HOME
The Info List - Charlemagne



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

CHARLEMAGNE (/ˈʃɑːrlᵻmeɪn/ ) or CHARLES THE GREAT (2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered CHARLES I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. He was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
founded is called the Carolingian Empire .

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon . He became king in 768 following his father's death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I . Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. He continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy
Italy
and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain . He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianising them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned _Emperor of the Romans_ by Pope
Pope
Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter\'s Basilica .

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
has been called the "Father of Europe" (_Pater Europae_), as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance , a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire, up to the last Emperor Francis II and the French and German monarchies.

However, the Eastern Orthodox Church views Charlemagne
Charlemagne
more controversially, labeling as heterodox his support of the filioque and recognition by the Bishop of Rome as legitimate Roman Emperor, rather than recognising Irene of Athens of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. These and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome
Rome
and Constantinople
Constantinople
in the Great Schism of 1054 .

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
died in 814, having ruled as emperor for thirteen years. He was laid to rest in his imperial capital city of Aachen
Aachen
. He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him.

CONTENTS

* 1 Political background

* 2 Rise to power

* 2.1 Early life

* 2.1.1 Date of birth * 2.1.2 Place of birth

* 2.2 Ancestry * 2.3 Ambiguous high office

* 2.4 Aquitaine
Aquitaine
rebellion

* 2.4.1 Formation of a new Aquitania * 2.4.2 Acquisition of Aquitania by the Carolingians * 2.4.3 Loss and recovery of Aquitania

* 2.5 Perforce union

* 3 Italian campaigns

* 3.1 Conquest of the Lombard kingdom * 3.2 Southern Italy
Italy

* 4 Children

* 5 Carolingian expansion to the south

* 5.1 Vasconia and the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* 5.2 Roncesvalles campaign * 5.3 Contact with the Saracens * 5.4 Wars with the Moors

* 6 Eastern campaigns

* 6.1 Saxon Wars * 6.2 Submission of Bavaria * 6.3 Avar campaigns * 6.4 Northeast Slav expeditions * 6.5 Southeast Slav expeditions

* 7 Imperium

* 7.1 Coronation
Coronation

* 7.1.1 Debate

* 7.2 Imperial title * 7.3 Imperial diplomacy * 7.4 Danish attacks * 7.5 Death

* 8 Administration

* 8.1 Military * 8.2 Economic and monetary reforms * 8.3 Jews in Charlemagne\'s realm * 8.4 Education reforms * 8.5 Church reforms * 8.6 Writing reforms

* 8.7 Political reforms

* 8.7.1 Organisation * 8.7.2 Divisio regnorum

* 9 Personality

* 9.1 Manner * 9.2 Language * 9.3 Appearance * 9.4 Dress * 9.5 Homes

* 10 Family

* 10.1 Marriages and heirs * 10.2 Ancestry

* 11 Name * 12 Beatification

* 13 Cultural uses

* 13.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 13.2 Modern era

* 14 Books and libraries * 15 See also * 16 Notes

* 17 References

* 17.1 Citations * 17.2 Bibliography

* 18 External links

POLITICAL BACKGROUND

Francia, early 8th century

By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks
Franks
had been Christianised , due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I. Francia
Francia
, ruled by the Merovingians , was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Following the Battle of Tertry the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have been dubbed the _rois fainéants _ ("do-nothing kings"). Almost all government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace .

In 687, Pepin of Herstal , mayor of the palace of Austrasia , ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry. He became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom: Saint Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
and Pepin of Landen . Pepin of Herstal was eventually succeeded by his illegitimate son Charles, later known as Charles Martel ( Charles
Charles
the Hammer).

After 737, Charles
Charles
governed the Franks
Franks
in lieu of a king and declined to call himself _king_. Charles
Charles
was succeeded in 741 by his sons Carloman and Pepin the Short , the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery. He was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746, preferring to enter the church as a monk. Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope
Pope
Zachary , asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power. The pope handed down his decision in 749, decreeing that it was better for Pepin to be called king, as he had the powers of high office as Mayor, so as not to confuse the hierarchy. He therefore ordered him to become the _true king_.

External video

The Early Middle Ages, 284--1000: Charlemagne, 46:14, YaleCourses on YouTube, Yale University
Yale University

Charlemagne: An Introduction, Smarthistory , 7:49, Khan Academy
Khan Academy

In 750, Pepin was elected by an assembly of the Franks, anointed by the archbishop, and then raised to the office of king. The Pope branded Childeric III as "the false king" and ordered him into a monastery. The Merovingian dynasty was thereby replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Charles
Charles
Martel. In 753, Pope
Pope
Stephen II fled from Italy
Italy
to Francia, appealing to Pepin for assistance for the rights of St. Peter. He was supported in this appeal by Carloman, Charles' brother. In return, the pope could provide only legitimacy. He did this by again anointing and confirming Pepin, this time adding his young sons Carolus (Charlemagne) and Carloman to the royal patrimony. They thereby became heirs to the realm that already covered most of western Europe. In 754, Pepin accepted the Pope's invitation to visit Italy
Italy
on behalf of St. Peter's rights, dealing successfully with the Lombards .

Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe; the east-west division of the kingdom formed the basis for modern France
France
and Germany
Germany
. Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun (843) between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as the foundation event of an independent France
France
under its first king Charles the Bald ; an independent Germany
Germany
under its first king Louis the German ; and an independent intermediate state stretching from the low countries along the borderlands to south of Rome
Rome
under Lothair I , who retained the title of emperor and the capitals Aachen
Aachen
and Rome
Rome
without the jurisdiction. The middle kingdom had broken up by 890 and partly absorbed into Western kingdom (later France) and Eastern kingdom (Germany) and the rest developing into smaller "buffer" nations that exist between France
France
and Germany
Germany
to this day, namely the Benelux and Switzerland
Switzerland
. The concept and memory of a united Europe remains topical to the current time and hence Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is often considered the forefather of modern Europe.

RISE TO POWER

EARLY LIFE

Date Of Birth

The most likely date of Charlemagne's birth is reconstructed from several sources. The date of 742—calculated from Einhard
Einhard
's date of death of January 814 at age 72—predates the marriage of his parents in 744. The year given in the _ Annales Petaviani _, 747, would be more likely, except that it contradicts Einhard
Einhard
and a few other sources in making Charlemagne
Charlemagne
seventy years old at his death. The month and day of 2 April are established by a calendar from Lorsch Abbey .

In 747, Easter
Easter
fell on 2 April, a coincidence that likely would have been remarked upon by chroniclers but was not. If Easter
Easter
was being used as the beginning of the calendar year, then 2 April 747 could have been, by modern reckoning, April 748 (not on Easter). The date favoured by the preponderance of evidence is 2 April 742, based on Charlemagne's age at the time of his death. This date would appear to support the idea that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was an illegitimate child, although that is not mentioned by Einhard.

Place Of Birth

Region of Aachen- Liège (contemporary borders, trade- and travel routes).

Charlemagne's exact birthplace is unknown, although historians have suggested Aachen
Aachen
in modern-day Germany, and Liège ( Herstal ) in present-day Belgium as possible locations. Aachen
Aachen
and Liège are close to the region from where the Merovingian and Carolingian families originated. Other cities have been suggested, including Düren , Gauting , Mürlenbach , Quierzy and Prüm . No definitive evidence resolves the question.

ANCESTRY

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was the eldest child of Pepin the Short (714 – 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 – 12 July 783), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and three short-lived children named Pepin, Chrothais and Adelais as his younger siblings.

It would be folly, I think, to write a word concerning Charles' birth and infancy, or even his boyhood, for nothing has ever been written on the subject, and there is no one alive now who can give information on it. Accordingly, I determined to pass that by as unknown, and to proceed at once to treat of his character, his deeds, and such other facts of his life as are worth telling and setting forth, and shall first give an account of his deeds at home and abroad, then of his character and pursuits, and lastly of his administration and death, omitting nothing worth knowing or necessary to know. —  Einhard
Einhard

AMBIGUOUS HIGH OFFICE

Further information: Mayor of the Palace

The most powerful officers of the Frankish people, the Mayor of the Palace (_Maior Domus_) and one or more kings (_rex_, _reges_), were appointed by the election of the people. Elections were not periodic, but were held as required to elect officers _ad quos summa imperii pertinebat_, "to whom the highest matters of state pertained". Evidently, interim decisions could be made by the Pope, which ultimately needed to be ratified using an assembly of the people that met annually.

Before he was elected king in 750, Pepin was initially a mayor, a high office he held "as though hereditary" (_velut hereditario fungebatur_). Einhard
Einhard
explains that "the honour" was usually "given by the people" to the distinguished, but Pepin the Great and his brother Carloman the Wise received it as though hereditary, as had their father, Charles Martel . There was, however, a certain ambiguity about quasi-inheritance. The office was treated as joint property: one Mayorship held by two brothers jointly. Each, however, had his own geographic jurisdiction. When Carloman decided to resign, becoming ultimately a Benedictine at Monte Cassino
Monte Cassino
, the question of the disposition of his quasi-share was settled by the pope. He converted the Mayorship into a Kingship and awarded the joint property to Pepin, who gained the right to pass it on by inheritance.

This decision was not accepted by all family members. Carloman had consented to the temporary tenancy of his own share, which he intended to pass on to his son, Drogo, when the inheritance should be settled at someone's death. By the Pope's decision, in which Pepin had a hand, Drogo was to be disqualified as an heir in favour of his cousin Charles. He took up arms in opposition to the decision and was joined by Grifo
Grifo
, a half-brother of Pepin and Carloman, who had been given a share by Charles
Charles
Martel, but was stripped of it and held under loose arrest by his half-brothers after an attempt to seize their shares by military action. Grifo
Grifo
perished in combat in the Battle of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne
Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne
while Drogo was hunted down and taken into custody.

On the death of Pepin, 24 September 768, the kingship passed jointly to his sons, "with divine assent" (_divino nutu_). According to the _Life_, Pepin died in Paris. The Franks
Franks
"in general assembly" (_generali conventu_) gave them both the rank of a king (_reges_) but "partitioned the whole body of the kingdom equally" (_totum regni corpus ex aequo partirentur_). The _annals_ tell a slightly different version, with the king dying at St-Denis , near Paris. The two "lords" (_domni_) were "elevated to kingship" (_elevati sunt in regnum_), Charles
Charles
on 9 October in Noyon
Noyon
, Carloman on an unspecified date in Soissons
Soissons
. If born in 742, Charles
Charles
was 26 years old, but he had been campaigning at his father's right hand for several years, which may help to account for his military skill. Carloman was 17.

The language in either case suggests that there were not two inheritances, which would have created distinct kings ruling over distinct kingdoms, but a single joint inheritance and a joint kingship tenanted by two equal kings, Charles
Charles
and his brother Carloman. As before, distinct jurisdictions were awarded. Charles
Charles
received Pepin's original share as Mayor: the outer parts of the kingdom bordering on the sea, namely Neustria , western Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, and the northern parts of Austrasia ; while Carloman was awarded his uncle's former share, the inner parts: southern Austrasia, Septimania , eastern Aquitaine, Burgundy , Provence, and Swabia , lands bordering Italy
Italy
. The question of whether these jurisdictions were joint shares reverting to the other brother if one brother died or were inherited property passed on to the descendants of the brother who died was never definitely settled. It came up repeatedly over the succeeding decades until the grandsons of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
created distinct sovereign kingdoms.

AQUITAINE REBELLION

An inheritance in the countries formerly under Roman law (_ius _ or _iustitia_) represented not only a transmission of the properties and privileges but also the encumbrances and obligations attached to the inheritance. Pepin at his death had been in process of building an empire, a difficult task. According to Russell:

In those times, to build a kingdom from an aggregation of small states was itself no great difficulty... But to keep the state intact after it had been formed was a colossal task... Each of the minor states...had its little sovereign...who...gave himself chiefly to...plotting, pillaging and fighting.

Formation Of A New Aquitania

Main article: Aquitaine
Aquitaine

Aquitania under Rome
Rome
had been in southern Gaul
Gaul
, Romanised and speaking a Romance language
Romance language
. Similarly Hispania
Hispania
had been populated by peoples who spoke various languages, including Celtic , but the area was now populated entirely by Romance language
Romance language
speakers. Between Aquitania and Hispania
Hispania
were the Euskaldunak , Latinised to Vascones , or Basques , living in Basque country, Vasconia, which extended, according to the distributions of place names attributable to the Basques, most densely in the western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
but also as far south as the upper Ebro River in Spain and as far north as the Garonne River in France. The French name, Gascony , derives from Vasconia . The Romans were never able to entirely subject Vasconia. The parts they did, in which they placed the region's first cities, were sources of legions in the Roman army valued for their fighting abilities. The border with Aquitania was Toulouse
Toulouse
.

At about 660, the Duchy of Vasconia united with the Duchy of Aquitania to form a single kingdom under Felix of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, governing from Toulouse. This was a joint kingship with a 28-year-old Basque king, Lupus I . _Lupus_ is the Latin
Latin
translation of Basque Otsoa, "wolf". The kingdom was sovereign and independent. Vasconia gave up predation to become a player on the field of European politics. Whatever arrangements Felix had made with the Merovingians became null and void. At Felix's death in 670 the joint property of the kingship reverted entirely to Lupus. As the Basques had no law of joint inheritance, but practised primogeniture , Lupus in effect founded a hereditary dynasty of Basque kings of an expanded Aquitania.

Acquisition Of Aquitania By The Carolingians

Further information: Umayyad
Umayyad
conquest of Hispania
Hispania
Moorish Hispania
Hispania
in 732

The Latin
Latin
chronicles of the end of Visigothic Hispania
Hispania
omit many details, such as identification of characters, filling in the gaps and reconciliation of numerous contradictions. Muslim sources, however, present a more coherent view, such as in the _Ta'rikh iftitah al-Andalus_ ("History of the Conquest of al-Andalus") by Ibn al-Qūṭiyya ("the son of the Gothic woman", referring to the granddaughter of Wittiza , the last Visigothic king of a united Hispania, who married a Moor). Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, who had another, much longer name, must have been relying to some degree on family oral tradition.

According to Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Wittiza , the last Visigothic king of a united Hispania, died before his three sons, Almund, Romulo and Ardabast, reached majority. Their mother was regent at Toledo , but Roderic , army chief of staff, staged a rebellion, capturing Córdoba . He chose to impose a joint rule over distinct jurisdictions on the true heirs. Evidence of a division of some sort can be found in the distribution of coins imprinted with the name of each king and in the king lists. Wittiza was succeeded by Roderic, who reigned for seven and a half years, followed by Achila (Aquila), who reigned three and a half years. If the reigns of both terminated with the incursion of the Saracens , then Roderic appears to have reigned a few years before the majority of Achila. The latter's kingdom is securely placed to the northeast, while Roderic seems to have taken the rest, notably modern Portugal
Portugal
.

The Saracens crossed the mountains to claim Ardo's Septimania , only to encounter the Basque dynasty of Aquitania, always the allies of the Goths. Odo the Great of Aquitania was at first victorious at the Battle of Toulouse
Toulouse
in 721. Saracen
Saracen
troops gradually massed in Septimania and in 732 an army under Emir
Emir
Abd al-Rahman abd Allah al-Ghafiqi advanced into Vasconia, and Odo was defeated at the Battle of the River Garonne . They took Bordeaux and were advancing towards Tours
Tours
when Odo, powerless to stop them, appealed to his arch-enemy, Charles Martel , mayor of the Franks. In one of the first of the lightning marches for which the Carolingian kings became famous, Charles
Charles
and his army appeared in the path of the Saracens between Tours
Tours
and Poitiers
Poitiers
, and in the Battle of Tours
Tours
decisively defeated and killed al-Ghafiqi. The Moors returned twice more, each time suffering defeat at Charles' hands—at the River Berre near Narbonne in 737 and in the Dauphine in 740. Odo's price for salvation from the Saracens was incorporation into the Frankish kingdom, a decision that was repugnant to him and also to his heirs.

Loss And Recovery Of Aquitania

After the death of his father, Hunald allied himself with free Lombardy
Lombardy
. However, Odo had ambiguously left the kingdom jointly to his two sons, Hunald and Hatto. The latter, loyal to Francia, now went to war with his brother over full possession. Victorious, Hunald blinded and imprisoned his brother, only to be so stricken by conscience that he resigned and entered the church as a monk to do penance. The story is told un Annales Mettenses priores . His son Waifer took an early inheritance, becoming duke of Aquitania and ratified the alliance with Lombardy. Waifer decided to honour it, repeating his father's decision, which he justified by arguing that any agreements with Charles Martel became invalid on Martel's death. Since Aquitania was now Pepin's inheritance because of the earlier assistance given by Charles
Charles
Martel, according to some the latter and his son, the young Charles, hunted down Waifer, who could only conduct a guerrilla war, and executed him.

Among the contingents of the Frankish army were Bavarians under Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria , an Agilofing , the hereditary Bavarian ducal family. Grifo
Grifo
had installed himself as Duke of Bavaria, but Pepin replaced him with a member of the ducal family yet a child, Tassilo, whose protector he had become after the death of his father. The loyalty of the Agilolfings was perpetually in question, but Pepin exacted numerous oaths of loyalty from Tassilo. However, the latter had married Liutperga , a daughter of Desiderius , king of Lombardy
Lombardy
. At a critical point in the campaign, Tassilo left the field with all his Bavarians. Out of reach of Pepin, he repudiated all loyalty to Francia. Pepin had no chance to respond as he grew ill and died within a few weeks after Waifer's execution.

The first event of the brothers' reign was the uprising of the Aquitainians and Gascons , in 769, in that territory split between the two kings. One year earlier, Pepin had finally defeated Waifer , Duke of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, after waging a destructive, ten-year war against Aquitaine. Now, another Hunald (seemingly not Hunald the duke) led the Aquitainians as far north as Angoulême
Angoulême
. Charles
Charles
met Carloman, but Carloman refused to participate and returned to Burgundy. Charles
Charles
went to war, leading an army to Bordeaux , where he set up a fort at Fronsac. Hunald was forced to flee to the court of Duke Lupus II of Gascony . Lupus, fearing Charles, turned Hunald over in exchange for peace, and was put in a monastery. Gascon lords also surrendered, and Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and Gascony were finally fully subdued by the Franks.

PERFORCE UNION

The brothers maintained lukewarm relations with the assistance of their mother Bertrada, but in 770 Charles
Charles
signed a treaty with Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria and married a Lombard Princess (commonly known today as Desiderata ), the daughter of King Desiderius , to surround Carloman with his own allies. Though Pope
Pope
Stephen III first opposed the marriage with the Lombard princess, he found little to fear from a Frankish-Lombard alliance.

Less than a year after his marriage, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
repudiated Desiderata and married a 13-year-old Swabian named Hildegard . The repudiated Desiderata returned to her father's court at Pavia
Pavia
. Her father's wrath was now aroused, and he would have gladly allied with Carloman to defeat Charles. Before any open hostilities could be declared, however, Carloman died on 5 December 771, apparently of natural causes. Carloman's widow Gerberga fled to Desiderius' court in Lombardy
Lombardy
with her sons for protection.

ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS

CONQUEST OF THE LOMBARD KINGDOM

The Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was a devout Catholic and maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. In 772, when Pope
Pope
Adrian I was threatened by invaders, the king rushed to Rome
Rome
to provide assistance. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome.

At his succession in 772, Pope
Pope
Adrian I demanded the return of certain cities in the former exarchate of Ravenna in accordance with a promise at the succession of Desiderius. Instead, Desiderius took over certain papal cities and invaded the Pentapolis , heading for Rome. Adrian sent ambassadors to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in autumn requesting he enforce the policies of his father, Pepin. Desiderius sent his own ambassadors denying the pope's charges. The ambassadors met at Thionville , and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
upheld the pope's side. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
demanded what the pope had requested, but Desiderius swore never to comply. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and his uncle Bernard crossed the Alps in 773 and chased the Lombards back to Pavia, which they then besieged . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
temporarily left the siege to deal with Adelchis , son of Desiderius, who was raising an army at Verona
Verona
. The young prince was chased to the Adriatic
Adriatic
littoral and fled to Constantinople
Constantinople
to plead for assistance from Constantine V , who was waging war with Bulgaria .

The siege lasted until the spring of 774, when Charlemagne
Charlemagne
visited the pope in Rome. There he confirmed his father's grants of land, with some later chronicles falsely claiming that he also expanded them, granting Tuscany
Tuscany
, Emilia , Venice and Corsica . The pope granted him the title _patrician _. He then returned to Pavia, where the Lombards were on the verge of surrendering. In return for their lives, the Lombards surrendered and opened the gates in early summer. Desiderius was sent to the abbey of Corbie , and his son Adelchis died in Constantinople
Constantinople
, a patrician. Charles, unusually, had himself crowned with the Iron Crown and made the magnates of Lombardy
Lombardy
pay homage to him at Pavia. Only Duke Arechis II of Benevento refused to submit and proclaimed independence. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was then master of Italy
Italy
as king of the Lombards. He left Italy
Italy
with a garrison in Pavia and a few Frankish counts in place the same year.

Instability continued in Italy. In 776, Dukes Hrodgaud of Friuli and Hildeprand of Spoleto rebelled. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
rushed back from Saxony and defeated the duke of Friuli in battle; the duke was slain. The duke of Spoleto signed a treaty. Their co-conspirator, Arechis, was not subdued, and Adelchis, their candidate in Byzantium
Byzantium
, never left that city. Northern Italy
Italy
was now faithfully his.

SOUTHERN ITALY

In 787, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
directed his attention towards the Duchy of Benevento , where Arechis II was reigning independently with the self-given title of Princeps
Princeps
. Charlemagne's siege of Salerno
Salerno
forced Arechis into submission. However, after Arecchis II's death in 787, his son Grimoald III proclaimed the Duchy of Benevento newly independent. Grimoald was attacked many times by Charles' or his sons' armies, without achieving a definitive victory. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
lost interest and never again returned to Southern Italy
Italy
where Grimoald was able to keep the Duchy free from Frankish suzerainty .

CHILDREN

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(left) and his eldest son, Pepin the Hunchback . Tenth-century copy of a lost original from about 830.

During the first peace of any substantial length (780–782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority. In 781, he made his two youngest sons kings, crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy
Italy
, taking the Iron Crown that his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pepin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
ordered Pepin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their sub-kingdoms, but kept the real power, though he intended his sons to inherit their realms. He did not tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though possibly illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback
Pippin the Hunchback
, to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

Charles
Charles
was determined to have his children educated, including his daughters, as his parents had instilled the importance of learning in him at an early age. His children were also taught skills in accord with their aristocratic status, which included training in riding and weaponry for his sons, and embroidery, spinning and weaving for his daughters. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
instructing his son Louis the Pious

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father. Charles
Charles
was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down. He also fought the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia
Bohemia
) to deal with the Slavs living there (Bohemian tribes, ancestors of the modern Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing tribute from them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders and fought the Slavs
Slavs
to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
when that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and fought the duke of Benevento in southern Italy
Italy
on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona
Barcelona
in a great siege in 797.

Charlemagne's attitude towards his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages (though he originally condoned an engagement between his eldest daughter Rotrude and Constantine VI of Byzantium, this engagement was annulled when Rotrude was 11). Charlemagne's opposition to his daughters' marriages may possibly have intended to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria . However, he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands and treasuring the illegitimate grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle.

CAROLINGIAN EXPANSION TO THE SOUTH

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2014)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

See also: Abbasid– Carolingian alliance

VASCONIA AND THE PYRENEES

The destructive war led by Pepin in Aquitaine, although brought to a satisfactory conclusion for the Franks, that proved the Frankish power structure south of the Loire
Loire
was feeble and unreliable. After the defeat and death of Waifer of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
in 768, while Aquitaine submitted again to the Carolingian dynasty, a new rebellion broke out in 769 led by Hunald II, a possible son of Waifer. He took refuge with the ally duke Lupus II of Gascony , but probably out of fear of Charlemagne's reprisal, handed him over to the new King of the Franks to whom he pledged loyalty, which seemed to confirm the peace in the Basque area south of the Garonne .

Wary of new Basque uprisings, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
seems to have tried to contain duke Lupus's power by appointing Seguin as count of Bordeaux (778) and other counts of Frankish background in bordering areas ( Toulouse
Toulouse
, County of Fézensac ). The Basque duke in turn seems to have contributed decisively or schemed the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (referred to as "Basque treachery"). The defeat of Charlemagne's army in Roncevaux (778) confirmed his determination to rule directly by establishing the Kingdom of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
(ruled by Louis the Pious ) based on a power base of Frankish officials, distributing lands among colonisers and allocating lands to the Church, which he took as ally. A Christianisation programme was put in place across the high Pyrenees (778).

The new political arrangement for Vasconia did not sit well with local lords. As of 788 Adalric was fighting and capturing Chorson , Carolingian count of Toulouse. He was eventually released, but Charlemagne, enraged at the compromise, decided to depose him and appointed his trustee William of Gellone . William in turn fought the Basques and defeated them after banishing Adalric (790).

From 781 (Pallars , Ribagorça ) to 806 ( Pamplona
Pamplona
under Frankish influence), taking the County of Toulouse
Toulouse
for a power base, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
asserted Frankish authority over the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
by subduing the south-western marches of Toulouse
Toulouse
(790) and establishing vassal counties on the southern Pyrenees
Pyrenees
that were to make up the Marca Hispanica . As of 794, a Frankish vassal, the Basque lord Belasko (_al-Galashki_, 'the Gaul') ruled Álava , but Pamplona
Pamplona
remained under Cordovan and local control up to 806. Belasko and the counties in the Marca Hispánica provided the necessary base to attack the Andalusians (an expedition led by William Count of Toulouse
Toulouse
and Louis the Pious to capture Barcelona
Barcelona
in 801). Events in the Duchy of Vasconia (rebellion in Pamplona, count overthrown in Aragon , duke Seguin of Bordeaux deposed, uprising of the Basque lords, etc.) were to prove it ephemeral upon Charlemagne's death.

RONCESVALLES CAMPAIGN

According to the Muslim historian Ibn al-Athir , the Diet of Paderborn had received the representatives of the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
, Girona , Barcelona
Barcelona
and Huesca
Huesca
. Their masters had been cornered in the Iberian peninsula by Abd ar-Rahman I , the Umayyad emir of Cordova . These "Saracen" ( Moorish
Moorish
and Muladi ) rulers offered their homage to the king of the Franks
Franks
in return for military support. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom
Christendom
and his own power and believing the Saxons to be a fully conquered nation, Charlemagne agreed to go to Spain.

In 778, he led the Neustrian army across the Western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, while the Austrasians, Lombards, and Burgundians passed over the Eastern Pyrenees. The armies met at Saragossa and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
received the homage of the Muslim rulers, Sulayman al-Arabi and Kasmin ibn Yusuf, but the city did not fall for him. Indeed, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
faced the toughest battle of his career. The Muslims forced him to retreat. He decided to go home, since he could not trust the Basques , whom he had subdued by conquering Pamplona
Pamplona
. He turned to leave Iberia, but as he was passing through the Pass of Roncesvalles one of the most famous events of his reign occurred. The Basques attacked and destroyed his rearguard and baggage train. The Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
, though less a battle than a skirmish, left many famous dead, including the seneschal Eggihard, the count of the palace Anselm, and the warden of the Breton March , Roland
Roland
, inspiring the subsequent creation of the Song of Roland
Roland
(_La Chanson de Roland_).

CONTACT WITH THE SARACENS

Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in Baghdad , by Julius Köckert (1864).

The conquest of Italy
Italy
brought Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in contact with the Saracens who, at the time, controlled the Mediterranean . Pippin was much occupied with Saracens in Italy. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
conquered Corsica and Sardinia
Sardinia
at an unknown date and in 799 the Balearic Islands . The islands were often attacked by Saracen
Saracen
pirates, but the counts of Genoa
Genoa
and Tuscany
Tuscany
(Boniface ) controlled them with large fleets until the end of Charlemagne's reign. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
even had contact with the caliphal court in Baghdad
Baghdad
. In 797 (or possibly 801), the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid , presented Charlemagne
Charlemagne
with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a clock .

WARS WITH THE MOORS

In Hispania
Hispania
, the struggle against the Moors continued unabated throughout the latter half of his reign. Louis was in charge of the Spanish border. In 785, his men captured Girona permanently and extended Frankish control into the Catalan littoral for the duration of Charlemagne's reign (the area remained nominally Frankish until the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258). The Muslim chiefs in the northeast of Islamic Spain were constantly rebelling against Cordovan authority, and they often turned to the Franks
Franks
for help. The Frankish border was slowly extended until 795, when Girona, Cardona , Ausona and Urgell were united into the new Spanish March , within the old duchy of Septimania .

In 797, Barcelona
Barcelona
, the greatest city of the region, fell to the Franks
Franks
when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Cordova and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad
Umayyad
authority recaptured it in 799. However, Louis of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
marched the entire army of his kingdom over the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. The Franks
Franks
continued to press forward against the emir . They took Tarragona
Tarragona
in 809 and Tortosa in 811. The last conquest brought them to the mouth of the Ebro
Ebro
and gave them raiding access to Valencia , prompting the Emir
Emir
al-Hakam I to recognise their conquests in 813.

EASTERN CAMPAIGNS

SAXON WARS

Further information: Saxon Wars A map showing Charlemagne's additions (in light green) to the Frankish Kingdom

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was engaged in almost constant warfare throughout his reign, often at the head of his elite _scara _ bodyguard squadrons, carrying his legendary sword Joyeuse
Joyeuse
. In the Saxon Wars , spanning thirty years and eighteen battles, he conquered Saxonia and proceeded to convert it to Christianity.

The Germanic Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions. Nearest to Austrasia was Westphalia and furthest away was Eastphalia . Between them was Engria and north of these three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia .

In his first campaign, in 773, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
forced the Engrians to submit and cut down an Irminsul pillar near Paderborn . The campaign was cut short by his first expedition to Italy. He returned in 775, marching through Westphalia and conquering the Saxon fort at Sigiburg . He then crossed Engria, where he defeated the Saxons again. Finally, in Eastphalia, he defeated a Saxon force, and its leader Hessi converted to Christianity. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
returned through Westphalia, leaving encampments at Sigiburg and Eresburg
Eresburg
, which had been important Saxon bastions. He then controlled Saxony
Saxony
with the exception of Nordalbingia, but Saxon resistance had not ended.

Following his subjugation of the dukes of Friuli and Spoleto, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
returned rapidly to Saxony
Saxony
in 776, where a rebellion had destroyed his fortress at Eresburg. The Saxons were once again defeated, but their main leader, Widukind
Widukind
, escaped to Denmark, his wife's home. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
built a new camp at Karlstadt . In 777, he called a national diet at Paderborn to integrate Saxony
Saxony
fully into the Frankish kingdom. Many Saxons were baptised as Christians.

In the summer of 779, he again invaded Saxony
Saxony
and reconquered Eastphalia, Engria and Westphalia. At a diet near Lippe
Lippe
, he divided the land into missionary districts and himself assisted in several mass baptisms (780). He then returned to Italy
Italy
and, for the first time, the Saxons did not immediately revolt. Saxony
Saxony
was peaceful from 780 to 782. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(742–814) receiving the submission of Widukind
Widukind
at Paderborn in 785, by Ary Scheffer
Ary Scheffer
(1795–1858), Palace of Versailles

He returned to Saxony
Saxony
in 782 and instituted a code of law and appointed counts, both Saxon and Frank. The laws were draconian on religious issues; for example, the _ Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae _ prescribed death to Saxon pagans who refused to convert to Christianity. This led to renewed conflict. That year, in autumn, Widukind
Widukind
returned and led a new revolt. In response, at Verden in Lower Saxony, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is recorded as having ordered the execution of 4,500 Saxon prisoners, known as the Massacre of Verden ("Verdener Blutgericht"). The killings triggered three years of renewed bloody warfare (783–785). During this war the Frisians were finally subdued and a large part of their fleet was burned. The war ended with Widukind
Widukind
accepting baptism.

Thereafter, the Saxons maintained the peace for seven years, but in 792 Westphalia again rebelled. The Eastphalians and Nordalbingians joined them in 793, but the insurrection was unpopular and was put down by 794. An Engrian rebellion followed in 796, but the presence of Charlemagne, Christian Saxons and Slavs
Slavs
quickly crushed it. The last insurrection occurred in 804, more than thirty years after Charlemagne's first campaign against them, but also failed. According to Einhard:

The war that had lasted so many years was at length ended by their acceding to the terms offered by the King; which were renunciation of their national religious customs and the worship of devils, acceptance of the sacraments of the Christian faith and religion, and union with the Franks
Franks
to form one people.

SUBMISSION OF BAVARIA

Statue of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
by Agostino Cornacchini
Agostino Cornacchini
(1725), St. Peter\'s Basilica , Vatican, Italy
Italy

By 774, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had invaded the Kingdom of Lombardy
Lombardy
, and he later annexed the Lombardian territories and assumed its crown, placing the Papal States
Papal States
under Frankish protection. The Duchy of Spoleto south of Rome
Rome
was acquired in 774, while in the central western parts of Europe, the Duchy of Bavaria was absorbed and the Bavarian policy continued of establishing tributary marches , (borders protected in return for tribute or taxes) among the Slavic Serbs and Czechs. The remaining power confronting the Franks
Franks
in the east were the Avars , however Charlemagne
Charlemagne
acquired other Slavic areas, including Bohemia
Bohemia
, Moravia
Moravia
, Austria
Austria
and Croatia
Croatia
.

In 789, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
turned to Bavaria . He claimed Tassilo was an unfit ruler, due to his oath-breaking. The charges were exaggerated, but Tassilo was deposed anyway and put in the monastery of Jumièges
Jumièges
. In 794, he was made to renounce any claim to Bavaria for himself and his family (the Agilolfings ) at the synod of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
. Bavaria was subdivided into Frankish counties, as had been done with Saxony.

AVAR CAMPAIGNS

In 788, the Avars , a pagan Asian horde that had settled down in what is today Hungary
Hungary
( Einhard
Einhard
called them Huns
Huns
), invaded Friuli and Bavaria. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was preoccupied with other matters until 790, when he marched down the Danube
Danube
and ravaged Avar territory to the Győr . A Lombard army under Pippin then marched into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia . The campaigns ended when the Saxons revolted again in 792.

For the next two years, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was occupied, along with the Slavs, against the Saxons. Pippin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
at his capital, Aachen
Aachen
, and redistributed to his followers and to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia . Soon the Avar tuduns had lost the will to fight and travelled to Aachen
Aachen
to become vassals to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and to become Christians. Charlemagne accepted their surrender and sent one native chief, baptised Abraham, back to Avaria with the ancient title of khagan . Abraham kept his people in line, but in 800, the Bulgarians under Khan Krum
Krum
attacked the remains of the Avar state.

In 803, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
sent a Bavarian army into Pannonia , defeating and bringing an end to the Avar confederation .

In November of the same year, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
went to Regensburg where the Avar leaders acknowledged him as their ruler. In 805, the Avar khagan, who had already been baptised, went to Aachen
Aachen
to ask permission to settle with his people south-eastward from Vienna
Vienna
. The Transdanubian territories became integral parts of the Frankish realm, which was abolished by the Magyars
Magyars
in 899-900.

NORTHEAST SLAV EXPEDITIONS

In 789, in recognition of his new pagan neighbours, the Slavs
Slavs
, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
marched an Austrasian-Saxon army across the Elbe
Elbe
into Obotrite territory. The Slavs
Slavs
ultimately submitted, led by their leader Witzin. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
then accepted the surrender of the Wiltzes under Dragovit and demanded many hostages. He also demanded the permission to send missionaries into this pagan region unmolested. The army marched to the Baltic before turning around and marching to the Rhine, winning much booty with no harassment. The tributary Slavs became loyal allies. In 795, when the Saxons broke the peace, the Abotrites and Wiltzes rebelled with their new ruler against the Saxons. Witzin died in battle and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
avenged him by harrying the Eastphalians on the Elbe. Thrasuco, his successor, led his men to conquest over the Nordalbingians and handed their leaders over to Charlemagne, who honoured him. The Abotrites remained loyal until Charles' death and fought later against the Danes.

SOUTHEAST SLAV EXPEDITIONS

Europe around 800

When Charlemagne
Charlemagne
incorporated much of Central Europe, he brought the Frankish state face to face with the Avars and Slavs
Slavs
in the southeast. The most southeast Frankish neighbours were Croats
Croats
, who settled in Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatian Croatia
Croatia
. While fighting the Avars, the Franks
Franks
had called for their support. During the 790s, he won a major victory over them in 796. Pannonian Croat duke Vojnomir of Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
aided Charlemagne, and the Franks
Franks
made themselves overlords over the Croats
Croats
of northern Dalmatia, Slavonia and Pannonia.

The Frankish commander Eric of Friuli wanted to extend his dominion by conquering the Littoral Croat Duchy. During that time, Dalmatian Croatia
Croatia
was ruled by duke Višeslav of Croatia
Croatia
. In the Battle of Trsat , the forces of Eric fled their positions and were routed by the forces of Višeslav. Eric was among those killed which was a great blow for the Carolingian Empire.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
also directed his attention to the Slavs
Slavs
to the west of the Avar khaganate: the Carantanians and Carniolans . These people were subdued by the Lombards and Bavarii and made tributaries, but were never fully incorporated into the Frankish state.

IMPERIUM

CORONATION

Imperial Coronation
Coronation
of Charlemagne, by Friedrich Kaulbach
Friedrich Kaulbach
, 1861

In 799, Pope
Pope
Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped and fled to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
at Paderborn . Charlemagne, advised by scholar Alcuin of York
York
, travelled to Rome, in November 800 and held a council on 1 December. On 23 December, Leo swore an oath of innocence. At Mass , on Christmas Day (25 December), when Charlemagne
Charlemagne
knelt at the altar to pray, the Pope
Pope
crowned him _Imperator Romanorum_ ("Emperor of the Romans") in Saint Peter\'s Basilica . In so doing, the Pope effectively nullified the legitimacy of Empress Irene of Constantinople
Constantinople
:

When Odoacer compelled the abdication of Romulus Augustulus , he did not abolish the Western Empire as a separate power, but cause it to be reunited with or sink into the Eastern, so that from that time there was a single undivided Roman Empire
Roman Empire
... , like their predecessors, held the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to be one and indivisible, and proposed by the coronation of not to proclaim a severance of the East and West ... they were not revolting against a reigning sovereign, but legitimately filling up the place of the deposed Constantine VI ... was held to be the legitimate successor, not of Romulus Augustulus, but of Constantine VI ...

Charlemagne's coronation as Emperor, though intended to represent the continuation of the unbroken line of Emperors from Augustus
Augustus
to Constantine VI, had the effect of setting up two separate (and often opposing) Empires and two separate claims to imperial authority. For centuries to come, the Emperors of both West and East would make competing claims of sovereignty over the whole.

Einhard
Einhard
says that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was ignorant of the Pope's intent and did not want any such coronation:

e at first had such an aversion that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church the day that they were conferred, although it was a great feast-day, if he could have foreseen the design of the Pope.

A number of modern scholars, however, suggest that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was indeed aware of the coronation; certainly he cannot have missed the bejewelled crown waiting on the altar when he came to pray; something even contemporary sources support.

Debate

The throne of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the subsequent German Kings in Aachen
Aachen
Cathedral .

Historians have debated for centuries whether Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was aware before the coronation of the Pope's intention to crown him Emperor ( Charlemagne
Charlemagne
declared that he would not have entered Saint Peter's had he known, according to chapter twenty-eight of Einhard's _Vita Karoli Magni_), but that debate obscured the more significant question of _why_ the Pope
Pope
granted the title and why Charlemagne
Charlemagne
accepted it.

Collins points out "hat the motivation behind the acceptance of the imperial title was a romantic and antiquarian interest in reviving the Roman empire is highly unlikely." For one thing, such romance would not have appealed either to Franks
Franks
or Roman Catholics at the turn of the ninth century, both of whom viewed the Classical heritage of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with distrust. The Franks
Franks
took pride in having "fought against and thrown from their shoulders the heavy yoke of the Romans" and "from the knowledge gained in baptism, clothed in gold and precious stones the bodies of the holy martyrs whom the Romans had killed by fire, by the sword and by wild animals", as Pippin III described it in a law of 763 or 764.

Furthermore, the new title—carrying with it the risk that the new emperor would "make drastic changes to the traditional styles and procedures of government" or "concentrate his attentions on Italy
Italy
or on Mediterranean concerns more generally"—risked alienating the Frankish leadership.

For both the Pope
Pope
and Charlemagne, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
remained a significant power in European politics at this time. The Hellenic Eastern Empire , based in Constantinople
Constantinople
, continued to hold a substantial portion of Italy, with borders not far south of Rome. Charles' sitting in judgment of the Pope
Pope
could be seen as usurping the prerogatives of the Emperor in Constantinople:

By whom, however, could he be tried? Who, in other words, was qualified to pass judgement on the Vicar of Christ? In normal circumstances the only conceivable answer to that question would have been the Emperor at Constantinople; but the imperial throne was at this moment occupied by Irene . That the Empress was notorious for having blinded and murdered her own son was, in the minds of both Leo and Charles, almost immaterial: it was enough that she was a woman. The female sex was known to be incapable of governing, and by the old Salic tradition was debarred from doing so. As far as Western Europe was concerned, the Throne of the Emperors was vacant: Irene's claim to it was merely an additional proof, if any were needed, of the degradation into which the so-called Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had fallen. —  John Julius Norwich

For the Pope, then, there was "no living Emperor at the that time" though Henri Pirenne disputes this saying that the coronation "was not in any sense explained by the fact that at this moment a woman was reigning in Constantinople". Nonetheless, the Pope
Pope
took the extraordinary step of creating one. The papacy had since 727 been in conflict with Irene's predecessors in Constantinople
Constantinople
over a number of issues, chiefly the continued Byzantine adherence to the doctrine of iconoclasm , the destruction of Christian images; while from 750, the secular power of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in central Italy
Italy
had been nullified. Coronation
Coronation
of an idealised king, depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870)

By bestowing the Imperial crown upon Charlemagne, the Pope
Pope
arrogated to himself "the right to appoint ... the Emperor of the Romans, ... establishing the imperial crown as his own personal gift but simultaneously granting himself implicit superiority over the Emperor whom he had created." And "because the Byzantines had proved so unsatisfactory from every point of view—political, military and doctrinal—he would select a westerner: the one man who by his wisdom and statesmanship and the vastness of his dominions ... stood out head and shoulders above his contemporaries."

With Charlemagne's coronation, therefore, "the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
remained, so far as either of them were concerned, one and indivisible, with Charles
Charles
as its Emperor", though there can have been "little doubt that the coronation, with all that it implied, would be furiously contested in Constantinople".

Alcuin writes hopefully in his letters of an _Imperium Christianum_ ("Christian Empire"), wherein, "just as the inhabitants of the had been united by a common Roman citizenship", presumably this new empire would be united by a common Christian faith. This writes the view of Pirenne when he says " Charles
Charles
was the Emperor of the _ecclesia_ as the Pope
Pope
conceived it, of the Roman Church, regarded as the universal Church". The _Imperium Christianum_ was further supported at a number of synods all across the Europe by Paulinus of Aquileia.

What is known, from the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes , is that Charlemagne's reaction to his coronation was to take the initial steps towards securing the Constantinopolitan throne by sending envoys of marriage to Irene, and that Irene reacted somewhat favourably to them. _ The Coronation
Coronation
of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
_, by assistants of Raphael
Raphael
, circa 1516–1517.

It is important to distinguish between the universalist and localist conceptions of the empire, which remain controversial among historians. According to the former, the empire was a universal monarchy, a "commonwealth of the whole world, whose sublime unity transcended every minor distinction"; and the emperor "was entitled to the obedience of Christendom". According to the latter, the emperor had no ambition for universal dominion; his realm was limited in the same way as that of every other ruler; and when he made more far-reaching claims his object was normally to ward off the attacks either of the Pope
Pope
or of the Byzantine emperor. According to this view, also, the origin of the empire is to be explained by specific local circumstances rather than by overarching theories.

According to Ohnsorge, for a long time it had been the custom of Byzantium
Byzantium
to designate the German princes as spiritual "sons" of the Byzantines. What might have been acceptable in the fifth century had become provoking and insulting to the Franks
Franks
in the eighth century. Charles
Charles
came to believe that the Roman emperor, who claimed to head the world hierarchy of states, in reality was no greater than Charles himself, a king as other kings, since beginning in 629 he had entitled himself "Basileus" (translated literally as "king"). Ohnsorge finds it significant that the chief wax seal of Charles, which bore only the inscription: "Christe, protege Carolum regem Francorum , was used from 772 to 813, even during the imperial period and was not replaced by a special imperial seal; indicating that Charles
Charles
felt himself to be just the king of the Franks. Finally, Ohnsorge points out that in the spring of 813 at Aachen
Aachen
Charles
Charles
crowned his only surviving son, Louis, as emperor without recourse to Rome
Rome
with only the acclamation of his Franks. The form in which this acclamation was offered was Frankish-Christian rather than Roman. This implies both independence from Rome
Rome
and a Frankish (non-Roman) understanding of empire.

IMPERIAL TITLE

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
used these circumstances to claim that he was the renewer of the Roman Empire, which had declined under the Byzantines . In his official charters, Charles
Charles
preferred the style _Karolus serenissimus Augustus
Augustus
a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator Romanum gubernans imperium_ ("Charles, most serene Augustus
Augustus
crowned by God, the great, peaceful emperor ruling the Roman empire") to the more direct _Imperator Romanorum_ ("Emperor of the Romans").

The title of Emperor remained in the Carolingian family for years to come, but divisions of territory and in-fighting over supremacy of the Frankish state weakened its significance. The papacy itself never forgot the title nor abandoned the right to bestow it. When the family of Charles
Charles
ceased to produce worthy heirs, the Pope
Pope
gladly crowned whichever Italian magnate could best protect him from his local enemies. The empire would remain in continuous existence for nearly a millennium, as the Holy Roman Empire, a true imperial successor to Charles.

IMPERIAL DIPLOMACY

Europe around 814

The iconoclasm of the Byzantine Isaurian Dynasty
Dynasty
was endorsed by the Franks. The Second Council of Nicaea reintroduced the veneration of icons under Empress Irene . The council was not recognised by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
since no Frankish emissaries had been invited, even though Charlemagne
Charlemagne
ruled more than three provinces of the old Roman empire and was considered equal in rank to the Byzantine emperor. And while the Pope
Pope
supported the reintroduction of the iconic veneration, he politically digressed from Byzantium. He certainly desired to increase the influence of the papacy, to honour his saviour Charlemagne, and to solve the constitutional issues then most troubling to European jurists in an era when Rome
Rome
was not in the hands of an emperor. Thus, Charlemagne's assumption of the imperial title was not a usurpation in the eyes of the Franks
Franks
or Italians. It was, however, seen as such in Byzantium, where it was protested by Irene and her successor Nicephorus I
Nicephorus I
—neither of whom had any great effect in enforcing their protests.

The Byzantines, however, still held several territories in Italy: Venice (what was left of the Exarchate of Ravenna ), Reggio (in Calabria
Calabria
), Brindisi
Brindisi
(in Apulia ), and Naples
Naples
(the _Ducatus Neapolitanus _). These regions remained outside of Frankish hands until 804, when the Venetians, torn by infighting, transferred their allegiance to the Iron Crown of Pippin, Charles' son. The _Pax Nicephori _ ended. Nicephorus ravaged the coasts with a fleet, initiating the only instance of war between the Byzantines and the Franks. The conflict lasted until 810, when the pro-Byzantine party in Venice gave their city back to the Byzantine Emperor, and the two emperors of Europe made peace: Charlemagne
Charlemagne
received the Istrian peninsula and in 812 the emperor Michael I Rhangabes recognised his status as Emperor, although not necessarily as "Emperor of the Romans".

DANISH ATTACKS

After the conquest of Nordalbingia, the Frankish frontier was brought into contact with Scandinavia. The pagan Danes, "a race almost unknown to his ancestors, but destined to be only too well known to his sons" as Charles Oman described them, inhabiting the Jutland peninsula, had heard many stories from Widukind
Widukind
and his allies who had taken refuge with them about the dangers of the Franks
Franks
and the fury which their Christian king could direct against pagan neighbours.

In 808, the king of the Danes, Godfred , built the vast Danevirke across the isthmus of Schleswig
Schleswig
. This defence, last employed in the Danish-Prussian War of 1864, was at its beginning a 30 km (19 mi) long earthenwork rampart. The Danevirke
Danevirke
protected Danish land and gave Godfred the opportunity to harass Frisia and Flanders
Flanders
with pirate raids. He also subdued the Frank-allied Wiltzes and fought the Abotrites.

Godfred invaded Frisia, joked of visiting Aachen, but was murdered before he could do any more, either by a Frankish assassin or by one of his own men. Godfred was succeeded by his nephew Hemming , who concluded the Treaty of Heiligen with Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in late 811.

DEATH

See also: Testament of Charlemagne Portion of the 814 death shroud of Charlemagne. It represents a quadriga and was manufactured in Constantinople
Constantinople
. Frederick II\'s gold and silver casket for Charlemagne, the Karlsschrein Persephone sarcophagus of Charlemagne
Charlemagne

In 813, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There Charlemagne
Charlemagne
crowned his son as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen
Aachen
on 1 November. In January, he fell ill with pleurisy . In deep depression (mostly because many of his plans were not yet realised), he took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard
Einhard
tells it:

He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried that same day, in Aachen
Aachen
Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. The earliest surviving _planctus _, the _ Planctus de obitu Karoli _, was composed by a monk of Bobbio , which he had patronised. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen
Aachen
in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. In 1165, Frederick I re-opened the tomb again and placed the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the cathedral. In 1215 Frederick II re-interred him in a casket made of gold and silver.

Charlemagne's death emotionally affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen
Aachen
. An anonymous monk of Bobbio lamented:

From the lands where the sun rises to western shores, people are crying and wailing ... the Franks, the Romans, all Christians, are stung with mourning and great worry ... the young and old, glorious nobles, all lament the loss of their Caesar ... the world laments the death of Charles
Charles
... O Christ, you who govern the heavenly host, grant a peaceful place to Charles
Charles
in your kingdom. Alas for miserable me.

Louis succeeded him as Charles
Charles
had intended. He left a testament allocating his assets in 811 that was not updated prior to his death. His empire lasted only another generation in its entirety; its division, according to custom, between Louis's own sons after their father's death laid the foundation for the modern states of Germany and France.

ADMINISTRATION

As an administrator, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
stands out for his many reforms: monetary , governmental, military, cultural and ecclesiastical . He is the main protagonist of the " Carolingian Renaissance".

MILITARY

Charlemagne's success rested primarily on novel siege technologies and excellent logistics rather than the long-claimed "cavalry revolution" led by Charles Martel in 730s. However, the stirrup , which made the "shock cavalry" lance charge possible, was not introduced to the Frankish kingdom until the late eighth century.

Horses were used extensively by the Frankish military, because horses provided a quick, long-distance method of transporting troops , which was critical to building and maintaining the large empire.

ECONOMIC AND MONETARY REFORMS

_ Monogram
Monogram
of Charlemagne, from the subscription of a royal diploma: Signum_ (monogr.: KAROLVS) _Karoli gloriosissimi regis_

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had an important role in determining Europe's immediate economic future. Pursuing his father's reforms, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
abolished the monetary system based on the gold _sou _. Instead he and the Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia took up Pippin's system for pragmatic reasons, notably a shortage of the metal.

The gold shortage was a direct consequence of the conclusion of peace with Byzantium, which resulted in ceding Venice and Sicily to the East and losing their trade routes to Africa. The resulting standardisation economically harmonised and unified the complex array of currencies that had been in use at the commencement of his reign, thus simplifying trade and commerce.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
established a new standard, the _livre carolinienne _ (from the Latin
Latin
_libra _, the modern pound ), which was based upon a pound of silver—a unit of both money and weight—worth 20 sous (from the Latin
Latin
_solidus _ , the modern shilling ) or 240 _deniers _ (from the Latin
Latin
_denarius _, the modern penny ). During this period, the _livre_ and the _sou_ were counting units; only the _denier_ was a coin of the realm. Denier from the era of Charlemagne, Tours
Tours
, 793–812

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
instituted principles for accounting practice by means of the Capitulare de villis of 802, which laid down strict rules for the way in which incomes and expenses were to be recorded.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
applied this system to much of the European continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England. After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded, and most of Europe resorted to using the continued high-quality English coin until about 1100.

JEWS IN CHARLEMAGNE\'S REALM

Early in Charlemagne's rule he tacitly allowed Jews to monopolise money lending. Then lending of money for interest was proscribed in 814, because it violated Church law. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
introduced the _ Capitulary for the Jews _, a prohibition on Jews engaging in money-lending due to the religious convictions of the majority of his constituents, in essence banning it across the board, a reversal of his earlier recorded general policy. In addition to this broad change, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
also performed a significant number of microeconomic reforms, such as direct control of prices and levies on certain goods and commodities.

His _Capitulary for the Jews_, however, was not representative of his overall economic relationship or attitude towards the Frankish Jews, and certainly not his earlier relationship with them, which evolved over his life. His personal physician for example was Jewish, he employed at least one Jew for diplomatic missions and Isaac was his personal representative to the Muslim caliphate of Baghdad. Letters have been credited to him that invited Jews to settle in his kingdom, for economic purposes, generally welcoming them through his overall, progressive policies.

EDUCATION REFORMS

Part of Charlemagne's success as a warrior, an administrator and ruler can be traced to his admiration for learning and education. His reign are often referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance because of the flowering of scholarship, literature, art and architecture that characterise it. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
came into contact with the culture and learning of other countries (especially Moorish
Moorish
Spain, Anglo-Saxon England, and Lombard Italy) due to his vast conquests. He greatly increased the provision of monastic schools and scriptoria (centres for book-copying) in Francia.

Most of the presently surviving works of classical Latin
Latin
were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars. Indeed, the earliest manuscripts available for many ancient texts are Carolingian. It is almost certain that a text which survived to the Carolingian age survives still.

The pan-European nature of Charlemagne's influence is indicated by the origins of many of the men who worked for him: Alcuin , an Anglo-Saxon from York
York
; Theodulf , a Visigoth , probably from Septimania ; Paul the Deacon , Lombard; Italians Peter of Pisa and Paulinus of Aquileia ; and Franks
Franks
Angilbert , Angilram, Einhard
Einhard
and Waldo of Reichenau .

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
promoted the liberal arts at court, ordering that his children and grandchildren be well-educated, and even studying himself (in a time when even leaders who promoted education did not take time to learn themselves) under the tutelage of Peter of Pisa, from whom he learned grammar; Alcuin, with whom he studied rhetoric, dialectic (logic), and astronomy (he was particularly interested in the movements of the stars); and Einhard, who tutored him in arithmetic.

His great scholarly failure, as Einhard
Einhard
relates, was his inability to write: when in his old age he attempted to learn—practising the formation of letters in his bed during his free time on books and wax tablets he hid under his pillow—"his effort came too late in life and achieved little success", and his ability to read – which Einhard
Einhard
is silent about, and which no contemporary source supports—has also been called into question.

In 800, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
enlarged the hostel at the Muristan in Jerusalem and added a library to it. He certainly had not been personally in Jerusalem.

CHURCH REFORMS

See also: Charlemagne and church music Charlemagne\'s chapel at Aachen
Aachen
Cathedral .

Unlike his father, Pippin, and uncle, Carloman, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
expanded the reform Church's programme. The deepening of the spiritual life was later to be seen as central to public policy and royal governance. His reform focused on strengthening the church's power structure, improving clergy's skill and moral quality, standardising liturgical practices, improvements on the basic tenets of the faith and the rooting out of paganism. His authority extended over church and state. He could discipline clerics, control ecclesiastical property and define orthodox doctrine. Despite the harsh legislation and sudden change, he had developed support from clergy who approved his desire to deepen the piety and morals of his subjects.

In 809–810, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
called a church council in Aachen
Aachen
, which confirmed the unanimous belief in the West that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son (_ex Patre Filioque
Filioque
_) and sanctioned inclusion in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
of the phrase _Filioque_ (and the Son). For this Charlemagne
Charlemagne
sought the approval of Pope
Pope
Leo III . The Pope, while affirming the doctrine and approving its use in teaching, opposed its inclusion in the text of the Creed as adopted in the 381 First Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
. This spoke of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father, without adding phrases such as "and the Son", "through the Son", or "alone". Stressing his opposition, the Pope
Pope
had the original text inscribed in Greek and Latin
Latin
on two heavy shields that were displayed in Saint Peter\'s Basilica .

WRITING REFORMS

Page from the Lorsch Gospels of Charlemagne's reign

During Charles' reign, the Roman half uncial script and its cursive version, which had given rise to various continental minuscule scripts, were combined with features from the insular scripts in use in Irish and English monasteries. Carolingian minuscule was created partly under the patronage of Charlemagne. Alcuin , who ran the palace school and scriptorium at Aachen, was probably a chief influence.

The revolutionary character of the Carolingian reform, however, can be over-emphasised; efforts at taming Merovingian and Germanic influence had been underway before Alcuin arrived at Aachen. The new minuscule was disseminated first from Aachen
Aachen
and later from the influential scriptorium at Tours
Tours
, where Alcuin retired as an abbot.

POLITICAL REFORMS

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
engaged in many reforms of Frankish governance, while continuing many traditional practices, such as the division of the kingdom among sons.

Organisation

Main article: Government of the Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian king exercised the _bannum _, the right to rule and command. He had supreme jurisdiction in judicial matters, made legislation, led the army, and protected both the Church and the poor. His administration was an attempt to organise the kingdom, church and nobility around him. However, the effort was heavily dependent upon the efficiency, loyalty, and support of his subjects.

Divisio Regnorum

In 806, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
first made provision for the traditional division of the empire on his death. For Charles the Younger
Charles the Younger
he designated Austrasia and Neustria, Saxony, Burgundy and Thuringia . To Pippin he gave Italy, Bavaria and Swabia . Louis received Aquitaine, the Spanish March and Provence
Provence
. The imperial title was not mentioned, which led to the suggestion that, at that particular time, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
regarded the title as an honorary achievement that held no hereditary significance.

Pepin died in 810 and Charles
Charles
in 811. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
then reconsidered the matter, and in 813, crowned his youngest son, Louis, co-emperor and co-King of the Franks, granting him a half-share of the empire and the rest upon Charlemagne's own death. The only part of the Empire that Louis was not promised was Italy, which Charlemagne
Charlemagne
specifically bestowed upon Pippin's illegitimate son Bernard .

PERSONALITY

MANNER

Einhard
Einhard
tells in his twenty-fourth chapter:

Charles
Charles
was temperate in eating, and particularly so in drinking, for he abominated drunkenness in anybody, much more in himself and those of his household; but he could not easily abstain from food, and often complained that fasts injured his health. He very rarely gave entertainments, only on great feast-days, and then to large numbers of people. His meals ordinarily consisted of four courses, not counting the roast, which his huntsmen used to bring in on the spit; he was more fond of this than of any other dish. While at table, he listened to reading or music. The subjects of the readings were the stories and deeds of olden time: he was fond, too, of St. Augustine's books, and especially of the one entitled "The City of God."

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
threw grand banquets and feasts for special occasions such as religious holidays and four of his weddings. When he was not working, he loved Christian books, horseback riding, swimming, bathing in natural hot springs with his friends and family, and hunting. Franks
Franks
were well known for horsemanship and hunting skills. Charles was a light sleeper and would stay in his bed chambers for entire days at a time due to restless nights. During these days, he would not get out of bed when a quarrel occurred in his kingdom. Instead of handling business in a professional manner, he called all members of the situation into his bedroom to be given orders. Einhard
Einhard
tells again in the twenty fourth chapter: "In summer after the midday meal, he would eat some fruit, drain a single cup, put off his clothes and shoes, just as he did for the night, and rest for two or three hours. He was in the habit of awaking and rising from bed four or five times during the night."

LANGUAGE

Main article: Theodiscus

By Charlemagne's time the French vernacular had already diverged significantly from Latin. This is evidenced by one of the regulations of the Council of Tours
Tours
(813), which required that parish priests preach either in the "rusticam Romanam linguam" (Romance) or "Theotiscam" (the Germanic vernacular) rather than in Latin. The goal of this rule was to make sermons comprehensible to the common people. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
himself probably spoke a Rhenish Franconian dialect.

He also spoke Latin
Latin
and had at least some understanding of Greek, according to Einhard
Einhard
(_Grecam vero melius intellegere quam pronuntiare poterat_, "he could understand Greek better than he could speak it").

The largely fictional account of Charlemagne's Iberian campaigns by Pseudo-Turpin , written some three centuries after his death, gave rise to the legend that the king also spoke Arabic
Arabic
.

APPEARANCE

The Carolingian-era equestrian statuette thought to represent Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(from Metz Cathedral , now in the Louvre)

Charlemagne's personal appearance is known from a good description by Einhard
Einhard
after his death in the biography _ Vita Karoli Magni _. Einhard states:

He was heavily built, sturdy, and of considerable stature, although not exceptionally so, since his height was seven times the length of his own foot. He had a round head, large and lively eyes, a slightly larger nose than usual, white but still attractive hair, a bright and cheerful expression, a short and fat neck, and he enjoyed good health, except for the fevers that affected him in the last few years of his life. Towards the end, he dragged one leg. Even then, he stubbornly did what he wanted and refused to listen to doctors, indeed he detested them, because they wanted to persuade him to stop eating roast meat, as was his wont, and to be content with boiled meat.

The physical portrait provided by Einhard
Einhard
is confirmed by contemporary depictions such as coins and his 8-inch (20 cm) bronze statuette kept in the Louvre
Louvre
. In 1861, Charlemagne's tomb was opened by scientists who reconstructed his skeleton and estimated it to be measured 1.95 metres (6 ft 5 in). An estimate of his height from an X-ray and CT scan
CT scan
of his tibia performed in 2010 is 1.84 metres (6 ft 0 in). This puts him in the 99th percentile of height for his period, given that average male height of his time was 1.69 metres (5 ft 7 in). The width of the bone suggested he was gracile but not robust in body build.

DRESS

In the Bibliothèque Nationale de France
France

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
wore the traditional costume of the Frankish people , described by Einhard
Einhard
thus:

He used to wear the national, that is to say, the Frank, dress—next his skin a linen shirt and linen breeches, and above these a tunic fringed with silk; while hose fastened by bands covered his lower limbs, and shoes his feet, and he protected his shoulders and chest in winter by a close-fitting coat of otter or marten skins.

He wore a blue cloak and always carried a sword typically of a golden or silver hilt. He wore fancy jewelled swords to banquets or ambassadorial receptions. Nevertheless:

He despised foreign costumes, however handsome, and never allowed himself to be robed in them, except twice in Rome, when he donned the Roman tunic, chlamys, and shoes; the first time at the request of Pope Hadrian, the second to gratify Leo, Hadrian's successor.

On great feast days, he wore embroidery and jewels on his clothing and shoes. He had a golden buckle for his cloak on such occasions and would appear with his great diadem , but he despised such apparel, according to Einhard
Einhard
and usually dressed like the common people.

HOMES

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had residences across his kingdom, including numerous private estates that were governed in accordance with the Capitulare de villis . A 9th century document detailing the inventory of an estate at Asnapium listed amounts of livestock, plants and vegetables and kitchenware including cauldrons, drinking cups, brass kettles and firewood. The manor contained seventeen houses built inside the courtyard for nobles and family members and was separated from its supporting villas.

FAMILY

MARRIAGES AND HEIRS

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had eighteen children with eight of his ten known wives or concubines. Nonetheless, he had only four legitimate grandsons, the four sons of his fourth son, Louis. In addition, he had a grandson (Bernard of Italy
Italy
, the only son of his third son, Pippin of Italy
Italy
), who was illegitimate, but included in the line of inheritance. Among his descendants are several royal dynasties, including the Habsburg
Habsburg
, Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.

START DATE MARRIAGES AND HEIRS CONCUBINAGES AND ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN

c.768 His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage, or a Friedelehe . ( Charlemagne
Charlemagne
put her aside when he married Desiderata.) The union with Himiltrude produced a son:

* Pippin the Hunchback
Pippin the Hunchback
(ca. 769–811)

c. 770 After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards ; married in 770, annulled in 771.

c. 771 His second wife was Hildegard of Vinzgouw (757 or 758–783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:

* Charles the Younger
Charles the Younger
(ca. 772–4 December 811), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800 * Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773–8 July 810), King of Italy
King of Italy
* Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons * Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775–6 June 810) * Louis (778–20 June 840), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned King of the Franks/co-emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814 * Lothair (778–6 February 779/780), twin of Louis, he died in infancy * Bertha (779–826) * Gisela (781–808) * Hildegarde (782–783)

c. 773

His first known concubine was Gersuinda. By her he had:

* Adaltrude (b.774)

c. 774

His second known concubine was Madelgard. By her he had:

* Ruodhaid (775–810), abbess of Faremoutiers

c. 784 His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:

* Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil * Hiltrude (b.787)

c. 794 His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless.

c. 800

His fourth known concubine was Regina. By her he had:

* Drogo (801–855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Abbey
* Hugh (802–844), archchancellor of the Empire

c. 804

His fifth known concubine was Ethelind. By her he had:

* Richbod (805–844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier * Theodoric (b. 807)

Further information: Carolingian dynasty

ANCESTRY

Charles
Charles
Martel, sarcophagus

16. Ansegisel

8. Pepin of Herstal

17. Begga

4. Charles Martel

9. Alpaida

2. Pepin the Short

10. ? Lambert, Count of Hesbaye

5. Rotrude

11. ? Chrotlind

1. CHARLEMAGNE

6. Caribert of Laon

13. Bertrada of Prüm

3. Bertrada of Laon

NAME

Bust of Charlemagne , located at Aachen
Aachen
Cathedral Treasury Arm reliquary of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
at Aachen
Aachen
Cathedral Treasury

He was named _Charles_ in French and English, _Carolus_ in Latin, after his grandfather, Charles Martel . Later Old French historians dubbed him _ Charles
Charles
le Magne_ ( Charles
Charles
the Great), becoming Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in English after the Norman conquest of England . The epithet Carolus Magnus was widely used, leading to numerous translations into many languages of Europe. He was known in German as Karl der Große; Dutch, Karel de Grote; Danish/Norwegian/Swedish, Karl den Store; Italian, Carlo Magno; Catalan, Carlemany; Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian, Karlo Veliki; Czech, Karel Veliký; Slovak, Karol Veľký; Spanish, Carlomagno; Portuguese, Carlos Magno; and various others.

Charles' achievements gave a new meaning to his name . In many European languages, the very word for "king" derives from his name; e.g., Polish : _król_, Ukrainian : король (korol'), Czech : _král_, Slovak : _kráľ_, Hungarian : _király_, Lithuanian : _karalius_, Latvian : _karalis_, Russian : король, Macedonian : крал, Bulgarian : крал, Romanian : _crai_, Bosnian : _kralj_, Serbian : краљ/kralj, Croatian : _kralj_, Turkish : _kral_. This development parallels that of the name of the Caesars in the original Roman Empire, which became _kaiser_ and _czar_, among others.

BEATIFICATION

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was revered as a saint in the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
after the twelfth century. The Apostolic See did not recognise his invalid canonisation by Antipope Paschal III , done to gain the favour of Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
in 1165. The Apostolic See annulled all of Paschal's ordinances at the Third Lateran Council in 1179. He is not enumerated among the 28 saints named "Charles" in the _Roman Martyrology _. His beatification has been acknowledged as _cultus confirmed _ and is celebrated on 28 January.

CULTURAL USES

MIDDLE AGES

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had a sustained impact on European culture. The author of the _ Visio Karoli Magni _ written around 865 uses facts gathered apparently from Einhard
Einhard
and his own observations on the decline of Charlemagne's family after the dissensions war (840–43) as the basis for a visionary tale of Charles' meeting with a prophetic spectre in a dream.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies who enjoyed an important legacy in European culture. One of the great medieval literary cycles , the Charlemagne
Charlemagne
cycle or the _Matter of France
France
_, centres on his deeds—the Emperor with the Flowing Beard of _ Roland
Roland
_ fame—and his historical commander of the border with Brittany
Brittany
, Roland
Roland
, and the paladins who are analogous to the knights of the Round Table of King Arthur
King Arthur
's court. Their tales constitute the first _chansons de geste _. In the Divine Comedy the spirit of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars, among the other "warriors of the faith".

MODERN ERA

In 1867, an equestrian statue of Charlemagne, was made by Louis Jehotte and was inaugurated in 1868 on the Boulevard d'Avroy in Liège . In the niches of the neo-roman pedestal are six statues of Charlemagne's ancestors (Sainte Begge, Pépin de Herstal, Charles Martel, Bertrude, Pépin de Landen and Pépin le Bref).

The city of Aachen
Aachen
has, since 1949, awarded an international prize (called the _ Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen_) in honour of Charlemagne. It is awarded annually to "personages of merit who have promoted the idea of western unity by their political, economic and literary endeavours." Winners of the prize include Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi , the founder of the pan-European movement, Alcide De Gasperi , and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
.

In its national anthem, " El Gran Carlemany ", the nation of Andorra credits Charlemagne
Charlemagne
with its independence.

In 1964, the young French singer France Gall released the hit song "Sacré Charlemagne" in which the lyrics blame the great king for imposing the burden of compulsory education on French children.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is quoted by Dr Henry Jones, Sr. in _Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade _. After using his umbrella to induce a flock of seagulls to smash through the glass cockpit of a pursuing German fighter plane, Henry Jones remarks, "I suddenly remembered my Charlemagne: 'Let my armies be the rocks and the trees and the birds in the sky'." Despite the quote's popularity since the movie, there is no evidence that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
actually said this.

_ The Economist _ features a weekly column entitled "Charlemagne", focusing generally on European affairs and, more usually and specifically, on the European Union
European Union
and its politics.

Actor and singer Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
's symphonic metal concept album _Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross _ and its heavy metal follow-up _Charlemagne: The Omens of Death _ feature the events of Charlemagne's life.

A 2010 episode of _QI _ discussed the mathematics completed by Mark Humphrys that calculated that all modern Europeans are highly likely to share Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as a common ancestor (see most recent common ancestor ).

In April 2014, on the occasion of the 1200th anniversary of Charlemagne's death, public art _Mein Karl_ by Ottmar Hörl at Katschhof place was installed between city hall and the Aachen cathedral, displaying 500 Charlemagne
Charlemagne
statues.

*

Inauguration of the statue of Charlemagne, Liège , 26 July 1868. *

Art installation _Mein Karl_ by Ottmar Hörl on Katschhof place of Aachen
Aachen
*

Stained-glass of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
sitting on his throne in the railway station of Metz
Metz
, representing the imperial protection over Metz during the German annexation of the city

BOOKS AND LIBRARIES

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was a lover of books, sometimes having them read to him during meals. He was thought to enjoy the works of St. Augustine. His court played a key role in producing books that taught elementary Latin
Latin
and different aspects of the church. It also played a part in creating a royal library that contained in-depth works on language and Christian faith.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
encouraged clerics to translate Christian creeds and prayers into their respective vernaculars as well to teach grammar and music. Due to the increased interest of intellectual pursuits and the urging of their king, the monks accomplished so much copying that almost every manuscript from that time was preserved. At the same time, at the urging of their king, scholars were producing more secular books on many subjects, including history, poetry, art, music, law, theology, etc. Due to the increased number of titles, private libraries flourished. These were mainly supported by aristocrats and churchmen who could afford to sustain them. At Charlemagne's court, a library was founded and a number of copies of books were produced, to be distributed by Charlemagne. Book
Book
production was completed slowly by hand, and took place mainly in large monastic libraries. Books were so in demand during Charlemagne's time that these libraries lent out some books, but only if that borrower offered valuable collateral in return. Most books, however, were held by chains in order to discourage theft. This made it difficult for multiple students to study one title, but helped ensure the safety of the tomes.

Alcuin was a proponent of education and wrote thoughtfully on Christian religion. Considered the greatest scholar of his day, he became the king's confidant and adviser. He brought his interest in libraries to the king's court. He was also a tutor to the king and his sons, teaching them liberal arts, theology and astrology.

SEE ALSO

* Middle Ages
Middle Ages
portal

NOTES

* ^ In Latin
Latin
: _Karolus_ or _Carolus_, whence Charles. The French form Charlemagne
Charlemagne
comes from his nickname, _Carolus Magnus_ (Charles the Great). In reconstructed Frankish , his native tongue, his birthname would likely would have been _*Kar(e)l_.

* ^ Additional birth years for Charlemagne
Charlemagne
include 747 and 748. There is scholarly debate over this topic. See: Karl Ferdinand Werner: _Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen_, in: _Francia_ 1, 1973, pp. 115–157 (online Archived 17 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine .); Matthias Becher: _Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen_, in: _Francia_ 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60 (online Archived 17 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine .); * ^ Papst Johannes Paul II (2004). "Ansprache von seiner Heiligkeit Papst Johannes Paul II" (in German). Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. * ^ Also see: The Great Schism - St. George Orthodox Cathedral or The Great Schism - Assumption Greek Orthodox Church * ^ See:" France
France
:: The hegemony of Neustria". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Britannica.com. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ _A_ _B_ McKitterick 2008 , p. 72. * ^ Gregory 2005 , pp. 251–252. * ^ Waldman & Mason 2006 , pp. 270, 274–275. * ^ Collins 1999 , pp. 161–172. * ^ Fouracre 2005 , pp. 5–8. * ^ Frassetto 2003 , p. 292. * ^ Frassetto 2003 , p. 292–293. * ^ Waldman & Mason 2006 , p. 271. * ^ _A_ _B_ " France
France
:: Pippin III - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ The background relies heavily on Einhard, putative & 741–829 , Years 745–755 * ^ Oman 1914 , pp. 409–410. * ^ _Charlemagne—Forefather of Modern Europe_ --The Trumpet * ^ _A_ _B_ Baldwin, Stewart (2007–2009). "Charlemagne". The Henry Project. * ^ "Charlemagne". History.com. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ Route Gottfried von Bouillon e.V. - deutsche Sektion. Route-gottfried-von-bouillon.de. Retrieved on 7 September 2013. * ^ Einhard
Einhard
1999 , 4. Plan of This Work. * ^ Einhard
Einhard
1999 , 1. The Merovingian Family. * ^ The _Annales_ uses maiores domus, a plural followed by a singular: one house, two chief officers. Einhard, putative & 741–829 , Year 742 * ^ Einhard, putative & 741–829 , Years 745, 746. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Einhard
Einhard
1999 , 6. Lombard War. * ^ Collins 1998 , pp. 32–33. * ^ Einhard
Einhard
1999 , 3. Charlemagne's Accession. * ^ Einhard, putative & 741–829 , Year 768. * ^ Russell 1930 , p. 87. * ^ Collins 1987 , p. 32. * ^ Collins 1987 , p. 105. * ^ Douglass & Bilbao 2005 , pp. 36–37. * ^ Collins 1987 , p. 100. * ^ Collins 2004 , pp. 130–131, "The sequence of events...has not been assisted by the tendency of the historians to take all the information...from all the available sources and combine it to produce a single synthetic account...As a rule of thumb, reliability, and also brevity of narrative, are usually in direct proportion to chronological proximity." * ^ James 2009 , p. 49. * ^ Collins 2004 , pp. 131–132. * ^ Douglass & Bilbao 2005 , p. 40. * ^ Einhard
Einhard
2007 , p. 24. * ^ Lewis, David Levering (12 January 2009). _God\'s Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215_. W. W. Norton. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-393-33356-5 . * ^ Freeman, Edward Augustus
Augustus
(1904). _Western Europe in the Eighth Century & Onward: An Aftermath_. Macmillan and Company, limited. p. 74. * ^ Russell 1930 , p. 88. * ^ McKitterick 2008 , pp. 118–125. * ^ Kohn, George C. (2006). _Dictionary of Wars_. Infobase Publishing. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2916-7 . * ^ Paul Halsall, Einhard: The Wars of Charlemagne, c. 770-814, Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University, 1998 * ^ _A_ _B_ Charlemagne, Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Hodgkin 1889 . * ^ Hodgkin 1889 , pp. 85-6. * ^ Gelfand, Dale Evva (1 January 2003). _Charlemagne_. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438117850 . * ^ Butt, John J. (1 January 2002). _Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne_. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313316685 . * ^ Runciman, Steven. "The Empress Irene the Athenian." Medieval Women. Ed. Derek Baker. Oxford: Ecclesiastical History Society, 1978. * ^ Becher 2005 , p. 122. * ^ McKitterick 2008 , p. 91. * ^ Heck, Gene W. (2007). _When Worlds Collide: Exploring the Ideological and Political Foundations of the Clash of Civilizations_. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 172–. ISBN 978-0-7425-5856-4 . * ^ France, John, "The Composition and Raising of the Armies of Charlemagne", in Journal of Medieval Military History, ed. B. Bachrach (2002), pp. 63–5 * ^ Revised annals of the kingdom of the Franks, ed. and trans. King, Sources, p. 110 * ^ _A_ _B_ Historical Atlas of Knights and Castles, Cartographica, Dr Ian Barnes, 2007 pp.30 Clifford J. Rogers; Kelly DeVries (November 2002). _Journal of Medieval Military History_. Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-909-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Bruce Ross, James (April 1945). _Two Neglected Paladins of Charlemagne: Erich of Friuli and Gerold of Bavaria Speculum, Vol. 20, No. 2_. Medieval Academy of America. pp. 212–235. JSTOR 2854596 . * ^ Sinor, Denis (1 March 1990). _The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia_. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991). _The early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century_. University of Michigan Press . p. 78. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Klaić, Vjekoslav (1988). _Povijest Hrvata: od najstarijih vremena do svršetka XIX stoljeća. Treće doba: vladanje kraljeva iz raznih porodica (1301-1526). Knj. 2_ (in Croatian). Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice Hrvatske. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-86-401-0051-9 . * ^ Turner, Samuel Epes (1880). _Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne (Vita Karoli Magni)_. New York: Harper & Brothers. * ^ Einhard, Life of Charles
Charles
the Great * ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Charlemagne". * ^ James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce , _The Holy Roman Empire_, 1864, pg 62–64 * ^ Einhard
Einhard
_Life of Charlemagne_ 28. * ^ Tierney, Brian. _The Crisis of the Church and State 1050–1300_. University of Toronto Press, 1964. p. 17. * ^ Meek, Harry. "Charlemagne\'s Imperial Coronation: The Enigma of Sources and Use to Historians". www.academia.edu/HMeek. * ^ "he said that he would have refused to enter the church that day, although it was a major festival, had he been aware of the pope's plans". Einhard, The life of Charlemagne, 28 * ^ Collins 1987 , p. 147. * ^ _A_ _B_ Collins 1987 , p. 151. * ^ Collins 1987 , p. 149. * ^ Norwich 1992b , p. 378. * ^ Norwich 1992b , p. 379. * ^ Pirenne 2012 , p. 234n. * ^ Norwich 1992a , p. 3. * ^ Pirenne 2012 , p. 233. * ^ Butler, Alban; Hugh Farmer, David (1995). "St Paulinus of Aquileia, Bishop (c. 726–804)". _Butler\'s Lives of the Saints: New Full Edition_. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-86012-250-0 . * ^ Collins 1987 , p. 153. * ^ "Holy Roman Empire". Britannica.com. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ "Ohnsorge, Werner, \'\'Das Zweikaiserproblem im früheren Mittelalter. Die Bedeutung des byzantinischen Reiches für die Entwicklung der Staatsidee in Europa\'\', (Hildesheim, August Lax Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1947), pp. 15–31. Translated by Richard E. Sullivan in \'\'The Coronation
Coronation
of Charlemagne\'\' D. C. Heath and Company, Boston, 1959, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 59-14499". Clc-library-org-docs.angelfire.com. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ Cf. _ Monumenta Germaniae Historica
Monumenta Germaniae Historica
_, Diplomata Karolinorum I, 77ff.; title used from 801 onward. * ^ Cantor 2015 , pp. 194–5, 212. * ^ Davies1996 , pp. 316–317. * ^ _A_ _B_ Becher, Matthias (2011). "Die Außenpolitik Karls des Großen. Zwischen Krieg und Diplomatie". _ Damals _ (in German). 2011 Special
Special
Volume: 33–46. * ^ _eum imperatorem et basileum appellantes_, cf. _Royal Frankish Annals _, a. 812. * ^ Eichmann, Eduard (1942). _Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland: ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des kirchlichen Rechte, der Liturgie und der Kirchenpolitik_. Echter-Verlag. p. 33. * ^ Einhard, _Life_, p. 59 * ^ Godman, Peter (1985). _Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance_. Duckworth. pp. 206–211. ISBN 978-0-7156-1768-7 . * ^ Chamberlin, Russell (1986). _The Emperor, Charlemagne_. F. Watts. pp. 222–224. ISBN 978-0-531-15004-7 . * ^ Dutton 2004 . * ^ von Hellfeld, Matthias. "Die Geburt zweier Staaten – Die Straßburger Eide vom 14. Februar 842". _ Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
_ (in German). Retrieved 22 October 2011. * ^ Bowlus, Charles
Charles
R. (2006). _The Battle of Lechfeld and Its Aftermath, August 955: The End of the Age of Migrations in the Latin West_. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-0-7546-5470-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Hooper, Nicholas; Bennett, Matthew (26 January 1996). _The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-0-521-44049-3 . * ^ " Charlemagne
Charlemagne
created a peaceful environment for Jews in his kingdom. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
fostered a system where the Christian majority could procure credit through Jewish constituents. Christians were forbidden to loan money at an interest rate, a restriction not shared by the Jews.". Worldology.com. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ "Charlemagne". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). _A Short History of the Jewish People_. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–104. * ^ "Ashkenazic Jewry in France". Jewishhistory.org. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ Goldfoot, Nadene (8 October 2012). "includes sourced excerpts". Jewishfactsfromportland.blogspot.com. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ _ Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and Anglo-Saxon England_, Joanna Story, _Charlemagne: Empire and Society_, ed. Joanna Story, (Manchester University Press, 2005), 195. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dutton 2016 . * ^ Karl der Grosse und das Erbe der Kulturen, Band 1999, Franz-Reiner Erkens, Akademie Verlag, 2001. * ^ Saint-Denis zwischen Adel und König, Rolf Große, Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002. * ^ "Charlemagne". Britannica.com. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ "The Filioque: A Church-Dividing Issue?: An Agreed Statement of the North American Orthodox-Catholic Consultation". Usccb.org. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ "Adolf Harnack, \'\'History of Dogma\'\', The Controversy regarding the Filioque
Filioque
and Pictures". Ccel.org. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ Gerald Bray, _The_ Filioque
Filioque
_Clause in History and Theology_ The Tyndale Historical Lecture 1982 Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine ., p. 121 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bhote, Tehmina (1 January 2005). _Charlemagne: The Life and Times of an Early Medieval Emperor_. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 9781404201613 . * ^ Barbero 2004 , p. 106. * ^ Keller, R.E. (1964). "The Language of the Franks". _Bulletin of the John Rylands Library of Manchester_. 47 (1): 101–122, esp. 122. * ^ Chambers, William Walker; Wilkie, John Ritchie (10 January 2014). _A Short History of the German Language (RLE Linguistics E: Indo-European Linguistics)_. London: Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-317-91852-3 . * ^ McKitterick 2008 , p. 318. * ^ Einhard
Einhard
1999 , 25. Studies. * ^ Van Herwaarden, J. (1 January 2003). _Between Saint James and Erasmus: Studies in Late-Medieval Religious Life : Devotions and Pilgrimages in the Netherlands_. BRILL. p. 475. ISBN 90-04-12984-7 . * ^ Barbero 2004 , p. 116. * ^ Barbero 2004 , p. 118. * ^ Ruhli, F.J.; Blumich, B.; Henneberg, M. (2010). "Charlemagne was very tall, but not robust". _Economics and Human Biology_. 8: 289–290. doi :10.1016/j.ehb.2009.12.005 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Einhard
Einhard
1999 , 23. Dress. * ^ "Internet History Sourcebooks Project". _legacy.fordham.edu_. Retrieved 2 May 2016. * ^ Durant, Will. "King Charlemagne." Archived 24 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine . History of Civilization, Vol III, _The Age of Faith_. Online version in the Knighthood, Tournaments two daughters, Hildigard and Adelhaid, died as babies, so that Einhard
Einhard
appears to err in one of his names, unless there were really five daughters." Thorpe, Lewis, _Two Lives of Charlemagne_, p.185 * ^ Church historians of the period wrote universally in Latin, regardless of native language. Charles
Charles
le Magne only translates Carolus Magnus given in the Latin
Latin
manuscripts into French, which was subsequent to whatever language Charles
Charles
spoke. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Anderson, Perry (23 April 2013). _Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism_. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-78168-008-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Shahan, Thomas; Ewan Macpherson. "Charlemagne". _The Catholic Encyclopedia _. Retrieved 1 January 2013. In some parts of the empire popular affection placed him among the saints. For political purposes and to please Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
he was canonised (1165) by the antipope Paschal III, but this act was never ratified by insertion of his feast in the Roman Breviary or by the Universal Church; his cultus, however, was permitted at Aachen
Aachen
* ^ _Martyrologium Romanum, Ad Formam Editionis Typicae Scholiis Historicis Instructum_. 1940. p. 685. * ^ Hoche, Dominique T (2012). "Charlemagne". In Lister M. Matheson. _Icons of the Middle Ages: Rulers, Writers, Rebels, and Saints_. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. pp. 143–74 . ISBN 978-0-313-34080-2 . Retrieved 1 January 2013. * ^ Chamberlin, Russell, _The Emperor Charlemagne_, p. ??? * ^ "Quid plura? "Flying birds, excellent birds ..."". Quidplura.com. 5 August 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2014. * ^ "Where do The Economist’s unusual names come from?". _The Economist_. Retrieved 26 March 2017. * ^ Michaels, Sean (5 January 2010). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
to release \'symphonic metal\' album, The man who played Dracula and Saruman is to tell the story of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, through the universal language of metal". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_. Retrieved 1 January 2013. The man who played Dracula, Saruman and the Man with the Golden Gun is now to portray Charlemagne
Charlemagne
– through the medium of song. Actor Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
is to release an album of "symphonic metal", telling the story of his own direct ancestor, the first Holy Roman Emperor. * ^ Farrell, John (28 May 2012). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Celebrates 90th Birthday By Recording Heavy Metal". _ Forbes
Forbes
_. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 'Let Legend Mark Me As King;' and 'The Ultimate Sacrifice', arranged by Judas Priest lead guitarist Richie Falkner, are part of a new album, Charlemagne: The Omens of Death. * ^ Common ancestors of all humans. Humphrysfamilytree.com. Retrieved on 7 September 2013. * ^ Euregio Aachen: Mein Karl Archived 23 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine ., 18 October 2013 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bullough, Donald A. (December 2003). "Charlemagne\'s court library revisited". _ Early Medieval Europe (journal) _. 12 (4): 339–363. doi :10.1111/j.0963-9462.2004.00141.x . Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ " Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Holy Roman emperor ". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved 17 November 2015. * ^ "Charlemagne's court library revisited". _Early Medieval Europe_. 12 (4): 339–363. 2003. doi :10.1111/j.0963-9462.2004.00141.x .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Charlemagne, from _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_, full-article, latest edition. * Barbero, Alessandro (2004). _Charlemagne: Father of a Continent_. trans. Allan Cameron. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23943-1 . * Becher, Matthias (4 March 2005). _Charlemagne_. Translated by Bachrach, David S. New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press. ISBN 0-300-09796-4 . * Cantor, Norman F. (13 October 2015). _Civilization of the Middle Ages: Completely Revised and Expanded Edition, A_. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-244460-8 . * Collins, Roger (1987) . _The Basques_. New York: Basil Blackwell Inc. * Collins, Roger (1998). _Charlemagne_. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. * Collins, Roger (1999). _Early Medieval Europe, 300–1000_. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-33365-808-6 . * Collins, Roger (2004). _Visigothic Spain, 409–711_. History of Spain. Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell Pub. * Davies, Norman (1996). _Europe: A History_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820171-7 . * Douglass, William A; Bilbao, Jon (2005). _Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World_. The Basque series. Reno; Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press. ISBN 9780874176254 . * Dutton, P. (30 April 2016). _Charlemagne\'s Mustache: And Other Cultural Clusters of a Dark Age_. Palgrave Macmillan US. ISBN 978-1-137-06228-4 . * Dutton, Paul Edward (2004). _ Carolingian Civilization: A Reader_. Broadview Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-492-7 . * Einhard, putative (741–829). _Annales Regni Francorum (Annales Laurissenses Maiores)_. _Medieval Latin_. The Latin
Latin
Library. * Einhard
Einhard
(1999) . Halsall, Paul, ed. _The Life of Charlemagne_. trans. Samuel Epes Turner. New York: Harper Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. * Fouracre, Paul (2005). "The Long Shadow of the Merovingians". In Joanna Story, ed. _Charlemagne: Empire and Society_. Machester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-71907-089-1 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * Frassetto, Michael (2003). _Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation_. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-263-9 . * Ganshof, F. L. (1971). _The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy: Studies in Carolingian History_. trans. Janet Sondheimer. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0635-8 . * Gregory, Timothy E. (2005). _A History of Byzantium_. Malden, MA; Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-63123-513-2 . * Hodgkin, Thomas (1889). _ Italy
Italy
and Her Invaders_. 8. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * James, David; Ibn al-Qūṭiyya (2009). _Early Islamic Spain: The History of Ibn al-Qūṭiyya: a study of the unique Arabic
Arabic
manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, with a translation, notes and comments_. London and New York: Routledge. * Lewers Langston, Aileen; Buck, Jr., J. Orton, eds. (1974). _Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants_. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co. * McKitterick, Rosamond (24 April 2008). _Charlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-47285-2 . * Molina Figueras, Joan (2004). "Arnau de Montrodon y la catedral de San Carlomagno: sobre la imagen y el culto al emperador carolingio en Gerona". _Anuario de Estudios Medievales_ (in Spanish). 34 (1): 417–454. doi :10.3989/aem.2004.v34.i1.190 . * Norwich, John Julius (1992a). _Byzantium: The Apogee_. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-53779-5 . * Norwich, John Julius (1992b). _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_. Penguin Books. * Oman, Charles
Charles
(1914). _The Dark Ages, 476–918_ (6th ed.). London: Rivingtons. * Painter, Sidney (1953). _A History of the Middle Ages, 284-1500_. New York: Knopf. * Pirenne, Henri (18 April 2012) . _Mohammed and Charlemagne_ (Dover ed.). Mineola, N.Y.: Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-12225-0 . * Riché, Pierre (1993). _The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe_. Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1342-4 . * Russell, Charles
Charles
Edward (1930). _Charlemagne, first of the moderns_. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. * Santosuosso, Antonio (2004). _Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels: The Ways of Medieval Warfare_. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-9153-9 . * Sarti, Laury (2016). "Frankish Romanness and Charlemagne’s Empire". _Speculum_. 91 (4): 1040–1058. * Scholz, Bernhard Walter; Barbara Rogers (1970). _Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories_. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08790-8 . Comprises the _Annales regni Francorum_ and _The History of the Sons of Louis the Pious_ * Sypeck, Jeff (2006). _Becoming Charlemagne: Europe, Baghdad, and The Empires of A.D. 800_. New York: Ecco/HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-079706-1 . * Tierney, Brian (1964). _The Crisis of Church and State 1050–1300_. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6701-8 . * Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). _Encyclopedia of European Peoples_. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0816049646 . * Wilson, Derek (2005). _Charlemagne: The Great Adventure_. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-179461-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutCHARLEMAGNEat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* The Making of

.

Time at 25055630.233333, Busy percent: -86.493859240241

Warning: error_log(logs/periodic-service_log.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25055630.233333 3logs/periodic-service_log.txt
Warning: file_get_contents(periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 40

Warning: file_get_contents(file-server-ip.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/const.php on line 59

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/const.php on line 62

Warning: error_log(isfileserver_log.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/helper.php on line 21

Warning: file_put_contents(periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 171