is the international trend of historically
mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices
similar to Pentecostalism. Fundamental to the movement is the use of
spiritual gifts (charismata). Among Protestants, the movement began
around 1960. Among Roman Catholics, it originated around 1967.
3 Denominations influenced
3.7 Roman Catholicism
3.8 Eastern Orthodoxy
4 Theologians and scholars
5 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Pentecostalism began in the early twentieth century. Its doctrinal
distinctive involved a dramatic encounter with God termed baptism with
the Holy Spirit. The evidence for having received this experience was
speaking in tongues. American Lutheran minister
Harald Bredesen coined the term "charismatic" in 1962 to describe what
was happening in mainline
Protestant denominations. Confronted with
the term "neo-Pentecostal", he preferred to call it "the charismatic
renewal in the historic churches".
Before 1955 the religious mainstream did not embrace Pentecostal
doctrines. If a church member or clergyman openly expressed such
views, they would (either voluntarily or involuntarily) separate from
their existing denomination. The charismatic movement represented a
reversal of this previous pattern as those influenced by Pentecostal
spirituality chose to remain in their original denominations.
The high church wing of the American Episcopal Church became the first
traditional ecclesiastical organization to feel the impact of the new
movement internally. The beginning of the charismatic movement is
usually dated to Sunday, April 3, 1960, when Dennis J. Bennett, rector
of St Mark's Episcopal Church in
Van Nuys, California
Van Nuys, California recounted his
Pentecostal experience to his parish, doing it again on the next two
Sundays, including Easter (April 17), during which many of his
congregation shared his experience, causing him to be forced to
resign. The resulting controversy and press coverage spread an
awareness of the emerging charismatic movement. The movement grew to
embrace other mainline churches, where clergy began receiving and
publicly announcing their Pentecostal experiences. These clergy began
holding meetings for seekers and healing services which included
praying over and anointing of the sick. The Catholic Charismatic
Renewal began in 1967 at
Duquesne University in Pittsburgh,
Despite the fact that Pentecostals currently tend to share more in
common with evangelicals than with either Roman Catholics or mainline
Protestants, the charismatic movement was not
initially influential among evangelical churches. C. Peter Wagner
traces the spread of the charismatic movement within evangelicalism to
around 1985. He termed this movement the Third Wave of the Holy
Spirit. The Third Wave has expressed itself through the formation
of churches and denomination-like organizations. These groups are
referred to as "neo-charismatic". The Vineyard
Movement and the
British New Church Movement exemplify Third Wave or
Charismatic Christians believe that the gifts (Greek charismata
χάρισμα, from charis χάρις, grace) of the Holy Spirit as
described in the
New Testament are available to contemporary
Christians through the infilling or baptism of the Holy Spirit,
with-or-without the laying on of hands. Although the
many gifts from God through His Holy Spirit, there are nine specific
gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8–10 that are Supernatural in
nature and are the focus of and distinguishing feature of the
Charismatic Movement: Word of Wisdom, Word of Knowledge, Faith, Gifts
of Healing, Miraculous Powers, Prophecy, Distinguishing between
Spirits, Speaking in different Tongues (Languages), and Interpretation
While Pentecostals and charismatics share these beliefs, there are
differences. Many in the charismatic movement deliberately distanced
Pentecostalism for cultural and theological reasons.
Foremost among theological reasons is the tendency of many
Pentecostals to insist that speaking in tongues is always the initial
physical sign of receiving Spirit baptism. Although specific teachings
will vary from group to group, charismatics generally believe that the
baptism with the Holy Spirit occurs at the new birth and prefer to
call subsequent encounters with the Holy Spirit by other names, such
as "being filled". In contrast to Pentecostals, charismatics tend
to accept a range of supernatural experiences (such as prophecy,
miracles, healing, or "physical manifestations of an altered state of
consciousness") as evidence of having been baptized or filled with the
Pentecostals are also distinguished from the charismatic movement on
the basis of style. Also, Pentecostals have traditionally placed a
high value on evangelization and missionary work. Charismatics, on the
other hand, have tended to see their movement as a force for
revitalization and renewal within their own church traditions.
Detractors argue these sign and revelatory gifts were manifested in
New Testament for a specific purpose, upon which once accomplished
these signs were withdrawn and no longer function. This position is
called cessationism, and is claimed by its proponents to be the almost
universal position of Christians until the Charismatic movement
Charismatic Movement is based on a belief that these
gifts are still available today.
Part of a series on
Modernism and liberalism
In America, the Episcopalian Dennis Bennett is sometimes cited as one
of the charismatic movement's seminal influence. Bennett was the
Rector at St Mark's Episcopal Church in
Van Nuys, California
Van Nuys, California when he
announced to the congregation in 1960 that he had received the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Soon after this he ministered in
Seattle, where he ran many workshops and seminars about the work of
the Holy Spirit.
In the United Kingdom, Colin Urquhart, Michael Harper, David Watson
and others were in the vanguard of similar developments.
The Massey conference in New Zealand, 1964 was attended by several
Anglicans, including the Rev. Ray Muller, who went on to invite
Bennett to New Zealand in 1966, and played a leading role in
developing and promoting the Life in the Spirit seminars. Other
Charismatic movement leaders in New Zealand include Bill Subritzky.
The movement led to the creation of independent evangelical
charismatic churches more in tune with the revival of the Holy Spirit.
Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa, California was one of the first evangelical
charismatic churches, founded in 1965. In the United Kingdom,
Jesus Army, founded in 1969, is an example of the impact outside of
the United States. Many other congregations were established in
the rest of the world.
Larry Christenson, a Lutheran theologian based in San Pedro,
California, did much in the 1960s and 1970s to interpret the
charismatic movement for Lutherans. A very large annual conference was
held in Minneapolis during those years. Charismatic Lutheran
congregations in Minnesota became especially large and influential;
especially "Hosanna!" in Lakeville, and North Heights in St.
Paul. The next generation of Lutheran charismatics
cluster around the Alliance of Renewal Churches.
There is currently considerable charismatic activity among young
Lutheran leaders in California centered on an annual gathering at
Robinwood Church in Huntington Beach. Richard A.
Jensen's Touched by the Spirit published in 1974, played a major role
of the Lutheran understanding to the charismatic movement.
Methodist movement was initiated, "many individuals in
London, Oxford and Bristol reported supernatural healings, visions,
dreams, spiritual impressions, power in evangelizing, [and]
extraordinary bestowments of wisdom". John Wesley, the founder of
Methodism, "firmly maintained that the Spiritual gifts are a natural
consequence of genuine holiness and dwelling of God’s Spirit in a
man." As such,
Methodist Churches hold to the theological position
of continuationism. With its history of promoting holiness and
Methodist Churches permit charismatic worship.
Charismatics in the United States allied with the Good News caucus and
those in Great Britain have been supported by the Lay Witness
Movement, which works with
Methodist Evangelicals Together. In
Methodist Church, the charismatic apostolate Aldersgate
Renewal Ministries was formed to "to pray and work together for the
renewal of the church by the power of the Holy Spirit". It runs
events at local United
Methodist churches, as well as the Methodist
School for Supernatural Ministry.
In congregational and
Presbyterian churches which profess a
Reformed theology there are differing views
regarding present-day continuation or cessation of the gifts
(charismata) of the Spirit. Generally, however, Reformed
charismatics distance themselves from renewal movements with
tendencies which could be perceived as overemotional, such as Word of
Faith, Toronto Blessing,
Brownsville Revival and Lakeland Revival.
Reformed charismatic denominations are the Sovereign Grace
Churches and the
Every Nation Churches in the United States, in Great
Britain there is the
Newfrontiers churches and movement, founded by
Main article: Charismatic Adventism
A minority of Seventh-day Adventists today are charismatic. They are
strongly associated with those holding more "progressive" Adventist
beliefs. In the early decades of the church charismatic or ecstatic
phenomena were commonplace.
Part of a series on the
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
History of the Catholic Church
History of the papacy
Four Marks of the Church
One true church
College of Cardinals
Three States of the Church
Harrowing of Hell
Anointing of the Sick
Sex and gender roles
Sexual abuse cases
Role in civilization
Links and resources
Vatican City portal
Main article: Catholic Charismatic Renewal
Since 1967 the charismatic movement has been active within the Roman
Catholic Church. In the United States the Catholic
Charismatic Renewal was focused in individuals like
Kevin Ranaghan and
others at the
University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana.
Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, which was founded by the
Congregation of the Holy Spirit, a Catholic religious community, began
hosting charismatic revivals in 1977.
In a foreword to a 1983 book by Léon Joseph Cardinal Suenens, at that
time the Pope's delegate to the Catholic Charismatic Renewal, the
Prefect[clarification needed] comments on the Post Second Vatican
Council period stating,
At the heart of a world imbued with a rationalistic skepticism, a new
experience of the Holy Spirit suddenly burst forth. And, since then,
that experience has assumed a breadth of a worldwide Renewal movement.
New Testament tells us about the Charisms—which were seen
as visible signs of the coming of the Spirit—is not just ancient
history, over and done with, for it is once again becoming extremely
to those responsible for the ecclesiastical ministry—from parish
priests to bishops—not to let the Renewal pass them by but to
welcome it fully; and on the other (hand) ... to the members of the
Renewal to cherish and maintain their link with the whole Church and
with the Charisms of their pastors.
Roman Catholic church, the movement became particularly popular
in the Filipino, Korean, and
Hispanic communities of the United
States, in the Philippines, and in Latin America, mainly Brazil.
Travelling priests and lay people associated with the movement often
visit parishes and sing what are known as charismatic masses. It is
thought to be the second largest distinct sub-movement (some 120
million members) within global Catholicism, along with Traditional
A further difficulty is the tendency for many charismatic Catholics to
take on what others in their church might consider sacramental
language and assertions of the necessity of "
Baptism in the Holy
Spirit," as a universal act. This causes difficulty as there is little
to distinguish the "Baptism" from the sacrament of confirmation.
In this regard, a Study seminar organized jointly in
São Paulo by the
Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and the Bishops
Brazil raised these issues. Technically, among
Catholics, the "
Baptism of the Holy Spirit" is neither the highest nor
fullest manifestation of the Holy Spirit.
Baptism of the Spirit" is one experience among many within
Christianity (as are the extraordinary manifestations of the Spirit in
the lives of the saints, notably
St. Francis of Assisi
St. Francis of Assisi and St. Teresa
of Avila, who levitated), and thus less dogmatically held by Catholic
charismatics (than by Pentecostals). Possibly,
Padre Pio (now St.
Pio) provides a modern-day Catholic example of this experience.
Describing his confirmation, when he was 12 years old,
Padre Pio said
that he "wept with consolation" whenever he thought of that day
because "I remember what the Most Holy Spirit caused me to feel that
day, a day unique and unforgettable in all my life! What sweet
raptures the Comforter made me feel that day! At the thought of that
day, I feel aflame from head to toe with a brilliant flame that burns,
consumes, but gives no pain." In this experience,
Padre Pio said he
was made to feel God's "fullness and perfection." Thus a case can be
made that he was "baptized by the Spirit" on his confirmation day in
1899. It was one spiritual experience among many that he would
The Compendium to the Catechism of the
Catholic Church states:
160. What are Charisms? 799–801. Charisms are special gifts of the
Holy Spirit which are bestowed on individuals for the good of others,
the needs of the world, and in particular for the building up of the
Church. The discernment of charisms is the responsibility of the
Part of a series on the
Eastern Orthodox Church
Mosaic of Christ Pantocrator, Hagia Sophia
Theology (History of theology)
View of salvation
View of Mary
View of icons
Crucifixion / Resurrection / Ascension
Four Marks of the Church
Degrees of monasticism
Czech lands and Slovakia
Seven Ecumenical Councils:
Other important councils:
Christianization of Bulgaria
Christianization of Kievan Rus'
History of Orthodox Theology
(20th century (Neo-Palamism))
Essence vs. Energies
Differences from the Catholic Church
Opposition to the Filioque
Opposition to papal supremacy
Liturgy and worship
Russian bell ringing
Sign of the cross
Use of incense
12 Great Feasts
Feast of Orthodoxy
Intercession of the Theotokos
The four fasting periods:
Athanasius of Alexandria
Ephrem the Syrian
Basil of Caesarea
Cyril of Jerusalem
Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nyssa
Cyril of Alexandria
Maximus the Confessor
John of Damascus
Theodore the Studite
Cyril and Methodius
Photios I of Constantinople
Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs
Statistics by country
The charismatic movement has not exerted the same influence on the
Orthodox Church that it has on other mainstream Christian
denominations. Individual priests, such as Fr. James Tavralides, Fr.
Constantine Monios and Fr. David Buss, Fr. Athanasius Emmert of the
Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese, Fr. Eusebius A. Stephanou
of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, founder of the
Brotherhood of St. Symeon the New Theologian and editor of "The
Logos", and Fr. Boris Zabrodsky of the Ukrainian
Orthodox Church in
America, founder of the Service Committee for Orthodox Spiritual
Renewal (SCOSR) which published the Theosis Newsletter, were some of
the more prominent leaders of the Charismatic Renewal within
Theologians and scholars
See also: Renewal Theologians
Jack Deere (Presbyterian)
Paul Fiddes (Baptist)
Wayne Grudem (
Reformed / Vineyard)
Willem Ouweneel (Open Brethren)
Kevin Ranaghan (Roman Catholic)
J. Rodman Williams (Presbyterian)
Hobart Freeman (Non-denominational)
Cessationism versus Continuationism
^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, pp. 38–39.
^ "DENNIS BENNETT BIOGRAPHY". www.emotionallyfree.org. Retrieved
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^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, pp. 38–41.
^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, pp. 43–44.
^ a b Menzies & Menzies 2000, p. 39.
^ Poloma, Margaret M; Green, John C (2010), The Assemblies of God:
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^ "Anglican Pioneer in Renewal". Telus. Retrieved January 31,
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Movement, Baker Academic, U.S., 2005, pp. 150–51
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Jesus Army, Multiply Publications, England, 1997, p.
^ "Understanding the Charismatic Movement". The Exchange – A Blog by
Ed Stetzer. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
^ a b c Živadinović, Dojcin (2015). "Wesley and Charisma: An
Analysis of John Wesley's View of Spiritual Gifts". Andrews University
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A. (1999). Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism. University
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Methodist Evangelicals Together, Lay Witness Movement, accessed July
^ a b Richey, Russell E.; Rowe, Kenneth E.; Schmidt, Jeanne Miller
(October 1, 2012). American Methodism: A Compact History. Abingdon
Press. p. 232. ISBN 9781426765179.
^ Masters, Peter; Wright, Professor Verna (1988). Healing Epidemic.
London: Wakeman Trust. p. 227. ISBN 9781870855006.
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the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
^ Patrick, Arthur (c. 1999). "Early Adventist worship, Ellen White and
the Holy Spirit: Preliminary Historical Perspectives". Spiritual
Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. Retrieved February 15,
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the Holy Spirit: Further Historical Perspectives". Spiritual
Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. Retrieved February 15,
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(Malines document). Darton, Longman & Todd.
^ Barrett, David, "Christian World Communions: Five Overviews of
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^ Ruffin, C Bernard (1991), Padre Pio: The True Story, Huntington, IN:
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Fiddes, Paul (1980), Charismatic renewal: a
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Baptist Union Council with commentary, London: Baptist
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Charismatic Movement from a
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+ John and Elizabeth Sherill, They Speak With Other Tongues, Chosen
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