1 Early years 2 Birth of a business 3 Intense years (1830-1835)
3.1 The campaign against Louis-Philippe (1830-1832) 3.2 Trial and conviction 3.3 Republican commitment (1833-1835) 3.4 From political cartoon to satire of manners (after 1835)
4 La Silhouette 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External links
Page de titre du Charivari, 1833
On 1 December 1832 Philipon publishes Le Charivari, a daily illustrated with four pages in a smaller Caricature format. More varied and more "popular" than its predecessor, it is not limited to political caricature. Charivari is intended, according to the prospectus, a " comprehensive overview which recur constantly , by pencil and pen , all the various aspects of this kaleidoscopic world in which we live." The lithographs are of lower quality than in La Caricature, but better integrated into the text. Thereafter, the presentation of Charivari bring significant changes. Owner of these two newspapers, Philipon has the full control for both the administrative and physical parts as well as the editorial and artistic parts
. He chooses his collaborators, dealing with suppliers in the market as well as financial management. In an obituary published in 1862, Nadar the credits of " extraordinary lucidity in business " coupled with " inexhaustible fertility of invention and means ". Employer of his artist friends, it defines the objectives with them, suggest topics, coordinating text and lithography. He does not hesitate to ask for changes to avoid censorship. To ensure editorial consistency, writing is reduced to a small team of highly dedicated journalists (in February 1834, they are seven Philipon included).
La Maison Aubert (1831)
Les tentations du diable (1830)
The testimony of his contemporaries emphasize charisma Philipon. He was "the soul of the company". According to Champfleury, "he led a large group of pencils, called him the young men breathed their flame, gave ideas to those who did not have". If draws little himself, he puts all his enthusiasm in lithographs. When Silhouette disappears early January 1831, he has on the market a near monopoly. In 1836, a third of lithographs published in the capital will come from Aubert's house. However, the company has retained its family character, besides his son, Gabriel Aubert, especially his sister, Marie- Françoise Aubert, it contributed effectively. Intense years (1830-1835) The campaign against Louis-Philippe (1830-1832) In the fall of 1830 Philipon, as supporter of the Revolution of July, expected much of the new regime. The first issues of La Caricature contained no political charges. "At first drawings kept out of politics, merely representing popular or familiar scenes, only accidentally attacking men and things thrown down by the heroic July revolution.". Chief editor and friend of Philipon, Balzac, contributed extensively in this period, signing his articles under various pseudonyms. Anti-clericalism, already present in Silhouette, persistently manifested itself in both texts and illustrations. The memory of Napoleon still lived. In late December 1830 to early 1831 the tone changed. In January a lithograph by Decamps (Freedom to the post, La Caricature, January 27, 1831) gave the signal. Strung to the "pole of shame", Françoise Liberté "born in Paris in 1790," is condemned "on order of the provost court [...] for the crime of rebellion in the days of 27, 28, 29 July in 1830." That cartoon referred explicitly to the law of December 4, 1830 that restored stamp duty and censorship of newspapers. It would be followed in March 1831 by another lithograph by Decamps, Freedom (Françoise Désirée) daughter of the people, born in Paris July 27, 1830, in which a girl symbolizing freedom is held in check by a group of men trying to subdue her (La Caricature, March 3, 1831). They represent the party of the resistance, opposed to reform. In the foreground we recognize without difficulty the "citizen king" and his serene face, he seems to control the situation. From that moment the caricature became more political and satire gradually spreads to all sections. It doesn't hesitate to take on the king and his ministers. Not the abused "Charter", but accusation will now be the truth. Speaking later to a friend, Philipon wrote: "The golden age [of consensus] did not last long. You'll see, after a dozen of issues La Caricature's dawning political cartoons, soft first and but slightly aggressive, came back more often, more often again, and more intense, until it occupied all of the newspaper and becomes ruthless ". In a long supplement to Caricature of 17 November 1831 Philipon set out his main grievances against the government. In addition to the new press laws "as stringent as under Charles X" that jeopardised his business (in less than two years La Caricature would be tried seven times and receive four convictions, apart from numerous bankruptcies that penalized its sales) he denounced the end to liberal institutions, non-compliance with the Charter, profiteering, the dropping of Poland, illustrated by a lithograph by Grandville and Forest (Order reigns in Warsaw. Aubert, September 20, 1831 ). Philipon expressed his disaffection for the regime in a cartoon Foam of July, published by Maison Aubert (26 February 1831). Better known as The soap bubbles, it shows Louis -Philippe carelessly blowing bubbles that show the unfulfilled promises of freedom of the press, popular elections, mayors elected by the people, no more sinecures etc. Prosecuted for insulting the king, Philipon would be acquitted eventually. He reoffended a few months later with another lithograph, known as The Cosmetic repair (La Caricature, June 30, 1831 ), in which the king is represented as a mason, symbolically erasing the traces of the July Revolution. He was again tried by the Assize Court.
Louis-Philippe transformed into pear
Trial and conviction The " coup de theater " occurs at the hearing on 14 November 1831 when facing the judges, Philipon sure to be condemned, plays his all and shows a deft that " everything can look like the king " argument, and that it can not be held responsible for this resemblance . And illustrate its defense by the metamorphosis of his portrait pear. These are the famous " croquis made at the hearing on 14 November 1831 ." Success is immense : " What I had foreseen happened . The people seized by a mocking image, a simple image design and simple shape , began to imitate this wherever he found a way to make charcoal image smearing , scratching a pear. Pears soon covered all the walls of Paris and spread to all parts of the walls of France ". More broadly, the event was a tribute to the art of caricature ( Champfleury Philipon called it the " Juvenal caricature ") that transforms the target to reveal the essential features . Beyond the person of the king, the "pear" symbolized the regime and its cronies . It was taken extensively by artists working with Philipon, including Daumier ( A huge pear hanging by the commoners ), Grandville ( The Birth of the Juste- Milieu ) Travies (Mr. Mahieux poiricide ) Bouquet ( Pear and pips) . A peak will be reached when Philipon publish the Project Atonement pear monument erected on the Place de la Revolution, precisely the place where Louis XVI was guillotined (La Caricature, June 7, 1832 ) . He will be charged with inciting regicide .
Cartoon representing the juste milieu philosophy as an empty suit of clothes.
At the end of his trial before the Assize Court, Philipon was
convicted of " contempt of the king's person ." Arrested Jan. 12,
1832, he had served six months in prison and pay a fine of 2,000
francs, which were added seven months related to other grounds of
conviction. He was transferred to the prison Sainte- Pelagie, and home
health Dr. Pinel, where the regime is more favorable.
The final break with the July Monarchy occurred on 5 and 6 June 1832,
at the funeral of General Lamarque, which turned into rebellion
harshly repressed . Philipon had just publish and sign the " Project
for a monument pear Atonement ." Fearing for his life, he hides in
Paris until the end of the siege. He returned to Sainte- Pelagie 5
September 1832 and finally released from prison Feb. 5, 1833 .
By bitterness of a regime that " persecuted " and probably under the
influence of contacts in prison, his positions had firmed . After
hoped a "liberalism compatible with monarchy", it became Republican in
itself. But he had never ceased to be ? Philipon proclamation
published in La Caricature ( 27 December 1832 ), true profession of
faith, leaves no doubt about it : " We repeat, we are what we
were there twelve years , frank and pure republicans . Who says
otherwise is an impostor who says behind us in ambiguous terms is a
coward . "
Republican commitment (1833-1835)
At the time of his first political cartoons, Philipon had already
established contacts with Republican circles . Number of artists who
gravitated around him were republican conviction or at least
sympathizers. From November 1831 to March 1832, a list of
subscriptions is launched from La Caricature, and a second call is
made a year later in
Le massacre de la rue Transnonain (14 avril 1834), vu par Honoré Daumier.
Commitment can not be denied the uprisings harshly repressed Lyon
(April 9 ) and Paris (13 April). Several lithographs emerge, including
Hercules winner Travies ( La Caricature, 1 May 1834) and especially
Rue Transnonain Daumier ( Monthly Association, September 24, 1834 ),
which refers to the killing by troops of the inhabitants of this
street 15 April 1834. "This is not a caricature ," says Philipon,
" it is not a burden , it's a bloody page of our modern history page
drawn by a strong hand and dictated by an old indignation " ( La
Caricature, October 2, 1834 ) .
July 28, 1835, bombing of Fieschi has immediate consequences :
arrest of Armand Carrel at the Hotel Colbert, ransacking offices
Charivari, an arrest warrant is issued against Philipon and that
Desnoyers prefer to escape and hide . The day before the attack, had
published Philipon red number Charivari, real firebrand with as an
article a list of men, women and children killed by the troops and the
National Guard since 1830. He was accompanied by a lithograph Travies
ironically titled " Personification of the sweetest and most humane
system " ( Le Charivari, July 27, 1835 ), where the body of the
"patriots" murdered forms an image of Louis-Philippe back.
Philipon be accused of " moral complicity " in the attack.
On 5 August 1835, new press laws are presented in the House. At the
meeting of August 29, Thiers said: " There is nothing more dangerous
[...] that infamous caricatures, seditious designs , there is no more
direct provocation to attack " ( The universal monitor, August 30,
1835 ) . Caricature ceased publication . In November 1835, Le
Charivari is sold for a pittance, but Philipon canned Officer until
1838. Taking stock of five years, he wrote : "I started November
4, 1830 the country's liberal illusions and I arrived in September
1835 in the kingdom of the saddest realities".
From political cartoon to satire of manners (after 1835)
If the " September Laws " mark the end of the political cartoon in his
" vehement " version Philipon not remains active . In addition to the
reissue of La Caricature Caricature became Provisional (1838), also
called " non-political cartoon ," he published in
However, it is not always easy to disentangle the social satire of
political satire. In this regard, the series of
Moeurs Aquatiques. Un Rapt by JJ Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard).
Le juste milieu by Charles Philipon
Advertisement for La Caricature, Politique, Morale et Littéraire Journal. Illustration by JJ Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard).
^ Grand dictionnaire universel du s-XIXe, Éd. Slatkine, 1982, 17 vol. ^  ^ Balzac et Philipon associés, Exposition-dossier à la Maison de Balzac, 23 juin-23 septembre 2001. 
Analyse de l'œuvre Projet du monument expia-poire... de
^ Article nécrologique repris par Champfleury dans Histoire de la caricature moderne, p. 271 et suiv. ^ Desnoyers, Altaroche, Cler, un critique d'art et deux critiques littéraires. David S.Kerr, Caricature and French political culture 1830-1848, Clarendon Press, 2000, p. 30. ^ Champfleury, Histoire de la caricature moderne, p. 26. ^ Kerr, op. cit., p. 59. ^ Pierre Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle, op. cit. ^  ^ Le Juste Milieu, lithographie de Philipon, non datée. ^ Lettre du 7 juillet 1846 à Roslje, dans : Carteret, Le Trésor du bibliophile romantique et moderne, t. III, p. 124. ^ Déclinée plus tard par ces mêmes artistes (« L'ordre public règne aussi à Paris », Aubert, 1 octobre 1831), puis par Traviès (« L'ordre le plus parfait règne aussi à Lyon », La Caricature, 5 janvier 1832). ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-03-21. Retrieved 2014-06-16. ^  ^  ^ Lettres du 7 juillet 1846 à Roslje, Carteret, op. cit., p. 126). ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2014-06-16. ^ See Kerr, op.cit, p. 100 et suivantes. ^  ^ [permanent dead link] ^ Lettres à Rosalje du 7 juillet 1846, Carteret, op.cit., p. 124. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2014-06-16. ^ James Cuno, « Charles Philipon, La Maison Aubert, and the business of caricature in Paris, 1829-41 », Art Journal, 1983(4)353. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles Philipon.
Works by or about
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 36956964 LCCN: n83130092 ISNI: 0000 0000 8372 7643 GND: 122514521 SUDOC: 030122694 BNF: cb121601751 (data) ULAN: 500026672 NLA: 35529156 RKD: 63