The Info List - Charles A. Beard

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Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century. For a while he was a history professor at Columbia University
Columbia University
but his influence came from hundreds of monographs, textbooks and interpretive studies in both history and political science. His works included a radical re-evaluation of the founding fathers of the United States, who he believed were motivated more by economics than by philosophical principles. Beard's most influential book, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913), has been the subject of great controversy ever since its publication. While frequently criticized for its methodology and conclusions, it was responsible for a wide-ranging reinterpretation of American history of the founding era.[1][2][3] He was also the co-author with his wife Mary Beard of The Rise of American Civilization (1927), which had a major influence on American historians.[4] An icon of the progressive school of historical interpretation, his reputation suffered during the Cold War era when the assumption of economic class conflict was dropped by most historians. Richard Hofstadter (a consensus historian) concluded in 1968: "Today Beard's reputation stands like an imposing ruin in the landscape of American historiography. What was once the grandest house in the province is now a ravaged survival".[5] Conversely, Denis W Brogan believed that Beard lost favour in the Cold War not because his views had been proven to be wrong, but because Americans were less willing to hear them. In 1965 he wrote; “The suggestion that the Constitution had been a successful attempt to restrain excessive democracy, that it had been a triumph for property (and) big business seemed blasphemy to many and an act of near treason in the dangerous crisis through which American political faith and practice were passing”.[6] Hofstadter, nevertheless praised Beard, saying he was "foremost among the American historians of his or any generation in the search for a usable past".[7]


1 Biography

1.1 Youth 1.2 Oxford 1.3 Columbia 1.4 Economic Interpretation 1.5 Resigns in First World War 1.6 Independent scholar 1.7 Non-interventionism 1.8 Personal life and death

2 Legacy

2.1 Progressive historiography 2.2 Constitution 2.3 Civil War and Reconstruction

3 Selected works by Charles A. (and Mary Ritter) Beard 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Biography[edit] Youth[edit] Charles Beard was born in the Indiana
Corn Belt
Corn Belt
in 1874. His father was a farmer, contractor, part-time banker and real-estate speculator.[8] In his youth Charles worked on the family farm and attended a local Quaker school, Spiceland Academy. He was expelled from the school for unclear reasons, but graduated from the public Knightstown High School in 1891. For the next few years the brothers managed a local newspaper. Their editorial position, like their father's, was conservative. They supported the Republican Party and favored prohibition, a cause for which Charles lectured in later years. Beard attended DePauw University, a nearby Methodist college, graduating in 1898. He edited the college newspaper and was active in debate.[9][10][11] Beard married his classmate Mary Ritter in 1900. As an historian, Mary Beard's research interests lay in feminism and the labor union movement (Woman as a Force in History, 1946). They collaborated on many textbooks.[12] Oxford[edit] Beard went to England in 1899 for graduate studies at Oxford University under Frederick York Powell. He collaborated with Walter Vrooman in founding Ruskin Hall, a school meant to be accessible to the working man. In exchange for reduced tuition, students worked in the school's various businesses. Beard taught for the first time at Ruskin Hall and he lectured to workers in industrial towns to promote Ruskin Hall and to encourage enrollment in correspondence courses.[13] Columbia[edit] The Beards returned to the United States in 1902, where Charles pursued graduate work in history at Columbia University. He received his doctorate in 1904 and immediately joined the faculty as a lecturer. In order to provide his students with reading materials that were hard to acquire, he compiled a large collection of essays and excerpts in a single volume: An Introduction to the English Historians (1906).[14] That sort of compendium, so commonplace in later decades, was an innovation at the time. An extraordinarily active author of scholarly books, textbooks, and articles for the political magazines, Beard's career flourished. Beard moved from the history department to the department of public law and then to a new chair in politics and government. He also regularly taught a course in American history at Barnard College. In addition to teaching he coached the debate team and wrote about public affairs, especially municipal reform.[15] Economic Interpretation[edit] Main article: An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States Among many works he published during these years at Columbia, the most controversial was An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913), an interpretation of how the economic interests of the members of the Constitutional Convention affected their votes. He emphasized the polarity between agrarians and business interests.[16] Academics and politicians denounced the book, but it was well respected by scholars until challenged and discredited in the 1950s.[17] Resigns in First World War[edit] Though he completely supported American participation in the First World War, he resigned from Columbia University
Columbia University
on October 8, 1917, charging that "the University is really under the control of a small and active group of trustees who have no standing in the world of education, who are reactionary and visionless in politics, narrow and medieval in religion. I am convinced that while I remain in the pay of the Trustees of Columbia University
Columbia University
I cannot do effectively my part in sustaining public opinion in support of the just war on the German Empire."[18][19] Following a series of faculty departures from Columbia in disputes about academic freedom, his friend James Harvey Robinson also resigned from Columbia in May 1919 to become one of the founders of the New School for Social Research and serve as its first director. Independent scholar[edit] Beard never sought a permanent academic appointment. Living on lucrative royalties from textbooks and other bestsellers, the couple operated a dairy farm in rural Connecticut
that attracted many academic visitors. The Beards were active in helping to found the New School for Social Research (a.k.a. The New School) in Greenwich Village, New York City, where the faculty would control its own membership. Enlarging upon his interest in urban affairs, he toured Japan and produced a volume of recommendations for the reconstructing of Tokyo after the earthquake of 1923.[20] His financial independence was secured by The Rise of American Civilization (1927), and its two sequels, America in Midpassage (1939), and The American Spirit (1943), all written with his wife, Mary. Beard had parallel careers as an historian and political scientist. He was active in the American Political Science Association
American Political Science Association
and was elected its President in 1926.[21] He was also a member of the American Historical Association
American Historical Association
and served as its president in 1933.[22] In political science he was best known for his textbooks, his studies of the Constitution, and for his creation of bureaus of municipal research and his studies of public administration in cities. Beard also taught history at the Brookwood Labor College.[23] Non-interventionism[edit] Though he had been a leading liberal supporter of the New Deal, Beard turned against Franklin Delano Roosevelt's foreign policy, consistent with his Quaker roots. He became one of the leading proponents of American non-interventionism seeking to avoid American involvement in Europe's wars. He promoted "American Continentalism" as an alternative, arguing that the United States had no vital interests at stake in Europe and that a foreign war could lead to domestic dictatorship. He continued to press this position after the war. Beard's last two books were American Foreign Policy in the Making: 1932–1940 (1946) and President Roosevelt and the Coming of War (1948). Beard blamed FDR for lying to the American people and tricking them into war, which some historians and political scientists have disputed.[24] Beard had been criticized as an isolationist because of his views,[25] though Beard in his writings referred to interventionists as isolationist.[26] The views he espoused in the final decade of his life was disputed by many contemporary historians and political scientists. However, some of the arguments in his President Roosevelt and the Coming of the War influenced the "Wisconsin school" of New Left or revisionist historians in the 1960s, among them William Appleman Williams, Gabriel Kolko, and James Weinstein. On the right, Beard's foreign policy views have become popular with "paleoconservatives" like Pat Buchanan. Certain elements of his views, especially his advocacy of a non-interventionist foreign policy, have enjoyed a minor comeback among a few scholars since 2001. For example, Andrew Bacevich, a diplomatic historian at Boston University, has cited Beardian skepticism towards armed overseas intervention as a starting point for a critique of post–Cold War American foreign policy in his American Empire (2004). Personal life and death[edit] Beard died in New Haven, Connecticut, on September 1, 1948. He was interred in Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York, joined by his wife Mary a decade later.[27] Legacy[edit] Progressive historiography[edit] By the 1950s Beard's economic interpretation of history had fallen out of favor; only a few prominent historians held to his view of class conflict as a primary driver in American history, among them Howard K. Beale and C. Vann Woodward. Still, as a leader of the "progressive historians", or "progressive historiography", Beard introduced themes of economic self-interest and economic conflict regarding the adoption of the Constitution and the transformations caused by the Civil War. Thus he emphasized the long-term conflict among industrialists in the Northeast, farmers in the Midwest, and planters in the South that he saw as the cause of the Civil War. His study of the financial interests of the drafters of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
(An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution) seemed radical in 1913, since he proposed that the U.S. Constitution was a product of economically determinist, land-holding founding fathers. He saw ideology as a product of economic interests.[28] Constitution[edit] Historian
Carl Becker in History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760–1776 (1909) formulated the Progressive interpretation of the American Revolution. He said there were two revolutions: one against Britain to obtain home rule, and the other to determine who should rule at home. Beard expanded upon Becker's thesis, in terms of class conflict, in An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913) and An Economic Interpretation of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915). To Beard, the Constitution was a counter-revolution, set up by rich bondholders ("personalty" since bonds were "personal property"), in opposition to the farmers and planters ("realty" since land was "real property"). Beard argued the Constitution was designed to reverse the radical democratic tendencies unleashed by the Revolution among the common people, especially farmers and debtors. In 1800, said Beard, the farmers and debtors, led by plantation slave owners, overthrew the capitalists and established Jeffersonian democracy. Other historians supported the class-conflict interpretation, noting the states confiscated great semi-feudal landholdings of loyalists and gave them out in small parcels to ordinary farmers. Conservatives, such as William Howard Taft, were shocked at the Progressive interpretation because it seemed to belittle the Constitution.[29] Many scholars, however, eventually adopted Beard's thesis and by 1950 it had become the standard interpretation of the era. Beginning about 1950, however, historians started to argue that the progressive interpretation was factually incorrect because it was not true that the voters were polarized along two economic lines. These historians were led by Charles A. Barker, Philip Crowl, Richard P. McCormick, William Pool, Robert Thomas, John Munroe, Robert E. Brown and B. Kathryn Brown, and above all Forrest McDonald.[30] Forrest McDonald in We The People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution (1958) argued that Charles Beard had misinterpreted the economic interests involved in writing the Constitution. Instead of two interests, landed and mercantile, which conflicted, McDonald identified some three dozen identifiable economic interests operating at cross-purposes that forced the delegates to bargain.[31] Evaluating the historiographical debate, Peter Novick concluded: By the early 1960s it was generally accepted within the historical profession that...Beard's Progressive version of the...framing of the Constitution had been decisively refuted. American historians came to see ....the framers of the Constitution, rather than having self-interested motives, were led by concern for political unity, national economic development, and diplomatic security.[32] Ellen Nore, Beard's biographer, concludes his interpretation of the Constitution collapsed due to more recent and sophisticated analysis.[33] It should be noted that, in a strong sense, this view simply involved a reaffirmation of the position Beard had always criticized by saying that parties were prone to switch rhetorical ideals when interest dictated.[34] Beard's economic determinism was largely replaced by the intellectual history approach, which stressed the power of ideas, especially republicanism, in stimulating the Revolution.[35] However, the legacy of examining the economic interests of American historical actors can still be found in the 21st century. Recently, in To Form a More Perfect Union: A New Economic Interpretation of the United States Constitution (2003), Robert A. McGuire, relying on a sophisticated statistical analysis, argues that Beard's basic thesis regarding the impact of economic interests in the making of the Constitution is not off the mark.[36] Civil War and Reconstruction[edit] Beard's interpretation of the Civil War was highly influential among historians and the general public from its publication in 1927 until well into the civil rights era of the late 1950s. The Beards downplayed slavery, abolitionism, and issues of morality. They ignored constitutional issues of states rights and even ignored American nationalism as the force that finally led to victory in the war. Indeed, the ferocious combat itself was passed over as merely an ephemeral event. Charles Ramsdell says the Beards emphasized that the Civil War was caused by economic issues, and was not basically about the right or wrong of slavery.[37] Thomas J. Pressly says that the Beards fought against the prevailing nationalist interpretation that depicted, "a conflict between rival section-nations rooted in social, economic, cultural, and ideological differences." Pressly said the Beards instead portrayed a, "struggle between two economic economies having its origins in divergent material interests."[38] Much more important was the calculus of class conflict. The Beards announced that the Civil War was really a "social cataclysm in which the capitalists, laborers, and farmers of the North and West drove from power in the national government the planting aristocracy of the South".[39] They argued that the events were a second American Revolution.[40] The Beards were especially interested in the postwar era, as the industrialists of the Northeast and the farmers of the West cashed in on their great victory over the southern aristocracy. Hofstadter paraphrases the Beards as arguing that in victory:

the Northern capitalists were able to impose their economic program, quickly passing a series of measures on tariffs, banking, homesteads, and immigration that guaranteed the success of their plans for economic development. Solicitude for the Freedman
had little to do with northern policies. The Fourteenth Amendment, which gave the Negro his citizenship, Beard found significant primarily as a result of a conspiracy of a few legislative draftsman friendly to corporations to use the supposed elevation of the blacks as a cover for a fundamental law giving strong protection to business corporations against regulation by state government.[41]

Dealing with the Reconstruction era
Reconstruction era
and the Gilded Age, disciples of Beard such as Howard Beale and C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
focused on greed and economic causation and emphasized the centrality of corruption. They argued that the rhetoric of equal rights was a smokescreen hiding their true motivation, which was promoting the interests of industrialists in the Northeast. The basic flaw was the assumption that there was a unified business policy. Beard's economic approach was rejected after the 1950s as conservative scholars doing research on specific subgroups discovered deep flaws in Beard's assumption that business men were united on policy. In fact businessmen were widely divergent on monetary or tariff policy. While Pennsylvania businessmen wanted high tariffs, those in other states did not; the railroads were hurt by the tariffs on steel, which they purchased in large quantity.[42][43][44] Selected works by Charles A. (and Mary Ritter) Beard[edit]

has original works written by or about: Charles A. Beard

Works by Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
at Project Gutenberg Beard, Charles A. "Some Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy," American Historical Review (1914) 19#2 pp 282–298. in JSTOR Beard, Charles, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913) online edition Beard, Charles, Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy, (1915) online edition Beard, Charles A. and Beard, Mary Ritter. History of the United States (2 vols.) (1921) vol 1. online ed. June 13, 2007 Beard, Charles, The Administration and Politics of Tokyo, (1923) online edition Beard, Charles A. and Beard, Mary Ritter, The Rise of American Civilization (1927) online edition Beard, Charles, A Century of Progress (1932) excerpts re Government and Law and The Idea of Progress online edition Beard, Charles, The Myth of Rugged American Individualism, John Day (1932) Beard, Charles, APSA Presidential Address online Beard, Charles A. "Written history as an act of faith." American Historical Review (1934) 39#2 pp 219–231.AHA Presidential Address online Beard, Charles A. "That noble dream," American Historical Review (1935) 41#1 pp 74–87. in JSTOR Beard, Charles A. President Roosevelt and the Coming of the War 1941 (Transaction Publishers, 1948). AHA Bibliography of the writings of Charles Beard

Biography portal


^ Michael Kraus & Davis D. Joyce (1985). The Writing of American History (Revised ed.). University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 252–265.  ^ Alan Gibson (2006). Interpreting the Founding: Guide to the Enduring Debates over the Origins and Foundations of the American Republic. University Press of Kansas. pp. 7–12.  ^ Alan Gibson (2004). "What Ever Happened to the Economic Interpretation: Beard's Thesis and the Legacy of Empirical Analysis, Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, April 15, 2004".  ^ Ellen Nore, Charles A. Beard: An Intellectual Biography (1983). ^ Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians (1968), 344 ^ Brogan, D. W. (1965). "The Quarrel over Charles Austin Beard and the American Constitution". The Economic History Review. New Series. 18 (1): 199–223. doi:10.2307/2591882.  ^ Kraus and Joyce, Writing of American History, p265. ^ Mary Beard, The Making of Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1955), 10-11 ^ Thomas Bender. "Beard, Charles Austin" in American National Biography Online (2000) ^ Braeman, John (1982). "Charles A. Beard: The Formative Years in Indiana". Indiana
Magazine of History. 78 (2): 93–127.  ^ Phillips, Clifton J. (1959). "The Indiana
Education of Charles A. Beard". Indiana
Magazine of History: 1–15.  ^ Nancy F. Cott. "Beard, Mary Ritter"; American National Biography Online (2000) ^ Wilkins, Burleigh Taylor (1956). " Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
on the Founding of Ruskin Hall". Indiana
Magazine of History. 52 (3): 277–284.  ^ See online October 1906 edition ^ Bender, 2000 ^ See 1921 edition ^ Coleman, Peter J. (1960). "Beard, McDonald, and Economic Determinism in American Historiography". Business History Review. 34 (1): 113–121. JSTOR 3111785.  ^ Michael, Rosenthal, Nicholas Miraculous: The Amazing Career of the Redoubtable Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler (2006), 236ff. ^ New York Times: "Quits Columbia; Assails Trustees" Oct. 9, 1917. A sarcastic editorial in the New York Times hailed his resignation, saying the university would be better off without the services of those "teachers of false doctrines sheltering themselves behind the shibboleth of academic freedom." New York Times: "Columbia's Deliverance" Oct. 10, 1917 ^ The Administration and Politics of Tokyo, 1923 ^ Past Presidents List, APSA website. ^ Past Presidents List, AHA website. ^ Nash, Al (1981). Ruskin College: A Challenge to Adult and Labor Education. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-87546-084-4.  ^ Stourzh, Gerald (1957). "Charles A. Beard's Interpretations of American Foreign Policy". World Affairs Quarterly. 28 (2): 111–148.  ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-A-Beard ^ http://www.antiwar.com/stromberg/s110999.html ^ Charles Austin Beard at Find a Grave ^ Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians ch 6 ^ Clyde W. Barrow, More Than a Historian: The Political and Economic Thought of Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(2000) Page 5 online ^ Schuyler, Robert Livingston (1961). "Forrest McDonald's Critique of the Beard Thesis". Journal of Southern History. 27 (1): 73–80.  ^ Coleman, Peter J. (1960). "Beard, McDonald, and Economic Determinism in American Historiography". Business History Review. 34 (1): 113–121.  ^ Peter Novick, That Noble Dream (1988) p 336. ^ Ellen Nore, "Charles A. Beard's Economic Interpretation of the Origins of the Constitution," This Constitution: a Bicentennial Chronicle 1987 (17): 39-44 ^ Beard, Charles (1922). The Economic Basis of Politics. pp. 158–9.  ^ See McDonald, Forrest (1997). "Colliding with the Past". Reviews in American History. 25 (1): 13–18.  ^ Sobel, Russell S. (2004). "Review: To Form a More Perfect Union: A New Economic Interpretation of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
by Robert A. McGuire". The Independent Review.  ^ Ramsdell, Charles W. (1937). "The Changing Interpretation of the Civil War". Journal of Southern History. 3 (1): 16–18. JSTOR 2192113.  ^ Thomas J. Pressly, Americans Interpret Their Civil War (1954) pp 238-49, quote on p 243. ^ Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
and Mary R. Beard, The Rise of American Civilization (1927), 2:54 ^ Lynd, Staughton (1965). "Rethinking Slavery and Reconstruction". Journal of Negro History. 50 (3): 198–209. doi:10.2307/2716012.  ^ Hofstadter, Richard (2012) [1968]. Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington. Knopf Doubleday. p. 303.  ^ Pressly, Thomas J. (1961). " Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
and Reconstruction". Civil War History. 7 (1): 91–92. doi:10.1353/cwh.1961.0063.  ^ Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians pp 344–46. ^ Gallaway, B. P. (1965). "Economic Determinism in Reconstruction Historiography". Southwestern Social Science Quarterly. 46 (3): 244–254. JSTOR 42880283. 

Further reading[edit]

Barrow, Clyde W., More Than a Historian: The Political and Economic Thought of Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(2000) Blaser, Kent. "The rise of American civilization and the contemporary crisis in American historiography." History Teacher (1992) 26#1 pp 71–90. in JSTOR Borning, Bernard C. "The Political Philosophy of Young Charles A. Beard," American Political Science Review (1949) 43#6 pp 1165–1178. in JSTOR Borning, Bernard C., The Political and Social Thought of Charles A. Beard (University of Washington Press, 1962) online edition Braeman, John. "Charles A. Beard: The Formative Years in Indiana." Indiana
Magazine of History 55#1 (1982): 93-127. online Braeman, John. "Charles A. Beard: The English Experience." Journal of American Studies 15#2 (1981): 165-189. Brown, David S., Beyond the Frontier: Midwestern Historians in the American Century (2009) Brown, Robert Eldon, Charles Beard and the Constitution: A critical analysis of "An economic interpretation of the Constitution" (1954) Coleman, Peter J. "Beard, McDonald, and Economic Determinism in American Historiography," Business History Review (1960) 34#1 pp. 113–121 in JSTOR Cott, Nancy F., A Woman Making History: Mary Ritter Beard
Mary Ritter Beard
through Her Letters (1991) Cott, Nancy F. "Beard, Mary Ritter" American National Biography Online (2000). Craig, Campbell. "The not-so-strange career of Charles Beard." Diplomatic History 25#2 (2001): 251-274. Dennis, L. George S. Counts and Charles A. Beard: Collaborators for Change. (SUNY Series in the Philosophy of Education). (State Univ of New York Press, 1990) Egnal, Marc, "The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860," Civil War History, Vol. 47, 2001 Hofstadter, Richard. "Beard and the Constitution: The History of an Idea," American Quarterly (1950) 2#3 pp 195–213. in JSTOR Hofstadter, Richard. The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington (1968), pp 167–346. Detailed analysis of Beard's historiography. Kennedy, Thomas C., Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
and American Foreign Policy (1975) online edition Lann, Ann J. Mary Ritter Beard: A Sourcebook (1977) McDonald, Forrest, We The People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution (1958) Nore, Ellen, Charles A. Beard: An Intellectual Biography (1983). online edition Phillips, Clifton J. "The Indiana
Education of Charles A. Beard," Indiana
Magazine of History (1959) 55#1 pp 1–15. online Phillips, Clifton J., ed. "Charles A. Beard's Recollections of Henry County, Indiana." Indiana
Magazine of History 55#1 (1959): 17-23. online Radosh, Ronald, Prophets on the Right: Profiles of Conservative Critics of American Globalism (1978) Strout, Cushing. The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard (1958) online edition Williams, William Appleman. "A Note on Charles Austin Beard's Search for a General Theory of Causation," American Historical Review (1956) 62#1 pp 59–80. in JSTOR

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Charles A. Beard

Works by Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
at Internet Archive Works by Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Recent empirical research on Beard's thesis and economic factors behind the American Constitution from EH.NET's Encyclopedia. Class and Pluralism in America: The Constitution Reconsidered Article by Nancy Cott from The Reader's Companion to American History (registration required) Charles A. Beard, The Online Books Page, University of Pennsylvania Gibson, Alan: What Ever Happened to the Economic Interpretation: Beard's Thesis and the Legacy of Empirical Analysis, Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004. Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
at Find a Grave
Find a Grave

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Presidents of the American Historical Association


Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
(1884-85) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1886) Justin Winsor
Justin Winsor
(1887) William Frederick Poole
William Frederick Poole
(1888) Charles Kendall Adams
Charles Kendall Adams
(1889) John Jay (1890) William Wirt Henry (1891) James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
(1892-93) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(1893-94) George Frisbie Hoar
George Frisbie Hoar
(1895) Richard Salter Storrs
Richard Salter Storrs
(1896) James Schouler (1897) George Park Fisher (1898) James Ford Rhodes
James Ford Rhodes
(1899) Edward Eggleston
Edward Eggleston


Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
(1901) Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(1902) Henry Charles Lea
Henry Charles Lea
(1903) Goldwin Smith
Goldwin Smith
(1904) John Bach McMaster
John Bach McMaster
(1905) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1906) J. Franklin Jameson (1907) George Burton Adams (1908) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1909) Frederick Jackson Turner (1910) William Milligan Sloane
William Milligan Sloane
(1911) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1912) William Archibald Dunning (1913) Andrew C. McLaughlin
Andrew C. McLaughlin
(1914) H. Morse Stephens
H. Morse Stephens
(1915) George Lincoln Burr
George Lincoln Burr
(1916) Worthington C. Ford (1917) William Roscoe Thayer
William Roscoe Thayer
(1918-19) Edward Channing (1920) Jean Jules Jusserand
Jean Jules Jusserand
(1921) Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins
(1922) Edward Potts Cheyney
Edward Potts Cheyney
(1923) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1924) Charles McLean Andrews
Charles McLean Andrews


Dana Carleton Munro
Dana Carleton Munro
(1926) Henry Osborn Taylor (1927) James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(1928) James Harvey Robinson
James Harvey Robinson
(1929) Evarts Boutell Greene (1930) Carl L. Becker (1931) Herbert Eugene Bolton
Herbert Eugene Bolton
(1932) Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1933) William Dodd (1934) Michael Rostovtzeff
Michael Rostovtzeff
(1935) Charles Howard McIlwain (1936) Guy Stanton Ford (1937) Laurence M. Larson (1938) William Scott Ferguson (1939) Max Farrand
Max Farrand
(1940) James Westfall Thompson (1941) Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1942) Nellie Neilson (1943) William Linn Westermann
William Linn Westermann
(1944) Carlton J. H. Hayes (1945) Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1946) Thomas J. Wertenbaker
Thomas J. Wertenbaker
(1947) Kenneth Scott Latourette
Kenneth Scott Latourette
(1948) Conyers Read (1949) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison


Robert Livingston Schuyler (1951) James G. Randall (1952) Louis R. Gottschalk (1953) Merle Curti (1954) Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
(1955) Dexter Perkins (1956) William L. Langer (1957) Walter Prescott Webb
Walter Prescott Webb
(1958) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1959) Bernadotte Everly Schmitt (1960) Samuel Flagg Bemis (1961) Carl Bridenbaugh (1962) Crane Brinton (1963) Julian P. Boyd (1964) Frederic C. Lane (1965) Roy Franklin Nichols (1966) Hajo Holborn (1967) John K. Fairbank (1968) C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
(1969) Robert Roswell Palmer (1970) David M. Potter (1971) Joseph Strayer (1971) Thomas C. Cochran (1972) Lynn Townsend White Jr. (1973) Lewis Hanke (1974) Gordon Wright (1975)


Richard B. Morris (1976) Charles Gibson (1977) William J. Bouwsma (1978) John Hope Franklin (1979) David H. Pinkney (1980) Bernard Bailyn (1981) Gordon A. Craig
Gordon A. Craig
(1982) Philip D. Curtin (1983) Arthur S. Link (1984) William H. McNeill (1985) Carl Neumann Degler (1986) Natalie Zemon Davis
Natalie Zemon Davis
(1987) Akira Iriye (1988) Louis R. Harlan (1989) David Herlihy (1990) William Leuchtenburg (1991) Frederic Wakeman (1992) Louise A. Tilly (1993) Thomas C. Holt (1994) John Henry Coatsworth (1995) Caroline Bynum (1996) Joyce Appleby (1997) Joseph C. Miller (1998) Robert Darnton
Robert Darnton
(1999) Eric Foner
Eric Foner


William Roger Louis (2001) Lynn Hunt (2002) James M. McPherson
James M. McPherson
(2003) Jonathan Spence (2004) James J. Sheehan
James J. Sheehan
(2005) Linda K. Kerber (2006) Barbara Weinstein (2007) Gabrielle M. Spiegel (2008) Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
(2009) Barbara D. Metcalf (2010) Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton
(2011) William Cronon
William Cronon
(2012) Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz
(2013) Jan E. Goldstein (2014) Vicki L. Ruiz (2015) Patrick Manning (2016) Tyler E. Stovall (2017) Mary Beth Norton (2018)

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Presidents of the American Political Science Association


Frank Johnson Goodnow
Frank Johnson Goodnow
(1903-05) Albert Shaw (1905-06) Frederick N. Judson (1906-07) James Bryce (1907-08) Abbott Lawrence Lowell
Abbott Lawrence Lowell
(1908-09) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1909-10) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1910-11) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1911-12) Westel W. Willoughby (1912-13) John Bassett Moore
John Bassett Moore
(1913-14) Ernst Freund (1914-15) Jesse Macy (1915-16) Munroe Smith (1916-18) Henry Jones Ford
Henry Jones Ford
(1918-19) Paul Samuel Reinsch
Paul Samuel Reinsch
(1919-20) Leo Stanton Rowe
Leo Stanton Rowe
(1920-21) William Archibald Dunning (1921-22) Harry Augustus Garfield
Harry Augustus Garfield
(1922-23) James Wilford Garner (1923-24) Charles Edward Merriam
Charles Edward Merriam


Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1925-26) William B. Munro (1926-27) Jesse S. Reeves (1927-28) John A. Fairlie (1928-29) Benjamin F. Shambaugh (1929-30) Edward Samuel Corwin
Edward Samuel Corwin
(1930-31) William F. Willoughby (1931-32) Isidor Loeb (1932-33) Walter J. Shepard (1933-34) Francis W. Coker (1934-35) Arthur N. Holcombe (1935-36) Thomas Reed Powell (1936-37) Clarence Addison Dykstra (1937-38) Charles Grove Haines (1938-39) Robert C. Brooks (1939-40) Frederic A. Ogg (1940-41) William Anderson (1941-42) Robert E. Cushman (1942-43) Leonard D. White (1943-44) John Gaus (1944-45) Walter F. Dodd
Walter F. Dodd
(1945-46) Arthur MacMahon (1946-47) Henry R. Spencer (1947-48) Quincy Wright (1948-49) James K. Pollock (1949-50)


Peter H. Odegard (1950-51) Luther Gulick (1951-52) E. Pendleton Herring (1952-53) Ralph Bunche
Ralph Bunche
(1953-54) Charles McKinley (1954-55) Harold Lasswell
Harold Lasswell
(1955-56) Elmer Eric Schattschneider (1956-57) V. O. Key Jr. (1957-58) R. Taylor Cole (1958-59) Carl B. Swisher (1959-60) Emmette Redford (1960-61) Charles S. Hyneman (1961-62) Carl Joachim Friedrich (1962-63) C. Herman Pritchett (1963-64) David Truman (1964-65) Gabriel Almond
Gabriel Almond
(1965-66) Robert A. Dahl
Robert A. Dahl
(1966-67) Merle Fainsod (1967-68) David Easton
David Easton
(1968-69) Karl Deutsch (1969-70) Robert E. Lane (1970-71) Heinz Eulau (1971-72) Robert E. Ward (1972-73) Avery Leiserson (1973-74) J. Austin Ranney (1974-75)


James MacGregor Burns (1975-76) Samuel Beer (1976-77) John C. Wahlke (1977-78) Leon D. Epstein (1978-79) Warren Miller (1979-80) Charles E. Lindblom (1980-81) Seymour Martin Lipset
Seymour Martin Lipset
(1981-82) William H. Riker (1982-83) Philip Converse (1983-84) Richard Fenno (1984-85) Aaron Wildavsky (1985-86) Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington
(1986-87) Kenneth Waltz
Kenneth Waltz
(1987-88) Lucian Pye (1988-89) Judith N. Shklar (1989-90) Theodore J. Lowi
Theodore J. Lowi
(1990-91) James Q. Wilson (1991-92) Lucius J. Barker (1992-93) Charles O. Jones (1993-94) Sidney Verba (1994-95) Arend Lijphart (1995-96) Elinor Ostrom
Elinor Ostrom
(1996-97) M. Kent Jennings (1997-98) Matthew Holden (1998-99) Robert Keohane
Robert Keohane


Robert Jervis
Robert Jervis
(2000-01) Robert D. Putnam
Robert D. Putnam
(2001-02) Theda Skocpol
Theda Skocpol
(2002-03) Susanne Hoeber Rudolph (2003-04) Margaret Levi (2004-05) Ira Katznelson (2005-06) Robert Axelrod (2006-07) Dianne Pinderhughes (2007-08) Peter J. Katzenstein (2008-09) Henry Brady (2009-10) Carole Pateman
Carole Pateman
(2010-11) G. Bingham Powell (2011-12) Jane Mansbridge
Jane Mansbridge
(2012-13) John Aldrich (2013-14) Rodney E. Hero (2014-15) Jennifer Hochschild (2015-16) David A. Lake (2016-)

v t e

Reconstruction Era


Federal government


Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson Ulysses S. Grant Rutherford B. Hayes


38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Radical Republicans African-American Senators African-American Representatives Reconstruction Amendments United States Congress Joint Committee on Reconstruction

Federal judiciary

Taney Court Chase Court Waite Court

Federal bureaucracy

Edwin Stanton Freedmen's Bureau Justice Department

State governments

Southern United States Confederate States of America



Freedman Free people of color

Carpetbaggers Ku Klux Klan Scalawag Redeemers White League Red Shirts Democratic Party

Bourbon Democrat Horatio Seymour Samuel J. Tilden

Republican Party

Stalwart Charles Sumner Thaddeus Stevens Lyman Trumbull Benjamin Wade John Bingham James Mitchell Ashley

Freedman's Savings Bank



American Indian Wars Slavery in the United States A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
(1792) The Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women (1838) Woman in the Nineteenth Century
Woman in the Nineteenth Century
(1839) Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) National Women's Rights Convention
National Women's Rights Convention
(1850) American Civil War Confiscation Act of 1861 Confiscation Act of 1862 District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act
District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act
(1862) Militia Act of 1862


Emancipation Proclamation General Order No. 143 Lincoln's presidential Reconstruction Ten Percent Plan National Bank Act Women's Loyal National League New York City draft riots


Wade–Davis Bill 1864 National Union National Convention 1864 Democratic National Convention United States presidential election, 1864


13th Amendment Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address Black Codes Sherman's Special
Field Orders, No. 15 Freedmen's Bureau

Freedmen's Bureau
Freedmen's Bureau

Confederates surrender at Appomattox Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Shaw University New Departure 1865 State of the Union Address Ku Klux Klan


Civil Rights Act of 1866 Memphis riots of 1866 New Orleans riot Swing Around the Circle Southern Homestead Act of 1866 Cherokee Reconstruction Treaty of 1866 Choctaw and Chickasaw Treaty of Washington of 1866 Tennessee readmitted to Union Petition for Universal Freedom National Labor Union United States House of Representatives elections, 1866 United States Senate elections, 1866 Ex parte Garland Ex parte Milligan Slave Kidnapping Act of 1866


Command of the Army Act Tenure of Office Act Indian Peace Commission Knights of the White Camelia Pulaski riot Reconstruction Acts Constitutional conventions of 1867 Habeas Corpus Act 1867 Peonage Act of 1867


14th Amendment Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Arkansas readmitted to Union Florida readmitted to Union North Carolina readmitted to Union South Carolina readmitted to Union Louisiana readmitted to Union Alabama readmitted to Union 1868 Democratic National Convention 1868 Republican National Convention United States presidential election, 1868 Opelousas massacre Fourth Reconstruction Act Georgia v. Stanton St. Landry riot of 1868


National Woman Suffrage
Association American Woman Suffrage
Association Alabama Claims Annexation of Santo Domingo Board of Indian Commissioners Public Credit Act of 1869 Black Friday (1869) Ex parte McCardle First Transcontinental Railroad


15th Amendment Enforcement Act of 1870 Justice Department Naturalization Act of 1870 Kirk-Holden War Shoffner Act


Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
hearings First Enforcement Act of 1871 Second Enforcement Act of 1871 Alcorn State University Meridian race riot of 1871 Treaty of Washington New York custom house ring Civil service commission United States expedition to Korea


General Mining Act of 1872 Crédit Mobilier Scandal 1872 Democratic National Convention 1872 Republican National Convention United States presidential election, 1872 Modoc War Star route scandal Salary Grab Act Amnesty Act


Panic of 1873 Colfax Massacre Timber Culture Act Slaughter-House Cases Virginius Affair Coinage Act of 1873 Long Depression Comstock laws


Brooks–Baxter War Battle of Liberty Place Coushatta Massacre Red River War Timber Culture Act White League Election Riot of 1874 Vicksburg Riot of 1874 Black Hills Gold Rush Sanborn incident Anti-Moiety Acts


United States v. Cruikshank Civil Rights Act of 1875 Red Shirts Mississippi Plan Clifton Riot of 1875 Yazoo City Riot of 1875 Specie Payment Resumption Act Whiskey Ring Wheeler Compromise Delano affair Pratt & Boyd


Hamburg Massacre South Carolina civil disturbances of 1876 1876 Republican National Convention 1876 Democratic National Convention Disputed presidential election of 1876 Ellenton Riot of 1876 Great Sioux War of 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn United States v. Reese Trader post scandal Centennial Exposition Cattellism Safe burglary conspiracy


Electoral Commission Compromise of 1877 Nez Perce War Desert Land Act Great Railroad Strike of 1877


Posse Comitatus Act
Posse Comitatus Act
(1878) Civil Rights Cases
Civil Rights Cases
(1883) United States v. Harris
United States v. Harris
(1883) Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) Williams v. Mississippi
Williams v. Mississippi
(1898) Giles v. Harris
Giles v. Harris
(1903) Disenfranchisement



Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era James Shepherd Pike The Prostrate State (1874) James Bryce The American Commonwealth (1888) Claude Bowers The Tragic Era (1929) Columbia University John Burgess Walter Lynwood Fleming Dunning School Charles A. Beard Howard K. Beale W. E. B. Du Bois Black Reconstruction
Black Reconstruction
(1935) C. Vann Woodward Joel Williamson William R. Brock American Crisis (1963) John Hope Franklin From Slavery to Freedom (1947) After Slavery (1965) Leon Litwack Been in the Storm So Long
Been in the Storm So Long
(1979) Eric Foner Reconstruction (1988) Kenneth M. Stampp Steven Hahn A Nation under Our Feet (2003)


Winslow Homer A Visit from the Old Mistress
A Visit from the Old Mistress
(1876) Thomas Dixon, Jr. The Leopard's Spots
The Leopard's Spots
(1902) The Clansman
The Clansman
(1905) D. W. Griffith The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915) United Daughters of the Confederacy Gone with the Wind (1939) David W. Blight Race and Reunion (2001)


Women's suffrage in the United States Labor history of the United States Gilded Age Jim Crow era Civil rights movement American frontier

Other topics

History of the United States (1865–1918) Industrialization Suffrage Habeas corpus Race (human categorization) White supremacy Paramilitary Forty acres and a mule Reconstruction Treaties Whitecapping


Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66503051 LCCN: n80126170 ISNI: 0000 0001 1944 7257 GND: 118657747 SELIBR: 177020 SUDOC: 032631863 BNF: cb12140245z (data) NLA: 36523216 BNE: XX850