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A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority (or sovereignty), and that the recipient admits a limited (or inferior) status within the relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically granted, and that sense is retained in modern usage of the term. The word entered the English language
English language
from the Old French
Old French
charte, via Latin
Latin
charta, and ultimately from Greek χάρτης (khartes, meaning "layer of papyrus"). It has come to be synonymous with a document that sets out a grant of rights or privileges.

Contents

1 Colloquial usages 2 Different types of charters

2.1 Anglo-Saxon charters 2.2 Charter
Charter
colony 2.3 Congressional charter 2.4 Municipal charter 2.5 Order charter 2.6 Project charter 2.7 Royal charter 2.8 Inspeximus charter

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Colloquial usages[edit] The term is used for a special case (or as an exception) to an institutional charter. A charter school, for example, is one that has different rules, regulations, and statutes from a state school. Charter
Charter
is sometimes used as a synonym for "tool" or "lease", as in the "charter"' of a bus or boat or plane by an organization, intended for a similar group destination. A charter member of an organization is an original member; that is, one who became a member when the organization received its charter. Different types of charters[edit] Anglo-Saxon charters[edit] Main article: Anglo-Saxon charters Anglo-Saxon charters
Anglo-Saxon charters
are documents from the early medieval period in Britain which typically make a grant of land or record a privilege. They are usually written on parchment, in Latin
Latin
but often with sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, which often correspond closely to modern parish boundaries. The earliest surviving charters were drawn up in the 670s; the oldest surviving charters granted land to the Church, but from the 8th century surviving charters were increasingly used to grant land to lay people. Charter
Charter
colony[edit] Main article: Charter
Charter
colony The British Empire
British Empire
used three main types of colonies as it sought to expand its territory to distant parts of the earth. These three types were royal colonies, proprietary colonies, and corporate colonies. A charter colony by definition is a "colony…chartered to an individual, trading company, etc., by the British crown."[1] Although charter colonies were not the most prevalent of the three types of colonies in the British Empire, they were by no means insignificant. Congressional charter[edit] Main article: Congressional charter A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission, authority and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code. Municipal charter[edit] Main article: Municipal charter A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. Order charter[edit] Charters for chivalric orders and other orders, such as the Sovereign Military
Military
Order of Malta.

v t e

Phaleristics

Orders, decorations, medals, awards, and honours

Orders

Order of chivalry
Order of chivalry
( Military
Military
order (in Spain)) Order of merit Dynastic order Royal family order

Other distinctions

Military
Military
orders, awards, and decorations

List/List of highest, Campaign medal

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Award Prize Medal List

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Grand Master Chancellor Assessor Bailiff Commander Knight Dame Officer Hospitaller Prior Chaplain Master of ceremonies Postulant Squire Page

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winners

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Medal
Medal
(Gold, Silver, Bronze) Medal
Medal
bar Service ribbon Rosette Award
Award
pin

Jewellery
Jewellery
and symbols

Ribbon
Ribbon
award Devotional medal Badge
Badge
(Heraldic badge) Brooch Ring Lapel pin Collar pin Tie clip Tie pin Service lapel button

Legitimation

Fount of honour International Commission on Orders of Chivalry

Related organisations

Fraternity Guild Honor society Learned society Gentlemen's club Fraternal order Self-styled order

Related concepts

Numismatics Heraldry Nobility Order of precedence Honorary degree Service flag Battle honour Campaign streamer Awareness ribbon

Category:Orders, decorations, and medals Wikipedia:WikiProject Orders, decorations, and medals Wikipedia:WikiProject Awards and prizes

Project charter[edit] Main article: Project charter In project management, a project charter or project definition (sometimes called the terms of reference) is a statement of the scope, objectives and participants in a project. It provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, and defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project. Royal charter[edit] Main article: Royal charter In medieval Europe, royal charters were used to create cities (i.e., localities with recognised legal rights and privileges). The date that such a charter was granted is considered to be when a city was "founded", regardless of when the locality originally began to be settled. At one time a royal charter was the only way in which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means (such as the registration process for limited companies) are generally now used instead. Inspeximus charter[edit] A charter of "Inspeximus" (Latin, literally "We have inspected") is frequently a royal charter, by which an earlier charter or series of charters relating to a particular foundation (such as a monastery or a guild) was recited and incorporated into a new charter, usually in order to confirm and renew its validity under present authority. Where the original documents are lost, an inspeximus charter may sometimes preserve their texts and lists of witnesses. See also[edit]

Articles of Incorporation Atlantic Charter Charter
Charter
Roll Charter
Charter
school Chartered company Earth Charter Freedom Charter Fueros
Fueros
(Spanish version) General incorporation law Magna Carta Medieval Bulgarian royal charters Papal Bull United Nations Charter

References[edit]

^ charter colony - Definitions from Dictionary.com

External links[edit]

Look up charter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charters.

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