CHEESE is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein . It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows , buffalo , goats , or sheep . During production, the milk is usually acidified, and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.
Hundreds of types of cheese from various countries are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized , the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs , spices , or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester , is produced by adding annatto . Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper , garlic , chives or cranberries .
For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice . Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid , then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs.
There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some
experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine. The cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, purchasing, receiving, storage, and ripening.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Production
* 3.1 Consumption
* 4 Processing
* 4.1 Curdling * 4.2 Curd processing * 4.3 Ripening
* 5 Types
* 6 Cooking and eating
* 6.1 Cheeseboard
* 7 Nutrition and health
* 8 Cultural attitudes
* 8.1 Figurative expressions
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word
casein is also derived. The earliest source is from the
proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become
sour". The word cheese comes from chese (in
Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from
When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese" (as in "formed", not "moldy"). It is from this word that the French fromage, proper Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, and Provençal furmo are derived. Of the Romance languages, Spanish , Portuguese , Romanian , Tuscan and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus (queso, queijo, caș and caso for example). The word cheese itself is occasionally employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense. The term "cheese" is also used as a noun, verb and adjective in a number of figurative expressions (e.g., "the big cheese", "to be cheesed off" and "cheesy lyrics").
Main article: History of cheese
A piece of soft curd cheese, oven-baked to increase longevity
The earliest evidence of cheese-making in the archaeological record
dates back to 5,500 BCE, in what is now
Cheesemaking may have begun independently of this by the pressing and
salting of curdled milk to preserve it. Observation that the effect of
making cheese in an animal stomach gave more solid and better-textured
curds may have led to the deliberate addition of rennet. Early
archeological evidence of
Egyptian cheese has been found in Egyptian
tomb murals, dating to about 2000 BCE. The earliest cheeses were
likely to have been quite sour and salty, similar in texture to rustic
cottage cheese or feta , a crumbly, flavorful Greek cheese. Cheese
produced in Europe, where climates are cooler than the Middle East,
required less salt for preservation. With less salt and acidity, the
cheese became a suitable environment for useful microbes and molds,
giving aged cheeses their respective flavors. The earliest ever
discovered preserved cheese was found in the Taklamakan Desert in
ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME
We soon reached his cave, but he was out shepherding, so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses, and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold...
When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats, all in due course, and then let each of them have her own young. He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers.
By Roman times, cheese was an everyday food and cheesemaking a mature
As Romanized populations encountered unfamiliar newly settled
neighbors, bringing their own cheese-making traditions, their own
flocks and their own unrelated words for cheese, cheeses in Europe
diversified further, with various locales developing their own
distinctive traditions and products. As long-distance trade collapsed,
only travelers would encounter unfamiliar cheeses:
In 1546 The Proverbs of
John Heywood claimed "the moon is made of a
greene cheese ." (Greene may refer here not to the color, as many now
think, but to being new or unaged.) Variations on this sentiment were
long repeated and
Until its modern spread along with European culture, cheese was
nearly unheard of in east Asian cultures, in the pre-Columbian
Americas, and only had limited use in sub-Mediterranean Africa, mainly
being widespread and popular only in Europe, the Middle East, the
The first factory for the industrial production of cheese opened in
The 1860s saw the beginnings of mass-produced rennet, and by the turn of the century scientists were producing pure microbial cultures. Before then, bacteria in cheesemaking had come from the environment or from recycling an earlier batch's whey; the pure cultures meant a more standardized cheese could be produced.
Factory-made cheese overtook traditional cheesemaking in the World
War II era, and factories have been the source of most cheese in
Production of cheese – 2014 From whole cow milk
COUNTRY PRODUCTION (MILLIONS OF TONNES )
In 2014, world production of cheese from whole cow milk was 18.7
million tonnes , with the
Other 2014 world totals for processed cheese include:
* from skimmed cow milk, 2.4 million tonnes (leading country,
Germany, 845,500 tonnes)
* from goat milk, 523,040 tonnes (leading country,
During 2015, Germany, France,
France, Iceland, Finland, Denmark and
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During industrial production of Emmental cheese, the as-yet-undrained curd is broken by rotating mixers.
A required step in cheesemaking is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey . Usually this is done by acidifying (souring ) the milk and adding rennet . The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid, such as vinegar, in a few cases (paneer , queso fresco ). More commonly starter bacteria are employed instead which convert milk sugars into lactic acid . The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococcus , Lactobacillus , or Streptococcus families. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani , which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging, giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes (called "eyes ").
Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity, but most cheeses also use rennet. Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone. It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. In general, softer, smaller, fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder, larger, longer-aged varieties.
While rennet was traditionally produced via extraction from the inner mucosa of the fourth stomach chamber of slaughtered young, unweaned calves, most rennet used today in cheesemaking is produced recombinantly . The majority of the applied chymosin is retained in the whey and, at most, may be present in cheese in trace quantities. In ripe cheese, the type and provenance of chymosin used in production cannot be determined.
At this point, the cheese has set into a very moist gel. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained, salted, and packaged. For most of the rest, the curd is cut into small cubes. This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd.
Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of
35–55 °C (95–131 °F). This forces more whey from the cut curd.
It also changes the taste of the finished cheese, affecting both the
bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Cheeses that are heated to
the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter
bacteria that survive this step—either
Salt has roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. It preserves
cheese from spoiling, draws moisture from the curd, and firms
cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins . Some cheeses
are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. Most
cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds. Cheese
factory in the
Other techniques influence a cheese's texture and flavor. Some examples are :
* Stretching: ( Mozzarella , Provolone ) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water, developing a stringy, fibrous body. * Cheddaring : (Cheddar , other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up, pushing more moisture away. The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long time, taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture. * Washing: (Edam , Gouda , Colby ) The curd is washed in warm water, lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese.
Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. The harder the cheese, the more pressure is applied. The pressure drives out moisture—the molds are designed to allow water to escape—and unifies the curds into a single solid body. Parmigiano-Reggiano in a modern factory
Main article: Cheese ripening
A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and, for harder varieties, rubbery in texture. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed—cheese curds are eaten on their own—but normally cheeses are left to rest under controlled conditions. This aging period (also called ripening, or, from the French, affinage) lasts from a few days to several years. As a cheese ages, microbes and enzymes transform texture and intensify flavor. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milkfat into a complex mix of amino acids , amines , and fatty acids .
Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced before or during aging. In traditional cheesemaking, these microbes might be already present in the aging room; they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. More often today, prepared cultures are used, giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. These cheeses include soft ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert , blue cheeses such as Roquefort , Stilton , Gorgonzola , and rind-washed cheeses such as Limburger .
There are many types of cheese, with around 500 different varieties
recognized by the International
Categorizing cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice. The lines between "soft", "semi-soft", "semi-hard", and "hard" are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. The main factor that controls cheese hardness is moisture content, which depends largely on the pressure with which it is packed into molds, and on aging time. Fresh, whey and stretched curd cheeses
The main factor in the categorization of these cheeses is their age. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days. Content (double cream, goat, ewe and water buffalo) Emmental
Some cheeses are categorized by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced. While most of the world's commercially available cheese is made from cows' milk, many parts of the world also produce cheese from goats and sheep. Double cream cheeses are soft cheeses of cows' milk enriched with cream so that their fat content is 60% or, in the case of triple creams, 75%. The use of the terms "double" or "triple" is not meant to give a quantitative reference to the change in fat content, since the fat content of whole cows' milk is 3%-4%. Soft-ripened and blue-vein
There are at least three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is a significant feature: soft ripened cheeses, washed rind cheeses and blue cheeses. Processed cheeses
Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts, often with the addition of milk, more salt, preservatives , and food coloring . It is inexpensive, consistent, and melts smoothly. It is sold packaged and either pre-sliced or unsliced, in a number of varieties. It is also available in aerosol cans in some countries.
COOKING AND EATING
At refrigerator temperatures, the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftened butter , and its protein structure is stiff as well. Flavor and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. For improvements in flavor and texture, it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating. If the cheese is further warmed, to 26–32 °C (79–90 °F), the fats will begin to "sweat out" as they go beyond soft to fully liquid.
Above room temperatures, most hard cheeses melt. Rennet-curdled cheeses have a gel -like protein matrix that is broken down by heat. When enough protein bonds are broken, the cheese itself turns from a solid to a viscous liquid. Soft, high-moisture cheeses will melt at around 55 °C (131 °F), while hard, low-moisture cheeses such as Parmesan remain solid until they reach about 82 °C (180 °F). Acid-set cheeses, including halloumi , paneer , some whey cheeses and many varieties of fresh goat cheese , have a protein structure that remains intact at high temperatures. When cooked, these cheeses just get firmer as water evaporates.
Some cheeses, like raclette , melt smoothly; many tend to become
stringy or suffer from a separation of their fats. Many of these can
be coaxed into melting smoothly in the presence of acids or starch .
As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).
A cheeseboard (or cheese course) may be served at the end of a meal, either replacing or following dessert . A cheeseboard typically comprises portions of contrasting cheese with accompaniments such as crackers, grapes, nuts, celery and chutney . Port or other dessert wines may be served with a cheeseboard.
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
The nutritional value of cheese varies widely. Cottage cheese may consist of 4% fat and 11% protein while some whey cheeses are 15% fat and 11% protein, and triple-crème cheeses are 36% fat and 7% protein. In general, cheese is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value , DV) of calcium , protein , phosphorus , sodium and saturated fat . A 28-gram (one ounce ) serving of cheddar cheese contains about 7 grams (0.25 oz) of protein and 202 milligrams of calcium. Nutritionally, cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (7.1 oz) of milk to provide that much protein, and 150 grams (5.3 oz) to equal the calcium.
MacroNutrients (grams) of common cheeses per 100gm CHEESE WATER PROTEIN FAT CARBS
Swiss 37.1 26.9 27.8 5.4
Feta 55.2 14.2 21.3 4.1
Cheddar 36.8 24.9 33.1 1.3
Mozarella 50 22.2 22.4 2.2
Cottage 80 11.1 4.3 3.4
Vitamin contents in %DV of common cheeses per 100gm CHEESE A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 CH. C D E K
SWISS 17 4 17 0 4 4 1 56 2.8 0 11 2 3
FETA 8 10 50 5 10 21 8 28 2.2 0 0 1 2
CHEDDAR 20 2 22 0 4 4 5 14 3 0 3 1 3
MOZZARELLA 14 2 17 1 1 2 2 38 2.8 0 0 1 3
COTTAGE 3 2 10 0 6 2 3 7 3.3 0 0 0 0
Mineral contents in %DV of common cheeses per 100 grams CHEESE CA FE MG P K NA ZN CU MN SE
SWISS 79 10 1 57 2 8 29 2 0 26
FETA 49 4 5 34 2 46 19 2 1 21
CHEDDAR 72 4 7 51 3 26 21 2 1 20
MOZZARELLA 51 2 5 35 2 26 19 1 1 24
COTTAGE 8 0 2 16 3 15 3 1 0 14
Ch. = Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium;
Note : All nutrient values including protein are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item except for Macronutrients. Source : Nutritiondata.self.com
NEONATAL INFECTION AND DEATH
Average cheese consumption and rates of mortality due to cardiovascular disease or diabetes
A review of the medical literature published in 2012 noted that:
A number of food safety agencies around the world have warned of the
risks of raw-milk cheeses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration
states that soft raw-milk cheeses can cause "serious infectious
diseases including listeriosis , brucellosis , salmonellosis and
tuberculosis ". It is U.S. law since 1944 that all raw-milk cheeses
(including imports since 1951) must be aged at least 60 days.
Pregnant women may face an additional risk from cheese; the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has warned pregnant women against eating soft-ripened cheeses and blue-veined cheeses, due to the listeria risk, which can cause miscarriage or harm the fetus.
Although cheese is a vital source of nutrition in many regions of the world and is extensively consumed in others, its use is not universal.
Strict followers of the dietary laws of
Rennet derived from animal slaughter, and thus cheese made with animal-derived rennet, is not vegetarian . Most widely available vegetarian cheeses are made using rennet produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei. Vegans and other dairy-avoiding vegetarians do not eat conventional cheese, but some vegetable-based cheese substitutes (soy or almond ) are used as substitutes.
Even in cultures with long cheese traditions, consumers may perceive some cheeses that are especially pungent-smelling, or mold -bearing varieties such as Limburger or Roquefort , as unpalatable. Such cheeses are an acquired taste because they are processed using molds or microbiological cultures , allowing odor and flavor molecules to resemble those in rotten foods. One author stated: "An aversion to the odor of decay has the obvious biological value of steering us away from possible food poisoning, so it is no wonder that an animal food that gives off whiffs of shoes and soil and the stable takes some getting used to."
Collecting cheese labels is called "tyrosemiophilia ".
In the 19th century, "cheese" was used as a figurative way of saying "the proper thing"; this usage comes "from Urdu chiz "a thing," from Persian chiz, from Old Persian...ciš-ciy "something." The term "cheese" in this sense was "icked up by British in India by 1818 and used in the sense of "a big thing", for example in the expression "he's the real chiz". The expression "big cheese" was attested in use in 1914 to mean an "important person"; this is likely "American English in origin". The expression "to cut a big cheese" was used to mean "to look important"; this figurative expression referred to the huge wheels of cheese displayed by cheese retailers as a publicity stunt. The phrase "cut the cheese" also became an American slang term meaning to flatulate. The word "cheese" has also had the meaning of "an ignorant, stupid person."
Other figurative meanings involve the word "cheese" used as a verb. To "cheese" is recorded as meaning to "stop (what one is doing), run off," in 1812 (this was "thieves' slang"). To be "cheesed off" means to be annoyed. The expression "say cheese" in a photograph-taking context (when the photographer wishes the people to smile for the photo), which means "to smile" dates from 1930 (the word was probably chosen because the "ee" encourages people to make a smile). The verb "cheese" was used as slang for "be quiet" in the early 19th century in Britain. The fictional "...notion that the moon is made of green cheese as a type of a ridiculous assertion is from 1520s". The figurative expression "to make cheeses" is an 1830s phrase referring to schoolgirls who amuse themselves by "...wheeling rapidly so one's petticoats blew out in a circle then dropping down so they came to rest inflated and resembling a wheel of cheese". In video game slang "to cheese somebody" means to win a game by using a strategy that requires minimal skill and knowledge or that exploits a glitch or flaw in game design.
The adjective "cheesy" has two meanings. The first is literal, and means "cheese-like"; this definition is attested to from the late 14th century (e.g., "a cheesy substance oozed from the broken jar"). In the late 19th century, medical writers used the term "cheesy" in a more literal sense, "to describe morbid substances found in tumors, decaying flesh, etc." The adjective also has a figurative sense, meaning "cheap, inferior"; this use "... is attested from 1896, perhaps originally U.S. student slang". In the late 19th century in British slang, "cheesy" meant "fine, showy"; this use is attested to in the 1850s. In writing lyrics for pop music , rock music or musical theatre , "cheesy" is a pejorative term which means "blatantly artificial" (OED).
* Food portal
* ^ Fankhauser, David B. (2007). "Fankhauser\'s
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* Ensrud, Barbara (1981). The Pocket Guide to Cheese. Sydney:
Lansdowne Press. ISBN 0-7018-1483-7 .
* Jenkins, Steven (1996).
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