estimated the chirp's total duration as 0.09 to 0.5 seconds.[80] Churring: The purpose of this sound is similar to that of the chirp. It may resemble a growl. Zoologist Jonathan Kingdon considered the chirp of the cheetah as similar to the soft roar of the lion, and its churr as the latter's loud roar. The churr, is staccato and has a shorter range than the chirp. A study showed that churrs comprise 3 to 15 separate pulses and last 0.1 to 1.3 seconds.[80] Mother-cub vocalisations: Apart from chirping, mothers use some other sounds to interact with their cubs. A repeated ihn ihn is used to gather the cubs, while a prr prr is used to guide them on a journey. A low-pitched alarm call is used to warn the cubs to stand still in the presence of danger. Whirring: This sound is produced by cubs bickering over a kill; the pitch rises with the intensity of the quarrel, and ends on a harsh note.

Other methods

Cheetahs grooming each other

Scent plays a significant role in olfactory communication. Cheetahs often investigate urine-marked places (territories or common landmarks) for a long time by crouching on their forelegs and carefully smelling the place. Then the male will itself urinate there and sniff at its own scent before leaving. Other observing individuals will repeat the ritual. Females may also show marking behaviour but less prominently than the males. Females in oestrus will show maximum urine-marking, and her excrement can attract males from far off.[48][50] Social meetings are marked by mutual sniffing in oral and genital areas, grooming one another, rubbing the cheeks, and face-licking. Further physical contact has not been observed.[48] The tear streaks are a means of visual communication. The tear streaks combined with the black lips and the contrasting white fur give the face a striking appearance and form clear expressions when viewed from a close range. The ears and the face are obscure from a distance, and so are the expressions. On the other hand, the tail is quite conspicuous and is probably used by mothers to direct juveniles to follow them.[48] Display behaviour Cheetahs engage in several displays during fights, hunting, or self-defence. Prior to a sprint, the cheetah will hold its head down, with aggression on its face, and approach the target in a stiff gait. The aggressive expression is maintained during the run. To defend itself or its prey, a cheetah will hold its body low to the ground, and produce a snarl with its mouth wide open, the eyes staring threateningly ahead and the ears folded backward. This may be accompanied by moans, hisses, and growls. In more severe cases, the ground is hit with the paws. Fights are characterised by biting, tearing out the fur and attempts at strangling on both sides.[48][81] Hunting and competitors The cheetah is a carnivore that prefers medium-sized prey with a body mass ranging from 23 to 56 kg (51 to 123 lb). Blesbok, duiker, Grant's gazelle, impala, reedbuck, springbok, and Thomson's gazelle are some of the common targets of the cheetah. Other prey animals include the bat-eared fox, bushbuck, kudu, hartebeest, nyala, oribi, roan antelope, steenbok, sable antelope, and waterbuck; they prey less frequently on the African buffalo, gemsbok, giraffe, ostrich, warthog, wildebeest, and zebra.[13][16][82][83] A study showed that a major proportion of the diet of Asiatic cheetahs consists of livestock; local species such as chinkara, desert hare, goitered gazelle, ibex, rodents, and wild sheep are also hunted.[84] Generally, only groups of cheetahs will attempt to kill large animals such as hartebeest,[16][48] although mothers with young cubs will attempt to secure a large prey all by themselves.[40] There are no records of cheetah killing human beings.[16][62] The diet of a cheetah depends on the area in which it lives. For example, on the East African plains, its preferred prey is the Thomson's gazelle, somewhat smaller than the cheetah. In contrast, in Kwa-Zulu Natal
Kwa-Zulu Natal
the preferred prey is the significantly larger nyala, males of which can weigh up to 130 kg (290 lb).[62] They do, however, opt for young and adolescent targets, which make up about 50% of the cheetah diet despite constituting only a small portion of the prey population.[13]

A cheetah in pursuit of a Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
at Ngorongoro

A South Africa
South Africa
cheetah suffocating an impala by a throat bite at Timbavati

Cheetahs defending springbok kill from a brown hyena in South Africa

Cheetahs hunt primarily throughout the day, but geographical variations exist. For instance, cheetahs in the Sahara
Sahara
and the Masai Mara hunt after sunset to escape the high temperatures of the day. In the Serengeti
Serengeti
they hunt when the lions and hyenas are inactive.[13] A study in Nairobi National Park
Nairobi National Park
in Kenya
Kenya
showed that the success of the hunt depends on the species, age, sex, and habitat of the prey, and the size of the hunting herd or the efficiency of the hunting individual.[85] Cheetahs hunt by vision rather than by scent. Prey is located from observation points or while roaming. Animals toward the edges of the herd are preferred. The cheetah will stalk their prey to within 100–300 m (330–980 ft); it will try to approach it as closely as possible while concealing itself in cover, sometimes even up to 60 m (200 ft) of the prey. The cheetah will crouch and move slowly while stalking, occasionally becoming motionless.[13] The chase usually lasts less than a minute; if the cheetah fails to make a kill quickly, it will give up. Cheetahs have an average hunting success rate of 40 to 50%.[86][87] Cheetahs kill their prey by tripping it during the chase; the cheetah can use its strong dewclaw to knock the prey off its balance. To kill medium- to large-sized prey, the cheetah bites the prey's throat to suffocate it to death. A bite on the back of the neck or the snout is enough to kill smaller prey.[13] The prey is then taken to a shaded place; the cheetah, highly exhausted after the chase, rests beside the kill and pants heavily for nearly five to 55 minutes. Groups of cheetah devour the kill peacefully, though minor growling may be observed. Cheetahs not involved in hunting will immediately start eating.[40] Cheetah
Cheetah
can consume large quantities of food. In a study at the Etosha National Park
Etosha National Park
(Namibia), the cheetah consumed as much as 10 kilograms (22 lb) within two hours and stayed close to the remains for 11 hours.[88] Cheetah
Cheetah
move their head from side to side so that the sharp carnassial teeth effectively tear the flesh, which can then be swallowed without chewing. They typically begin with the hindquarters, and then progress toward the abdomen and the spine. Rib bones are chewed on at the ends, and the limbs are not generally torn apart while eating.[13] The cheetah, especially mothers with young cubs, are highly vigilant; they need to remain on a lookout for large carnivores who might steal the prey or harm the cubs, and for any potential prey.[13][89] In Africa, the cheetah will surrender its kill to sturdier carnivores such as lions, leopards, spotted and brown hyenas, and wild dogs.[51] Cheetahs lose around 10 to 15% of their kills to other predators;[13] the percentage was found to be as high as 50% in a 1986 study.[86] Cheetahs have rarely been observed to feed on the kills of other carnivores; this may be due to vultures and spotted hyena adroitly capturing and consuming heavy carcasses within a short time.[40][90] In Eurasia, in the past, the cheetah's range overlapped not just with those of the lion, leopard and hyena, but also other carnivores, such as the tiger, wolf and bear.[14][91][92] Speed and acceleration Adaptations

The lightly built, streamlined, agile body of the cheetah makes it an efficient sprinter

The cheetah's thin and light body makes it well-suited to short, explosive bursts of speed, rapid acceleration, and an ability to execute extreme changes in direction while moving at high speed. These adaptations account for much of the cheetah's ability to catch fast-moving prey.[93][94] The cheetah is the fastest land animal.[95][96][97][98][99][100] It was called the "felid version of the greyhound", as both have similar morphology and the ability to reach tremendous speeds in a shorter time than other mammals.[48][57] The large nasal passages ensure fast flow of sufficient air, and the enlarged heart and lungs allow the enrichment of blood with oxygen in a short time. This allows cheetahs to rapidly regain their stamina after a chase.[19][13] During a typical chase, their respiratory rate increases from 60 to 150 breaths per minute.[86] While running, in addition to having good traction due to their semi-retractable claws, cheetahs use their tail as a rudder-like means of steering that enables them to make sharp turns, necessary to outflank antelopes that often change direction to escape during a chase.[13][51] The protracted claws increase grip over the ground, while foot pads make the sprint more convenient over tough ground. The tight binding of the tibia and the fibula restrict rotation about the lower leg, thus stabilising the animal throughout the sprint; the downside, however, is that this reduces climbing efficiency. The pendulum-like motion of the scapula increases the stride length and assists in shock absorption. The extension of the vertebral column can add as much as 76 cm (30 in) to the length of a stride.[101][102] During more than half of the time of the sprint, the animal has all four limbs in the air; this also contributes to the stride length.[103] The cheetah runs no more than 500 m (1,640 ft) at the speed of 80 to 112 km/h (50 to 70 mph); it very rarely runs at this high speed as most chases are within 100 m (330 ft).[104] It was previously thought that cheetah sprinting was limited due to excessive heat buildup.[13] But this has since been proven false.[105] Cheetah
Cheetah
body temperature naturally fluctuates between 37.3 and 39.5 °C (99.1 and 103.1 °F) during the course of a day. After a run, a cheetah's body temperature is well within the normal range at 38.4 °C (101.1 °F).[citation needed] Recorded values

Play media

Documentary video filmed at 1200 frames per second showing the movement of Sarah over a set run

In general, the speed of a hunting cheetah averages 64 km/h (40 mph) during a chase,[48] interspersed with a few short bursts when the speed may vary between 104 and 120 km/h (65 and 75 mph); the most reliable measurement of the typical speed during a short chase is 112 km/h (70 mph).[13][69][106][107] However, this value of the maximum speed is disputed,[13] with more recent measurements using solar-powered GPS collars in 367 hunts showing a maximum speed of 93 km/h (58 mph).[108][109] The speeds attained by the cheetah may be only slightly greater than those achieved by the pronghorn 88.5 km/h (55.0 mph)[110] and the springbok 88 km/h (55 mph).[111] Yet the cheetah has a greater probability of succeeding in the chase due to its exceptional acceleration – it can attain a speed of 75 km/h (47 mph) in just two seconds.[13] One stride or jump of a galloping cheetah averages 6.7 metres (22 ft).[112] Similarly, the ability to change direction rapidly is pivotal in ensuring hunting success.[94][113][114] Cheetahs typically walk at 3–4 kilometres per hour (1.9–2.5 mph).[69] Speed and acceleration values for the hunting cheetah may be different from those for the non-hunting because, while engaged in the chase, the cheetah is more likely to be twisting and turning and may be running through vegetation.[94][115] In 2012 an 11-year-old cheetah from the Cincinnati Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo
named Sarah made a world record by running 100 m (330 ft) in 5.95 seconds over a set run, during which she ran a recorded maximum speed of 98 km/h (61 mph).[112][116] A study of five wild cheetahs (three females, two males) during hunting reported a maximum speed of 93 km/h (58 mph), with an average of 48 to 56 km/h (30 to 35 mph). Speed can be increased by almost 10 km/h (6 mph) in a single stride. The average chase is 173 m (568 ft) and the maximum ranges from 407 to 559 m (1,335 to 1,834 ft).[94] Reproduction

A cheetah cub at Sabi Sands. Note the long, bluish grey hair on the nape, shoulders and back.

Cheetahs breed throughout the year; they are induced ovulators. Females become sexually mature at 21 to 22 months of age.[19] Females are polyoestrus – they have an oestrus ("heat") cycle every 12 days (this can vary from 10 to 20 days),[117] each oestrus lasting one to three days. A female can give birth again after 17 to 20 months; however, on the loss of a whole litter mothers can mate again.[50] Urine-marking in males becomes more pronounced when a female in their vicinity comes into oestrus. Males fight among one another to secure access to the female; even males in a coalition may show some aggression toward one another on approaching a female.[118] One male eventually wins dominance over the others. Mating, observed mainly at night, begins with the male approaching the female, who lies down on the ground. No courtship behaviour is observed; the male immediately secures hold of the female's nape and copulation takes place. The pair then ignore each other and part ways. However, they meet and copulate a few more times within the next few days.[48][119] Polyandrous, females can mate with several males.[120] The mean number of motile sperm in a single ejaculation is nearly 25.3 million.[19] Gestation is nearly three months long. The number of cubs born can vary from one to eight, though the common number is three to five. Birth takes place in a sheltered place such as thick vegetation. Each cub weighs nearly 150–400 g (5.3–14.1 oz) at birth; the eyes, shut at birth, open in 4 to 11 days. Newborn cubs can crawl and spit; they can start walking by two weeks. Their nape, shoulders and back are thickly covered with long bluish grey hair. This downy underlying fur, called a "mantle", gives them a Mohawk-type appearance; this fur is shed as the cheetah grows older.[40] It has been suggested that this mane gives a cheetah cub the appearance of the honey badger, and could act as a camouflage in both animals.[121] Cheetah
Cheetah
cubs are highly vulnerable during the first few weeks of their life; mothers keep their cubs hidden in dense vegetation for the first month.[48] Cubs start following their mothers at six weeks. The mother frequently shifts the cubs to new locations.[48] A study of play behaviour of cheetah cubs showed that cubs tend to play after nursing or while they are on the move with their mothers. Play involves plenty of agility; attacks are seldom lethal. Playing cubs stay near their mothers. The study further revealed that while the cubs showed improvement in catching each other as they grew up, the ability to crouch and hide did not develop remarkably. Thus, it was suggested that play helps develop only certain aspects of predator defence.[122] Weaning occurs at three to six months of age. The mother brings kills to her cubs; the cubs might purr as the mother licks them clean after the meal. Cubs as young as six months try to capture small prey like hares and juvenile gazelles. However, they may have to wait until as long as 15 months of age to make a successful kill on their own.[48][50] The offspring may stay with the mother for 13 to 20 months, associating with one another and feeding on kills together. After weaning, juveniles may form mixed-sex herds; young females may stay back with their mother, but there is hardly any interaction between the mother and daughters. The females in the mixed-sex herd gradually move out as they near sexual maturity.[48] In the Serengeti, average age of independence of 70 observed litters was 17.1 months. Young females had their first litters at the age of about 2.4 years and subsequent litters about 20 months later.[123] The lifespan of wild cheetahs is 14 to 15 years for females; their reproductive cycle typically ends by 12 years of age. Males generally live as long as 10 years.[1] Mortality High mortality rates have been recorded in the Serengeti. In a 1994 study, nearly 77% of litters died before eight weeks of birth, and nearly 83% of those alive could not make it to adolescence (14 weeks). Lions emerged as the major predator of juveniles, accounting for nearly 78% of the deaths. The study concluded that the survival rate of cubs till weaning was a mere 4.8%. This was attributed to the open terrain of the region, which does not allow cheetahs to conceal themselves.[124] Cheetah
Cheetah
cubs face higher mortality than most other large mammals.[125][126] It has been suggested that the significant lack of genetic diversity in cheetahs is a cause of poor quality and production of sperm, and birth defects such as cramped teeth, kinked tails, and bent limbs. Cheetahs do have low fertility rates, but they appear to have flourished for thousands of years with these low levels of genetic variance. Cheetah
Cheetah
expert Laurie Marker points out that the high level of genetic uniformity would mean that if an infectious disease surfaced in a population, all of them have (or lack) the same level of immunity. In 1982, 60% of the cheetah population in the Wildlife Safari (Oregon, United States) died due to a peritonitis epidemic.[127] Distribution and habitat The cheetah inhabits a variety of habitats. In Africa, it has been observed in dry forests, scrub forests, and savannahs.[40] In prehistoric times, the cheetah was distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe. Gradually, it vanished from Europe. Nearly 500 years ago, the cheetah was still common throughout Africa, though it avoided deserts and tropical forests. In Eurasia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and the Ganga and Indus river valleys in South Asia sheltered large numbers of cheetahs.[13] However, today the cheetah has been exterminated from the majority of its earlier range. The IUCN
IUCN
estimates that the total expanse of the range of the cheetah in earlier times was approximately 25,344,648 km2 (9,785,623 sq mi); the range (as of 2015) has since then reduced to 2,709,054 km2 (1,045,972 sq mi), a substantial decline of 89%.[1] Africa

African cheetahs inhabit savannahs, such as this one in Kenya

The cheetah occurs mainly in eastern and southern Africa; the range across the continent has declined to a mere 10% of the historic expanse. The range in eastern Africa has reduced to 6% of its original range, so that presently it is distributed in an area of 310,586 km2 (119,918 sq mi).[1] In the Horn of Africa, the cheetah occurs in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.[128] The range has not reduced as much in the southern part of the continent, where it occurs in an area of 1,223,388 km2 (472,353 sq mi), 22% of its original range. Significant populations thrive in south-western Angola, Botswana, Malawi,[26] south-western Mozambique, Namibia, northern South Africa, southern Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Very few isolated populations occur in the Sahara; the population density in this region is as low as two to three individuals per 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi). They occur in very low numbers in northern and western Africa. The distribution of prey may influence habitat preferences; in a study in the Kruger National Park, female cheetahs were found to spend a significant amount of time in woodlands, where impala occurred. It was suggested that though the forested area was unsuitable for hunting, the females preferred woodlands to encounter more impala. Male coalitions, on the other hand, shunned dense habitats and spent most of the time in open savannahs. An explanation given for this was that the coalitions prefer larger prey than impala.[129] Though they do not prefer montane regions, cheetahs can occur at elevations as high as 4,000 m (13,000 ft). An open area with some cover, such as diffused bushes, is probably ideal for the cheetah because it needs to stalk and pursue its prey over a distance, exploiting its speed. This also minimises the risk of encountering larger carnivores. Complete lack of cover, however, can be a cause of prey loss and mortality.[40][130] Asia In the past, the cheetah ranged across vast stretches in Asia, from the Mediterranean and the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
in the west to the Indian subcontinent in the east, and as far north as the Caspian and Aral Seas.[1][14] However, the cheetah has disappeared from the majority of its historic range, except Iran
Iran
and possibly a few areas in Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan.[131][132] Status and threats The cheetah has been classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN; it is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species
Species
of Wild Animals (CMS) and Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). In 2014 the CITES
CITES
Standing Committee recognised the cheetah as a "species of priority" in their strategies in northeastern Africa to counter wildlife trafficking.[133] As of 2015, the IUCN
IUCN
gives the total number of surviving individuals as nearly 6,700.[1] Regional estimates have been given as: 1,960 in eastern Africa (as of 2007); 4,190 in southern Africa (as of 2007);[23][24] and 440 in western, central, and northern Africa (as of 2012). The southern half of the continent, therefore, is home to the largest number of cheetah. 29 sub-populations have been identified, of which most consist of no more than 500 individuals.[1] A small population of 60 to 100 individuals was reported from Iran
Iran
in 2007.[32] Populations are feared to be declining, especially those of adults.[1] The cheetah is threatened by habitat loss through agricultural and industrial expansion; moreover, the species apparently requires a large area to live in as indicated by its low population densities.[1] It appears to be less capable of coexisting with humans than the leopard.[134] Human interference disturbs hunting and feeding of cheetah.[50] With 76% of its range consisting of unprotected land, the cheetah is often targeted by farmers and pastoralists who attempt to protect their livestock. However, cheetah is not known to prey on livestock.[135] Game hunters may also try to harm cheetahs as they deprive them of valuable game. Roadkill
Roadkill
is be another threat, especially in areas where roads have been constructed near natural habitat or protected areas. Cases of roadkill involving cheetahs have been reported from Kalmand, Iran, Touran National Park, and Bafq. The threat posed by infectious diseases may be minor, given the low population densities and hence the reduced chance of infection.[1] In 2016, it was estimated that there are just 7,100 cheetahs remaining in the wild, and simulation modelling suggested that they are at risk of extinction. The authors suggested a re-categorisation on the IUCN Red List for the species from vulnerable to endangered.[136][137] Conservation measures The IUCN
IUCN
has recommended co-operation between countries across the cheetah's range to minimise the conflict between cheetahs and human beings.[1] A 2016 study showed that ecotourism can have a significantly positive impact on the conservation of the cheetah. Although the requirement of space for the habitat would have to be compromised in most cases, establishment of private reserves for cheetahs and ensuring the absence of predators and poachers could be a successful conservation measure.[138] Additionally, the financial benefits accrued and the awareness generated can further aid the cause of the cheetah.[1] At the same time, the animals should not be unnecessarily handled or disturbed, as cheetahs are particularly sensitive to human interference.[50] In Africa The Range Wide Conservation Program for Cheetah
Cheetah
and African Wild Dogs (RWCP), the brainchild of Sarah Durant and Rosie Woodroffe (of the Zoological Society of London), was started in 2007 with the primary aim of ensuring better conservation measures for the cheetah and the wild dog – two species with very low population densities. A joint initiative by the ZSL, the Wildlife Conservation Society, and the IUCN
IUCN
Cat
Cat
Specialist Group, the program has among its major goals a review of the conservation policies adopted by the South African countries, and study and action on illegal hunting and trade of the cheetah.[139][140] In a 2007 publication, Durant emphasised the role of land management and improvement in connectivity across the range in cheetah conservation, in the lack of which the populations might face severe fragmentation.[141] Benin
Benin
(2014),[142] Botswana
Botswana
(2007),[143] Chad (2015),[144] Ethiopia (2010),[145] Kenya
Kenya
(2007),[144] Mozambique
Mozambique
(2010),[146][147] Namibia (2013),[1] Niger
Niger
(2012),[144] South Africa
South Africa
(2009),[148] South Sudan (2009),[149] Tanzania
Tanzania
(2013),[150] Zambia
Zambia
(2009),[151] and Zimbabwe (2009)[152] have formulated action plans for the conservation of the cheetah (the years in which the workshops were held are given in brackets). In Asia Main article: Cheetah
Cheetah
reintroduction in India

Kushki, the male Asiatic cheetah
Asiatic cheetah
in northeastern Iran

In the 20th century, the populations of cheetah in India saw a drastic fall. The last physical evidence of the cheetah in India was thought to be three individuals, all shot by the Maharajah of Surguja
Surguja
(a man also noted for holding a record for shooting 1,360 tigers), in 1947 in eastern Madhya Pradesh,[153] but a female was sighted in Koriya district, present-day Chhattisgarh, in 1951.[154] During the early 2000s, scientists from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, proposed a plan to clone Asiatic cheetahs obtained from Iran. India asked Iran
Iran
to transport one live pair to India, or, if that was not possible, allow them to collect sperm and eggs of the cheetah pair in Iran
Iran
itself.[155] However, Iran
Iran
rejected both proposals.[156] In September 2009, the then Minister of Environment and Forests, Jairam Ramesh, assigned the Wildlife Trust of India and the Wildlife Institute of India with the task of examining the potential of cheetah reintroduction in the nation. The report, submitted in 2010, showed that the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary
Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary
and Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary
Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary
in Madhya Pradesh, and Shahgarh Landscape and Desert National Park
Desert National Park
in Rajasthan have a high potential to support reintroduced cheetah populations. These areas were found to be spacious; of these four areas, the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary
Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary
had the largest available area, 6,800 square kilometres (2,600 sq mi). Moreover, these were rich in prey availability. The Sanjay National Park, though comprising an area of 12.500 square kilometres (4.826 sq mi) and having supported cheetah populations before the independence of India in 1947, is no longer suitable for the cheetah due to low prey density and risks of poaching.[157] In 2001 the Iranian government collaborated with the Cheetah Conservation Fund, the IUCN, Panthera, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Wildlife Conservation Society
Wildlife Conservation Society
on the Conservation of Asiatic Cheetah
Cheetah
Project (CACP) to protect the natural habitat of the Asiatic cheetah
Asiatic cheetah
and its prey, to ensure that development projects do not hamper its survival, and to highlight the plight of the Asiatic cheetah.[158][159] Iran
Iran
declared 31 August as National Cheetah
Cheetah
Day in 2006.[160] Interaction with human beings Taming

A hieroglyph from Deir el-Bahari
Deir el-Bahari
depicting leashed cheetahs ("panthers")

The cheetah shows little aggression toward human beings, and can be easily tamed, as it has been since antiquity.[40] Reliefs in the Deir el-Bahari temple complex tell of an expedition by Egyptians to the Land of Punt
Land of Punt
during the reign of the pharaoh Hatshepsut (1507–1458 BC) that fetched, among other things, animals called "panthers" for Egypt. Two types of "panthers" were depicted in these sculptures: leashed cheetahs, referred to as "panthers of the north", and sturdy leopards, referred to as "panthers of the south". During the New Kingdom
New Kingdom
(16th to 11th centuries BC), cheetahs were common pet animals for the royalty, who adorned the animals with ornate collars and leashes.[4] The Egyptians would use their dogs to bring the concealed prey out in the open, after which a cheetah would be set upon it to kill it.[161] A Sumerian seal dating back to nearly 3000 BC, featuring a leashed animal resembling a cheetah, has fuelled speculation that the cheetah might have been first domesticated and used for hunting in Sumer
Sumer
(Mesopotamia).[53][162] [163] However, Thomas T. Allsen (of The College of New Jersey) argues that the depicted animal might not be a cheetah given its largely dog-like features; moreover, the background gives an impression of a montane area, which the cheetah does not typically inhabit.[164]

Giuliano de' Medici
Giuliano de' Medici
depicted with a cheetah behind him on horseback. Painting by Benozzo Gozzoli

Mainly two kinds of theories have been put forth to explain the subsequent expansion of the cheetah into Asia, Europe, and the rest of Africa.[4] Historians who accept the Sumerian origin of the domesticated cheetah – such as Heinz F. Friederichs and Burchard Brentjes – hold that the animal gradually spread out to central and northern Africa, from where it reached India. On the other hand, historians such as Frederick E. Zeuner accept the Egyptian origin and state that the cheetah gradually spread into central Asia, Iran, and India.[4] In the third century AD, Roman author Claudius Aelianus
Claudius Aelianus
wrote of tame panthers in India and "smaller lions" that would be used for tracking and hunting; the account cannot be very reliable as Roman, as well as Greek, literature is not generally clear in its references to different types of cats.[165] Hunting with cheetahs became more prevalent toward the seventh century AD. The 11th-century Clephane Horn, possibly of Byzantine origin, is believed to depict domesticated hunting cheetahs.[166] In the Middle East, the cheetah would accompany the nobility to hunts in special seats behind saddles. Cheetahs continued to be associated with royalty and elegance in western Asia till as late as the 19th century. The first phase of taming would take several weeks, in which the cheetah would be kept tethered and made to get accustomed to human beings. Next, the cheetah would be tempted with food and trained to mount horses. Finally, its hunting instincts would be aroused by slaughtering animals before it. The whole process could take as long as a year to complete. In eastern Asia, the records are confusing as regional names for the leopard and the cheetah may be used interchangeably. The earliest depiction of cheetahs from eastern Asia dates back to the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(7th to 10th centuries AD); paintings depict tethered cheetahs as well as cheetahs mounted on horses. Chinese emperors would use cheetahs, as well as caracals, as gifts. In the 13th and the 14th centuries, the Yuan rulers bought numerous caracals, cheetahs, and tigers from the western parts of the empire and Muslim merchants, in return for gold, silver, cash, and silk. According to the Ming Shilu, the subsequent Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(14th to 17th centuries) continued this practice. The cheetah gradually entered Eurasia
Eurasia
toward the 14th century, though they never became as popular as they had in the Middle East.[4] The Mughal ruler Akbar the Great (1556–1605) is said to have kept as many as 1000 cheetahs.[86] However, his son Jahangir
Jahangir
wrote in his memoirs, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, that only one of them gave birth to cubs.[4] Mughal rulers trained cheetahs as well as caracals in a similar way as the West Asians, and used them to hunt game – especially blackbuck. The rampant hunting severely affected the populations of wild animals.[167][168] In captivity

A Northeast African cheetah
Northeast African cheetah
in Chester Zoo

Mortality under captivity is generally high; reasons include stillbirths, birth defects, cannibalism, hypothermia, neglect of cubs by mothers, and infectious diseases.[169] A study comparing the health of captive and wild cheetahs noted that despite having similar genetic make-up, wild cheetahs are far healthier than their captive counterparts. The study identified possible stress factors such as restricted habitat and interaction with human beings and other carnivores, and recommended private and spacious areas for captive cheetahs.[170] A study of diseases suffered by captive cheetahs in the period 1989–92 in several North American zoos showed that hepatic veno-occlusive disease, a disease of the liver, had affected 82% of the deceased cheetahs, caused nine deaths, and occurred in 51% of living females. Chronic gastritis was detected in 91% of the population. Glomerulosclerosis, a disease of the kidneys, emerged as another significant disease, affecting 84% of the cheetahs; another renal disease, nephrosclerosis, affected 39% of the cheetahs. Feline infectious peritonitis caused two deaths. Pneumonia was a major cause for juvenile deaths.[171] Another study concluded that excess of vitamin A in their diets could result in veno-occlusive disease in their livers.[172] Moreover, cheetahs are poor breeders in captivity, while wild individuals are far more successful.[173] In a 1992 study, females in Serengeti
Serengeti
were found to have 95% success rate in breeding.[117] In contrast, only 20% of the North American captive cheetahs bred successfully in 1991.[174] Studies have shown that in-vitro fertilisation in cheetah poses more difficulties than are faced in the case of other cats.[175][176] In culture

Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne
by Titian, 1523

The cheetah has been widely portrayed in a variety of artistic works. In Bacchus and Ariadne, an oil painting by the 16th-century Italian painter Titian, the chariot of the Greek god Dionysus
Dionysus
(Bacchus) is depicted as being drawn by two cheetahs. The cheetahs in the painting were previously considered to be leopards.[177] In 1764 English painter George Stubbs
George Stubbs
commemorated the gifting of a cheetah to George III by the English Governor of Madras, Sir George Pigot in his painting Cheetah
Cheetah
with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag. The painting depicts a cheetah, hooded and collared by two Indian servants, along with a stag it was supposed to prey upon.[178][179] The 1896 painting The Caress, by the 19th-century Belgian symbolist painter Fernand Khnopff, is a representation of the myth of Oedipus
Oedipus
and the Sphinx. It portrays a creature with a woman's head and a cheetah's body (often misidentified as a leopard's).[180] The Bill Thomas Cheetah
Bill Thomas Cheetah
American sports/racing car, a Chevrolet-based coupe first designed and driven in 1963, was an attempt to challenge Carroll Shelby's Shelby Cobra in American sports car competition of the 1960s era. Due to only two dozen or fewer chassis ever being built, with only a dozen of these being complete cars, the Cheetah
Cheetah
was never homologated for competition beyond prototype status, with its production ending in 1966.[181] A variety of literature mentions the cheetah. In 1969 author Joy Adamson, of Born Free
Born Free
fame, wrote The Spotted Sphinx, a biography of her pet cheetah Pippa.[182] Hussein, An Entertainment, a novel by Patrick O'Brian
Patrick O'Brian
set in the British Raj
British Raj
period in India, illustrates the practice of royalty keeping and training cheetahs to hunt antelopes.[183] The book How It Was with Dooms tells the true story of a family raising an orphaned cheetah cub named Dooms in Kenya.[184] The 2005 film Duma was loosely based on this book.[185] The cheetah has often been featured in marketing and animation. In 1986 Frito-Lay
Frito-Lay
introduced the Chester Cheetah, an anthropomorphic cheetah, as the mascot for their Cheetos.[186][187] The first release of Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X, the Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.0, was code-named "Cheetah"; the subsequent versions released before 2013 were all named after cats.[188] The animated series ThunderCats
ThunderCats
had a character named "Cheetara", an anthropomorphic cheetah, voiced by Lynne Lipton.[citation needed] Comic book superheroine Wonder Woman's chief adversary is Dr. Barbara Ann Minerva, alias The Cheetah.[189] See also

Acinonychini Giant cheetah Jaguar, another spotted big cat

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Further reading

Great Cats, Majestic Creatures of the Wild, ed. John Seidensticker, illus. Frank Knight, (Rodale Press, 1991), ISBN 0-87857-965-6 Cheetah, Katherine (or Kathrine) and Karl Ammann, Arco Pub, (1985), ISBN 0-668-06259-2. Science (vol 311, p. 73) Marker, L. (2002). "Aspects of Namibian cheetah ( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus): biology, ecology and conservation strategies" (PDF). PhD. Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. 

External links

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus.

Wikinews has related news: Around 7,100 cheetahs remain, say experts

Cheetah
Cheetah
at the Encyclopedia of Life
Encyclopedia of Life
IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group: Cheetah
Cheetah
Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus Cheetah
Cheetah
Conservation Fund De Wildt Cheetah
Cheetah
and Wildlife Trust On the Chase With Cheetahs – slideshow by Life magazine Fake Flies and Cheating Cheetahs: measuring the speed of a cheetah

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx
Canadian lynx
(L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Animals portal Mammals portal Cats portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q23907 ADW: Acinonyx_jubatus ARKive: acinonyx-jubatus EoL: 328680 EPPO: AKNOJU Fossilworks: 224065 GBIF: 2435270 iNaturalist: 41955 ITIS: 183813 IUCN: 219 MSW: 14000006 NCBI: 32536 Species+: 8935

Authority control

LCCN: sh85022857 GND: 4193010-1 BNF: cb159931426 (d

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