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Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(January 25, 1860 – February 8, 1936) was an American attorney and politician, who served as the 31st Vice President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1929 to 1933. After serving as a United States Representative and being repeatedly re-elected as United States Senator
United States Senator
from Kansas, Curtis was chosen as Senate Majority Leader
Senate Majority Leader
by his Republican colleagues. A member of the Kaw Nation
Kaw Nation
born in the Kansas
Kansas
Territory, Curtis was the first person with significant Native American ancestry and the first person with acknowledged non-European ancestry to reach either of the highest offices in the United States government's executive branch. He also was an Executive Branch officer born in a territory rather than a state. His mother was Native American of mixed Kaw, Osage and French ancestry. His father was of British origins, being half-English, a quarter Scottish and half-Welsh. As an attorney, Curtis entered political life at the age of 32. He won multiple terms from his district in Topeka, Kansas, beginning in 1892 as a Republican to the US House of Representatives. He was elected to the US Senate first by the Kansas
Kansas
Legislature in 1906, and then by popular vote in 1914, 1920 and 1926. Curtis served one six-year term from 1907 to 1913, and then most of three terms from 1915 to 1929 (after his election as vice president). His long popularity and connections in Kansas
Kansas
and national politics helped make Curtis a strong leader in the senate; he marshaled support to be elected as Senate Minority Whip
Senate Minority Whip
from 1915 to 1925 and then as Senate Majority Leader from 1925 to 1929. In these positions, he was instrumental in managing legislation and accomplishing Republican national goals. Curtis ran for Vice President with Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
as President in 1928. They won a landslide victory. When they ran together again in 1932, because Hoover had failed to alleviate the Great Depression, the public elected Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and John Nance Garner in a subsequent landslide.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Marriage and family 3 House of Representatives (1893–1907) 4 Senate (1907–1913; 1915–1929) 5 Vice Presidency (1929–1933) 6 After politics 7 Legacy and honors 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Early life and education[edit] Born on January 25, 1860 in Topeka, Kansas
Kansas
Territory, prior to its admission as a state in January 1861, Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
had considerable Native American ancestry. His mother Ellen Papin (also spelled Pappan) was Kaw, Osage, Potawatomi, and French.[1][2] His father Orren Curtis was of English, Scots and Welsh ancestry.[3] On his mother's side, Curtis was a descendant of chief White Plume
White Plume
of the Kaw Nation
Kaw Nation
and chief Pawhuska of the Osage.[4] Curtis's first words as an infant were in French and Kansa, learned from his mother. She died when he was three, but he lived for some time with her parents on the Kaw reservation and returned to them in later years. He learned to love racing horses; later he was a highly successful jockey in prairie horse races.[5] On June 1, 1868, 100 Cheyenne
Cheyenne
warriors invaded the Kaw Reservation. Terrified white settlers took refuge in nearby Council Grove. The Kaw men painted their faces, donned regalia, and rode out on horseback to confront the Cheyenne. The rival Indian warriors put on display of superb horsemanship, accompanied with war cries and volleys of bullets and arrows. After about four hours, the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
retired with a few stolen horses and a peace offering of coffee and sugar from the Council Grove merchants. No one had been injured on either side. During the battle, Joe Jim, a Kaw interpreter, galloped 60 miles to Topeka to seek assistance from the governor. Riding with Joe Jim was eight-year-old Charles Curtis, then nicknamed "Indian Charley".[6] After Curtis's mother's death in 1863, his father remarried but soon divorced. Orren Curtis was captured and imprisoned during his Civil War service, and during this period, the infant Charles was cared for by his maternal grandparents. They helped him gain possession of his mother's land in North Topeka, which, in the Kaw matrilineal system, he inherited from her. His father tried unsuccessfully to get control of this land. Orren Curtis married a third time and had a daughter, Theresa Permelia "Dolly" Curtis, born in 1866 after the war.[5] Curtis was strongly influenced by both sets of grandparents. After living on the reservation with his maternal grandparents, M. Papin and Julie Gonville, he returned to Topeka. He lived with his paternal grandparents while attending Topeka High School. Both grandmothers encouraged his education. Curtis read law in an established firm where he worked part-time. He was admitted to the bar in 1881,[5] and began his practice in Topeka. He served as prosecuting attorney of Shawnee County, Kansas
Kansas
from 1885 to 1889. Marriage and family[edit] On November 27, 1884, Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
married Annie Elizabeth Baird[7] (1860–1924). They had three children: Permelia Jeannette Curtis (1886–1955), Henry "Harry" King Curtis (1890–1946), and Leona Virginia Curtis (1892–1965). He and his wife also provided a home in Topeka for his half-sister Theresa Permelia "Dolly" Curtis before her marriage. His wife died in 1924. A widower when elected Vice President in 1928, Curtis had his half-sister "Dolly" Curtis Gann (March 1866 – January 30, 1953) act as his official hostess for social events.[8] She had lived with her husband Edward Everett Gann in Washington, DC since about 1903. He was a lawyer and at one time an assistant attorney general in the government. Attuned to social protocol, Dolly Gann insisted in 1929 on being treated officially as the #2 woman in government at social functions, and the diplomatic corps voted to change a State Department protocol to acknowledge this while her brother was in office.[8] To date, Curtis is the last Vice President to be unmarried during his entire time in office. Alben W. Barkley, who served as Vice President from 1949 to 1953, entered office as a widower but remarried while in office. House of Representatives (1893–1907)[edit] First elected as a Republican to the House of Representatives of the 53rd Congress, Curtis was re-elected for the following six terms. He made the effort to learn about his many constituents and treated them as personal friends.

Charles Curtis's vice-presidential bust

While serving as a Representative, Curtis sponsored and helped pass the Curtis Act of 1898; it extended the Dawes Act
Dawes Act
to the Five Civilized Tribes of Indian Territory. As such, it ended their self-government and provided for allotment of communal land to individual households of tribal members, to be recorded on official rolls. It limited their tribal courts and government. Any lands not allotted were to be considered surplus and were sold to non-Natives. Based on his personal experience, Curtis believed that Indians could benefit by getting educated, assimilating, and joining the main society. Implementation of this act completed the extinguishing of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, preparing it to be admitted as the state of Oklahoma, which was done in 1907. The government tried to encourage Indians to accept individual citizenship and lands, and to take up European-American culture. By the end of the century, it had set up boarding schools for Indian children as another method of assimilation. Curtis re-enrolled in the Kaw Nation, which had been removed from Kansas
Kansas
to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
(now Oklahoma) when he was in his teens. In 1902, the Kaw Allotment Act disbanded the Kaw Nation
Kaw Nation
as a legal entity and provided for the allotment of communal land to members, in a process similar to that endured by other tribes. The act transferred 160 acres (0.6 km²) of former tribal land to the federal government. Other land formerly held in common was allocated to individual tribal members. Under the terms of the act, as enrolled tribal members, Curtis (and his three children) were allotted about 1,625 acres (6.6 km²) in total of Kaw land in Oklahoma. Curtis served in the House from March 4, 1893, until January 28, 1907. Senate (1907–1913; 1915–1929)[edit] Curtis resigned from the House after having been elected by the Kansas Legislature to the U.S. Senate seat left vacant by the resignation of Joseph R. Burton. Curtis served the remainder of the current term, ending on 3 March 1907.[9] (Popular election of US senators had not yet been mandated by constitutional amendment.) At the same time, the legislature elected Curtis to the next full Senate term commencing March 4; he served until March 4, 1913. In 1912, Democrats won control of the Kansas
Kansas
legislature, so Curtis was not re-elected. The 17th Amendment providing for direct election of Senators was adopted in 1913. In 1914, Curtis was elected to Kansas' other Senate seat by popular vote, and re-elected in 1920 and 1926. He served from March 4, 1915 to March 3, 1929, when he resigned to become Vice President.[9] During his tenure in the Senate, Curtis was President pro tempore of the Senate, Chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of the Interior, of the Committee on Indian Depredations, and of the Committee on Coast Defenses, and Chairman of the Republican Senate Conference. He also was elected for a decade as Senate Minority Whip and for four years as Senate Majority Leader
Senate Majority Leader
after Republicans won control of the chamber. Thus he held all the senior leadership positions in the Senate and was highly respected for his ability to work with members on "both sides of the aisle."

Senator Curtis (right) with President Coolidge and Grace Coolidge on their way to the Capitol building on Inauguration Day, March 4, 1925.

In 1923, Senator Curtis, together with fellow Kansan, Representative Daniel Read Anthony, Jr., proposed the first version of the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
to each of their Houses. The amendment did not go forward. Curtis's leadership abilities were demonstrated by his election as Republican Whip from 1915 to 1924 and Majority Leader from 1925 to 1929. He was effective in collaboration and moving legislation forward in the Senate. Idaho Senator William Borah
William Borah
acclaimed Curtis as "a great reconciler, a walking political encyclopedia and one of the best political poker players in America."[5] Time magazine featured him on the cover in December 1926 and reported, "it is in the party caucuses, in the committee rooms, in the cloakrooms that he patches up troubles, puts through legislation" as one of the two leading senators, with Reed Smoot.[10] Curtis was remembered for not making many speeches. He was noted for keeping the "best card index of the state ever made."[11] Curtis used a black notebook, and later a card index, to record all the people he met while in office or campaigning, and continually referred to it, resulting in his being known for "his remarkable memory for faces and names."[11] "Never a pension letter, or any other letter for that matter, came in that wasn't answered promptly... And another name went into the all-embracing card index. The doctors were listed. The farm leaders. The school teachers. The lists were kept up to date. How such an intricate index could be kept up to date and function so smoothly was a marvel to his associates. It was one of Curtis' prides."[11] Curtis was celebrated as a "stand patter," the most regular of Republicans, and yet a man who could always bargain with his party's progressives and with senators from across the center aisle. Vice Presidency (1929–1933)[edit] Curtis received 64 votes on the presidential ballot at the 1928 Republican National Convention
Republican National Convention
in Kansas
Kansas
City, out of 1,084 total. The winning candidate, Herbert Hoover, secured 837 votes, having been the favourite for the nomination since August 1927 (when President Calvin Coolidge ruled himself out of contention). Curtis was a leader of the anti-Hoover movement, forming an alliance with two of his Senate colleagues, Guy Goff and James E. Watson, as well as Governor Frank Lowden of Illinois. Less than a week before the convention, he described Hoover as a man "for whom the party will be on the defensive from the day the is named until he close of the polls on election day".[12] However, despite his opposition, Curtis had no qualms about accepting the vice-presidential nomination. While covering the convention, H. L. Mencken
H. L. Mencken
described Curtis as "the Kansas
Kansas
comic character, who is half Indian and half windmill. Charlie ran against Hoover with great energy, and let fly some very embarrassing truths about him. But when the Hoover managers threw Charlie the Vice-Presidency as a solatium, he shut up instantly, and a few days later he was hymning his late bugaboo as the greatest statesman since Pericles".[12] The Hoover–Curtis ticket won the 1928 presidential election in a landslide, securing 58.2% of the popular vote. Curtis resigned from the Senate only the day before he was sworn in as vice-president. He took the oath of office in the Senate Chamber, with the presidential party then proceeding to the East Portico of the United States Capitol for Hoover's inauguration.[13] Curtis arranged for a Native American jazz band to perform at the inauguration.[14] Curtis's election as Vice President made history because he was the only native Kansan and only Native American to hold the post, as well as the first person of acknowledged non-European ancestry. The first American of significant Native American ancestry to be elected to such high office, Curtis decorated his office with Native American artifacts and posed for pictures wearing Indian headdresses.[15] He was 69 when he took office, making him the oldest incoming vice-president at the time. He is now the second-oldest, behind Alben W. Barkley at 71. Curtis was the first Vice President to take the oath of office on a Bible in the same manner as the President. Since he employed a woman as secretary to the Vice President, instead of the customary man, he scored another minor first. Lola M. Williams of Columbus, Kansas, who had been working for Curtis for some time, was one of the first women to enter the Senate floor, traditionally a male monopoly. Soon after the Great Depression
Great Depression
began, Curtis endorsed the five-day work week, with no reduction in wages, as a work-sharing solution to unemployment.[16] In October 1930, in the middle of the campaign for 1930 mid-term elections, Curtis made an offhand remark that "good times are just around the corner". This statement was later erroneously attributed to President Hoover, and became a "lethal political boomerang".[17] At the 1932 Republican National Convention, President Hoover was renominated almost unanimously. Despite having no major opposition himself – Charles Dawes ruled himself out[18] – Curtis failed to secure a majority of votes on the first ballot for the vice-presidential nomination. He received 559.25 out of a possible 1,154 votes (or 48.5%), with Generals Hanford MacNider
Hanford MacNider
(15.8%) and James Harbord
James Harbord
(14.0%) being his nearest contenders. On the second ballot, the Pennsylvania delegation shifted its votes to Curtis from Edward Martin, giving him 634.25 votes (54.9%) and securing him the nomination for the second time.[19] After the stock market crash in 1929, the problems of the Great Depression led to the defeat of the Republican ticket. Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
was elected in 1932 as president, with a popular vote of 57% to 40%. Curtis's term as Vice President ended on March 4, 1933. Curtis's final duty as vice president was to administer the oath of office to his successor, John Nance Garner. Garner's swearing-in ceremony was the last to take place in the Senate Chamber.[20] Curtis was 73 years and 38 days old when his term as vice president ended, making him the oldest VP in history until Vice President Alben W. Barkley surpassed him on January 2, 1951. After politics[edit] Curtis decided to stay in Washington, D.C., to resume his legal career, as he had a wide network of professional contacts from his long career in public service. He died there on February 8, 1936 from a heart attack.[21] By his wishes, his body was returned to his beloved Kansas
Kansas
and buried next to his wife at the Topeka Cemetery. Legacy and honors[edit]

He was featured on the cover of Time magazine, December 20, 1926[10] and June 18, 1928, while serving as US Senator from Kansas.[22] Full-length articles discussed his life and politics. He was featured as Vice President on the cover of Time, December 5, 1932.[23] His house in Topeka, Kansas
Kansas
has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated as a state historic site. The Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
House Museum is now operated as a house museum.[24]

See also[edit]

Curtis Act of 1898 List of Chairpersons of the College Republicans List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s – December 20, 1926 and June 18, 1928 List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1930s – December 5, 1932 List of Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States
Congress

References[edit]

^ McKie, Scott (4 February 2014). "Charles Curtis: America's Indian Vice President". Cherokee One Feather. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ "January 29 – This Date in History: Kaw Member Charles Curtis Becomes US Senator". Native News Online (29 January 2014). Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ Christensen, Lee R. The Curtis Peet Ancestry of Charles Curtis Vice- President of the United States
President of the United States
4 March 1929-3 March 1933.  ^ "Genealogy of Vice President Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
- Mother's side: Pappans (of Charles Curtis)". VPCharlesCurtis.net. Retrieved July 19, 2010.  ^ a b c d "Charles Curtis, 31st Vice President (1929-1933)". U.S. Senate: Art & History. US Senate.gov. Retrieved December 14, 2011. , reprinted from Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789–1993. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 1997.  ^ Unrau, William E. (1971). Mixed Bloods and Tribal Dissolution: Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
and the Quest for Indian Identity. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 72–75.  and Crawford, Samuel J. (1911). Kansas
Kansas
in the Sixties. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClurg. p. 289.  ^ Blackmar, Frank Wilson (1912). Kansas: A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, Etc. Standard Publishing Company. p. 487.  ^ a b "Dolly Gann, 86, Dead; Winner in Social Feud", Chicago Tribune, 31 January 1953; accessed 26 July 2016 ^ a b United States Congress. " Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(id: C001008)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  ^ a b "The Congress: Quiet Leader". Time. December 20, 1926. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ a b c "Obituary". Kansas
Kansas
City Star. 9 February 1936.  Quoted in J.R. Mendoza (23 March 2003). "Charles Curtis: Doing it his way". Topeka Capital-Journal.  ^ a b Harris Gaylord Warren, Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
and the Great Depression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 38. ^ Warren (1959), p. 52. ^ Native American Netroots American Indian Biography: Vice-President Charles Curtis ^ "U.S. Senate: Charles Curtis, 31st Vice President (1929-1933)". www.senate.gov.  ^ Ryan, John A. (1967) Questions of the Day ^ Warren (1959), p. 190. ^ Warren (1959), p. 253. ^ "Our Campaigns - US Vice President - R Convention Race - Jun 14, 1932". www.ourcampaigns.com.  ^ Warren (1959), p. 293. ^ "Former Vice President, Charles Curtis. Succumbs". Southeast Missourian. February 8, 1936. p. 1. Retrieved August 13, 2011.  ^ "Senator Charles Curtis". Time. June 18, 1928. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ "Lamest Duck". Time. December 5, 1932. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2010.  ^ Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
House Museum, official website

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles Curtis.

United States Congress. " Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(id: C001008)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  "Charles Curtis; Native-American Indian Vice-President; a biography", Vice President Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
Website Whispers Like Thunder, Moro Films official movie web site Don C. Seitz, From Kaw Teepee to Capitol; The Life Story of Charles Curtis, Indian, Who Has Risen to High Estate, full text, Hathi Trust Digital Library Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
House Museum, official website

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by John G. Otis Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Kansas's 4th congressional district 1893–1899 Succeeded by James Monroe Miller

Preceded by Case Broderick Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Kansas's 1st congressional district 1899–1907 Succeeded by Daniel Read Anthony Jr.

Preceded by Henry Gray Turner Chair of the House Interior Expenditures Committee 1895–1903 Succeeded by Edward S. Minor

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Alfred W. Benson U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Kansas 1907–1913 Served alongside: Chester I. Long, Joseph L. Bristow Succeeded by William Howard Thompson

Preceded by Elmer Burkett Chair of the Senate Indian Depredations Committee 1907–1911 Succeeded by Isidor Rayner

Preceded by George S. Nixon Chair of the Senate Coast Defenses Committee 1911–1913 Succeeded by James Edgar Martine

Preceded by Joseph L. Bristow U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Kansas 1915–1929 Served alongside: William Thompson, Arthur Capper Succeeded by Henry Justin Allen

Preceded by James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. Senate Minority Whip 1915–1919 Succeeded by Peter G. Gerry

Preceded by J. Hamilton Lewis Senate Majority Whip 1919–1924 Succeeded by Wesley Livsey Jones

Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge Senate Majority Leader 1924–1929 Succeeded by James Eli Watson

Preceded by Philander C. Knox Chair of the Joint Inaugural Ceremonies Committee 1924–1925 Succeeded by George H. Moses

Political offices

Preceded by Augustus Octavius Bacon President pro tempore of the United States Senate 1911 Succeeded by Augustus Octavius Bacon

Preceded by Charles G. Dawes Vice President of the United States 1929–1933 Succeeded by John Nance Garner

Party political offices

New office Secretary of the Senate Republican Conference 1911–1913 Succeeded by William Kenyon

First Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Kansas (Class 3) 1914, 1920, 1926 Succeeded by Henry Justin Allen

Preceded by James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. Senate Republican Whip 1915–1924 Succeeded by Wesley Livsey Jones

Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge Senate Republican Leader 1924–1929 Succeeded by James Eli Watson

Chair of the Senate Republican Conference 1925–1929

Preceded by Charles G. Dawes Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States 1928, 1932 Succeeded by Frank Knox

v t e

Vice Presidents of the United States (list)

John Adams
John Adams
(1789–1797) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1797–1801) Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
(1801–1805) George Clinton (1805–1812) Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(1813–1814) Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1817–1825) John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(1825–1832) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1833–1837) Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1845–1849) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1849–1850) William R. King
William R. King
(1853) John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge
(1857–1861) Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865) Schuyler Colfax
Schuyler Colfax
(1869–1873) Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
(1873–1875) William A. Wheeler
William A. Wheeler
(1877–1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881) Thomas A. Hendricks
Thomas A. Hendricks
(1885) Levi P. Morton
Levi P. Morton
(1889–1893) Adlai Stevenson (1893–1897) Garret Hobart
Garret Hobart
(1897–1899) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901) Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks
(1905–1909) James S. Sherman
James S. Sherman
(1909–1912) Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas R. Marshall
(1913–1921) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1921–1923) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1925–1929) Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(1929–1933) John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner
(1933–1941) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–1953) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1953–1961) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1961–1963) Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
(1965–1969) Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
(1969–1973) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1973–1974) Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
(1974–1977) Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
(1977–1981) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–1989) Dan Quayle
Dan Quayle
(1989–1993) Al Gore
Al Gore
(1993–2001) Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–2009) Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(2009–2017) Mike Pence
Mike Pence
(2017–present)

List Category

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United States Senators from Kansas

Class 2

Lane Ross Caldwell Crozier Harvey Plumb Perkins Martin Baker Burton Benson Curtis Thompson Capper Schoeppel Pearson Kassebaum Roberts

Class 3

Pomeroy Ingalls Peffer Harris Long Bristow Curtis Allen McGill Reed Darby Carlson Dole Frahm Brownback Moran

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Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate

Langdon Lee Langdon Izard H Tazewell Livermore Bingham Bradford Read Sedgwick Laurance Ross Livermore Tracy Howard Hillhouse Baldwin Bradley Brown Franklin Anderson Smith Bradley Milledge Gregg Gaillard Pope Crawford Varnum Gaillard Barbour Gaillard Macon Smith L Tazewell White Poindexter Tyler W R King Southard Mangum Sevier Atchison W R King Atchison Cass Bright Stuart Bright Mason Rusk Fitzpatrick Bright Fitzpatrick Foot Clark Foster Wade Anthony Carpenter Anthony Ferry Thurman Bayard Davis Edmunds Sherman Ingalls Manderson Harris Ransom Harris Frye Bacon/Curtis/Gallinger/Brandegee/Lodge Clarke Saulsbury Cummins Moses Pittman W H King Harrison Glass McKellar Vandenberg McKellar Bridges George Hayden Russell Ellender Eastland Magnuson Young Magnuson Thurmond Stennis Byrd Thurmond Byrd Thurmond Byrd Stevens Byrd Inouye Leahy Hatch

v t e

United States Senate
United States Senate
Majority Leaders

Lodge Curtis Watson Robinson Barkley White Lucas McFarland Taft Knowland Johnson Mansfield Byrd Baker Stevens (Acting) Baker Dole Byrd Mitchell Dole Lott Daschle Lott Daschle Frist Reid McConnell

v t e

Republican Party Leaders in the United States Senate

Lodge Curtis Watson McNary Austin McNary White Wherry Bridges Taft Knowland Dirksen Scott Baker Dole Lott Frist McConnell

v t e

United States Senate
United States Senate
Majority Whips

Lewis Curtis Jones Fess Lewis Minton Hill Wherry Myers Johnson Saltonstall Clements Mansfield Humphrey Long Kennedy Byrd Cranston Stevens Simpson Cranston Ford Lott Nickles Reid Nickles Reid McConnell Durbin Cornyn

v t e

United States Senate
United States Senate
Minority Whips

Wadsworth Curtis Gerry Sheppard Hebert (vacant; 1935–1944) Wherry Lucas Saltonstall Clements Saltonstall Dirksen Kuchel Scott Griffin Stevens Cranston Simpson Ford Reid Nickles Reid Nickles Reid Durbin Lott Kyl Cornyn Durbin

v t e

Republican Party Whips in the United States Senate

Wadsworth Curtis Jones Fess Hebert (vacant; 1935–1944) Wherry Saltonstall Dirksen Kuchel Scott Griffin Stevens Simpson Lott Nickles McConnell Lott Kyl Cornyn

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Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Indian Affairs

Full Committee (1820–1947)

Holmes Johnson Benton H. White Troup H. White Sevier Morehead A. White Sevier Bagby Atchison Sebastian Doolittle Henderson Harlan Buckingham Allison Coke Dawes Jones Pettigrew Thurston Stewart Clapp Gamble Stone Ashurst Curtis Spencer Harreld Frazier Wheeler Thomas O'Mahoney

Select Committee (1977–1993)

Abourezk Melcher Cohen Andrews Inouye

Full Committee (1993–)

Inouye McCain Campbell Inouye Campbell Inouye Campbell McCain Dorgan Akaka Cantwell Tester Barrasso Hoeven

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Rules and Administration

Rules (1870–1947)

Ferry Blaine Morgan Frye Aldrich Blackburn Aldrich Spooner Knox Crane Overman Knox Curtis Moses Copeland Neely Byrd

Rules and Administration (1947–Present)

Brooks Hayden Jenner Green Hennings Mansfield Jordan Cannon Pell Mathias Ford Stevens Warner McConnell Dodd McConnell Dodd Lott Feinstein Schumer Blunt Shelby Blunt

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Congress Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies

Hanna (1901) Spooner (1905) Knox (1909) Crane (1913) Overman (1917) Knox (1921) Curtis (1925) Moses (1929) Robinson (1933) Neely (1937) Neely (1941) Byrd (1945) Hayden (1949) Bridges (1953) Bridges (1957) Sparkman (1961) Jordan (1965) Dirksen (1969) Cannon (1973) Cannon (1977) Hatfield (1981) Mathias (1985) Ford (1989) Ford (1993) Warner (1997) McConnell (2001) Lott (2005) Feinstein (2009) Schumer (2013) Blunt (2017)

v t e

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Kansas

1st district

Phillips Anderson Morrill Broderick Curtis Anthony Lambertson Cole H. Miller Avery Dole Sebelius Roberts Moran Huelskamp Marshall

2nd district

Goodin Haskell Funston H. Moore O. Miller M. Peters Bowersock Scott Mitchell Taggart E. Little Guyer C. Little Guyer Scrivner George Ellsworth Avery Mize Roy Keys Jeffries Slattery Brownback Ryun Boyda Jenkins

3rd district

Brown Ryan Perkins Clover Hudson Kirkpatrick Ridgely A. Jackson Campbell Sproul McGugin Patterson Winter Meyer George Hargis McVey Ellsworth Winn Meyers Snowbarger D. Moore Yoder

4th district

Ryan Kelley Otis Curtis J. Miller F. Jackson Doolittle Hoch Carpenter E. Rees Shriver Glickman Tiahrt Pompeo Estes

5th district

Anderson Davis Calderhead Vincent Calderhead R. Rees Helvering Strong Ayres Houston Hope Breeding Skubitz Whittaker Nichols

6th district

Hanback Turner Baker McCormick Reeder Young Connelly White Sparks McCarthy Carlson Smith Dole

7th district

S. Peters Simpson Long Simpson Long Murdock Madison Neeley Shouse Tincher Hope

8th district

Murdock Ayres Bird Ayres

At-large

Conway Wilder Clarke Lowe (1873–1875: Lowe Cobb Phillips) (1883–1885: Hanback Morrill Perkins S. Peters) Harris Blue Botkin Bailey Scott

Territory

Whitfield Parrott

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United States Republican Party

Chairpersons of the RNC

Morgan Raymond Ward Claflin Morgan Chandler Cameron Jewell Sabin Jones Quay Clarkson Carter Hanna Payne Cortelyou New Hitchcock Hill Rosewater Hilles Wilcox Hays Adams Butler Work Huston Fess Sanders Fletcher Hamilton Martin Walsh Spangler Brownell Reece Scott Gabrielson Summerfield Roberts Hall Alcorn T. B. Morton Miller Burch Bliss R. Morton Dole Bush Smith Brock Richards Laxalt/Fahrenkopf Reagan/Fahrenkopf Atwater Yeutter Bond Barbour Nicholson Gilmore Racicot Gillespie Mehlman Martínez Duncan Steele Priebus Romney McDaniel

Presidential tickets

Frémont/Dayton Lincoln/Hamlin Lincoln/Johnson Grant/Colfax Grant/Wilson Hayes/Wheeler Garfield/Arthur Blaine/Logan Harrison/Morton Harrison/Reid McKinley/Hobart McKinley/Roosevelt Roosevelt/Fairbanks Taft/Sherman Taft/Sherman/Butler Hughes/Fairbanks Harding/Coolidge Coolidge/Dawes Hoover/Curtis (twice) Landon/Knox Willkie/McNary Dewey/Bricker Dewey/Warren Eisenhower/Nixon (twice) Nixon/Lodge Goldwater/Miller Nixon/Agnew (twice) Ford/Dole Reagan/G. H. W. Bush (twice) G. H. W. Bush/Quayle (twice) Dole/Kemp G. W. Bush/Cheney (twice) McCain/Palin Romney/Ryan Trump/Pence

Parties by state and territory

State

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Territory

American Samoa District of Columbia Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

Conventions (list)

1856 (Philadelphia) 1860 (Chicago) 1864 (Baltimore) 1868 (Chicago) 1872 (Philadelphia) 1876 (Cincinnati) 1880 (Chicago) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Chicago) 1892 (Minneapolis) 1896 (Saint Louis) 1900 (Philadelphia) 1904 (Chicago) 1908 (Chicago) 1912 (Chicago) 1916 (Chicago) 1920 (Chicago) 1924 (Cleveland) 1928 ( Kansas
Kansas
City) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Cleveland) 1940 (Philadelphia) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (San Francisco) 1960 (Chicago) 1964 (San Francisco) 1968 (Miami Beach) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 ( Kansas
Kansas
City) 1980 (Detroit) 1984 (Dallas) 1988 (New Orleans) 1992 (Houston) 1996 (San Diego) 2000 (Philadelphia) 2004 (New York) 2008 (St. Paul) 2012 (Tampa) 2016 (Cleveland)

Affiliated organizations

Fundraising groups

National Republican Congressional Committee National Republican Senatorial Committee Republican Conference of the United States House of Representatives Republican Conference of the United States Senate Republican Governors Association

Sectional groups

College Republicans

Chairmen

Congressional Hispanic Conference International Democrat Union Log Cabin Republicans Republican Jewish Coalition Republican National Hispanic Assembly Republicans Abroad Teen Age Republicans Young Republicans

Factional groups

Republican Main Street Partnership Republican Majority for Choice Republican Liberty Caucus Republican National Coalition for Life Republican Study Committee ConservAmerica Liberty Caucus Freedom Caucus Ripon Society The Wish List

Related articles

History Primaries Debates 2009 chairmanship election 2011 chairmanship election 2013 chairmanship election 2015 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election Bibliography Timeline of modern American conservatism

Republican Party portal

v t e

Cabinet of President Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–33)

Vice President

Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(1929–33)

Secretary of State

Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1929) Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1929–33)

Secretary of the Treasury

Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1929–32) Ogden L. Mills
Ogden L. Mills
(1932–33)

Secretary of War

James W. Good (1929) Patrick J. Hurley
Patrick J. Hurley
(1929–33)

Attorney General

William DeWitt Mitchell (1929–33)

Postmaster General

Walter F. Brown (1929–33)

Secretary of the Navy

Charles F. Adams, III (1929–33)

Secretary of the Interior

Ray Lyman Wilbur
Ray Lyman Wilbur
(1929–33)

Secretary of Agriculture

Arthur M. Hyde
Arthur M. Hyde
(1929–33)

Secretary of Commerce

Robert P. Lamont
Robert P. Lamont
(1929–32) Roy D. Chapin
Roy D. Chapin
(1932–33)

Secretary of Labor

James J. Davis
James J. Davis
(1929–30) William N. Doak
William N. Doak
(1930–33)

v t e

(1924 ←) United States presidential election, 1928
United States presidential election, 1928
(→ 1932)

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Herbert Hoover

VP nominee

Charles Curtis

Candidates:

Charles Curtis Guy D. Goff Frank O. Lowden George W. Norris Frank B. Willis

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Al Smith

VP nominee

Joseph Taylor Robinson

Candidates

Cordell Hull Atlee Pomerene James A. Reed Evans Woollen

Third party and independent candidates

Communist Party

Nominee

William Z. Foster

VP nominee

Benjamin Gitlow

Prohibition Party

Nominee

William F. Varney

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

James H. Maurer

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Frank T. Johns

VP nominee

Verne L. Reynolds

Independents and other candidates

William Dudley Pelley

Other 1928 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1928 ←) United States presidential election, 1932
United States presidential election, 1932
(→ 1936)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

VP nominee

John Nance Garner

Candidates

John Nance Garner William H. Murray James A. Reed Albert Ritchie Al Smith

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Herbert Hoover

VP nominee

Charles Curtis

Candidates

John J. Blaine Calvin Coolidge Joseph I. France James W. Wadsworth

Third party and independent candidates

Communist Party

Nominee

William Z. Foster

VP nominee

James W. Ford

Prohibition Party

Nominee

William David Upshaw

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

James H. Maurer

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Verne L. Reynolds

VP nominee

John W. Aiken

Independents and other candidates:

James Renshaw Cox William Hope Harvey

Other 1932 elections: House Senate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45101037 LCCN: n89600284 ISNI: 0000 0000 2900 9608 GND: 118925601 SUDOC: 150193858 BNF: cb16192707v (data) US Congress: C001

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