CHARLES PERRAULT (French: ; 12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a
French author and member of the
* 1 Life and work * 2 Fairy tales * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links
LIFE AND WORK
Perrault was born in
He took part in the creation of the Academy of Sciences as well as the restoration of the Academy of Painting. In 1654, he moved in with his brother Pierre, who had purchased a post as the principal tax collector of the city of Paris. When the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres was founded in 1663, Perrault was appointed its secretary and served under Jean Baptiste Colbert , finance minister to King Louis XIV . Jean Chapelain , Amable de Bourzeys , and Jacques Cassagne (the King's librarian) were also appointed.
Using his influence as Colbert's administrative aide, he was able to
get his brother,
In 1668, Perrault wrote La Peinture ('’Painting’’) to honor the
king's first painter,
Charles Le Brun
Perrault was elected to the
He married Marie Guichon, age 19, in 1672; she died in 1678.
In 1669 Perrault advised Louis XIV to include thirty-nine fountains each representing one of the fables of Aesop in the labyrinth of Versailles in the gardens of Versailles . The work was carried out between 1672 and 1677. Water jets spurting from the animals' mouths were conceived to give the impression of speech between the creatures. There was a plaque with a caption and a quatrain written by the poet Isaac de Benserade next to each fountain. Perrault produced the guidebook for the labyrinth, Labyrinte de Versailles, printed at the royal press, Paris, in 1677, and illustrated by Sebastien le Clerc.
Philippe Quinault , a longtime family friend of the Perraults,
quickly gained a reputation as the librettist for the new musical
genre known as opera , collaborating with composer Jean-Baptiste Lully
. After Alceste (1674) was denounced by traditionalists who rejected
it for deviating from classical theater, Perrault wrote in response
Critique de l'Opéra (1674) in which he praised the merits of Alceste
over the tragedy of the same name by
This treatise on Alceste initiated the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns (Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes), which pitted supporters of the literature of Antiquity (the "Ancients") against supporters of the literature from the century of Louis XIV (the "Moderns"). He was on the side of the Moderns and wrote Le Siècle de Louis le Grand (The Century of Louis the Great, 1687) and Parallèle des Anciens et des Modernes (Parallel between Ancients and Moderns, 1688–1692) where he attempted to prove the superiority of the literature of his century. Le Siècle de Louis le Grand was written in celebration of Louis XIV's recovery from a life-threatening operation. Perrault argued that because of Louis's enlightened rule, the present age was superior in every respect to ancient times. He also claimed that even modern French literature was superior to the works of antiquity, and that, after all, even Homer nods.
In 1682, Colbert forced Perrault into retirement at the age of 56, assigning his tasks to his own son, Jules-Armand, marquis d'Ormoy. Colbert would die the next year, and Perrault stopped receiving the pension given to him as a writer. Colbert's bitter rival succeeded him, François-Michel Le Tellier, marquis de Louvoi , and quickly removed Perrault from his other appointments.
After this, in 1686, Perrault decided to write epic poetry and show
his genuine devotion to
In 1695, when he was 67, Perrault lost his post as secretary. He decided to dedicate himself to his children. In 1697 he published Tales and Stories of the Past with Morals (Histoires ou Contes du Temps passé), subtitled Tales of Mother Goose (Les Contes de ma Mère l’Oye). (The spelling of the name is with “y” although modern French uses only an “i”.) This “Mother Goose” has never been identified as a person, but used to refer to popular and rural storytelling traditions in proverbial phrases of the time. (Source : Dictionnaire de l’Académie, 1694, quoted by Nathalie Froloff in her edition of the ‘’Tales’’ (Gallimard, Folio, Paris, 1999.- p.10). ) These tales, based on French popular tradition, were very popular in sophisticated court circles. Its publication made him suddenly very widely known and he is often credited as the founder of the modern fairy tale genre. Naturally, his work reflects awareness of earlier fairy tales written in the salons, most notably by Marie-Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, Baroness d\'Aulnoy , who coined the phrase "fairy tale" and wrote tales as early as 1690.
Some of his popular stories, particularly
Perrault had written
Little Red Riding Hood
He had actually published his collection under the name of his last
son (born in 1678), Pierre (Perrault) Darmancourt ("Armancourt" being
the name of a property he bought for him), probably fearful of
criticism from the "Ancients". In the tales, he used images from
around him, such as the
Chateau Ussé for The
* Children\'s literature portal * Kingdom of France portal * Biography portal
Hans Christian Andersen
Page 133, illustration from Fairy tales of
* ^ Biography, Bibliography Archived 14 January 2006 at the Wayback
Machine . (in French)/
* ^ Sideman, B. B.: "The World's Best Fairy Tales", page 831. The
Reader's Digest Association, 1967.
* ^ For the conflict between Bernini and Perrault in Paris, see
Mormando, Franco (2011). Bernini: His Life and His Rome. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press. pp. 268–288. ISBN 978-0-226-53852-5 .
* ^ Mormando, Franco (2011). Bernini: His Life and His Rome.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 245–288, passim. ISBN
* ^ The engraving is derived at more than one remove from the
portrait of 1671, now at the Musée de Versailles , by an unknown
* ^ "scan of the book at the Bibliothèque nationale de France".
Gallica.bnf.fr. 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
* ^ "Charles Perrault’s 388th Birthday". Google Doodle. Google
Inc. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
* ^ Neil, Philip; Nicoletta Simborowski (1993). The Complete Fairy
Tales of Charles Perrault. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 126. ISBN
* ^ Flood, Alison (12 January 2016). "Charles Perrault: the modern
fairytale\'s fairy godfather". The Guardian- Books. The Guardian.
Retrieved 12 January 2016. The stories...might have been old, but what
he did with them was new.
* ^ The Oxford Companion to English Literature, 6th Edition. Edited
by Margaret Drabble, Oxford University Press, 2000 Pp781
* ^ Jasmin, Nadine (2002). Naissance du conte féminin, Mots et
merveilles, Les contes de fées de Madame d’Aulnoy, 1690-1698.
Paris: Champion. ISBN 2-7453-0648-0 .
* ^ "The many versions of Cinderella: One of the most ancient fairy
tales". Swide Art & Culture. Dolce&Gabbana. 21 February 2015.
Retrieved 12 January 2016. The famous fairy tale of
* Zarucchi, Jeanne Morgan (2003), Seventeenth-Century French
Writers, Detroit: Gale, ISBN 978-0-7876-6012-3
* Perrault, Charles (1696), Les hommes illustres qui ont paru en
France pendant ce siècle - avec leur portraits au naturel (in
French), 1 (2 vols. folio ed.),
* Perrault, Charles (1701), Les hommes illustres qui ont paru en
France pendant ce siècle - avec leur portraits au naturel (in
French), 2 (2 vols. folio ed.),
* Ozell, John , Characters historical panegyrical of the Greatest men that have appeared in France during the last century 1704–5 (2 volumes 8vo ed.) vol. 1 (1704), (1705) (English translation without the portraits)