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The Charismatic Movement
Charismatic Movement
is the international trend of historically mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostalism. Fundamental to the movement is the use of spiritual gifts (charismata). Among Protestants, the movement began around 1960. Among Roman Catholics, it originated around 1967.

Contents

1 History 2 Beliefs 3 Denominations influenced

3.1 Anglicanism 3.2 Evangelicalism 3.3 Lutheranism 3.4 Methodism 3.5 Calvinism 3.6 Adventism 3.7 Roman Catholicism 3.8 Eastern Orthodoxy

4 Theologians and scholars 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
began in the early twentieth century. Its doctrinal distinctive involved a dramatic encounter with God termed baptism with the Holy Spirit. The evidence for having received this experience was speaking in tongues.[citation needed] American Lutheran minister Harald Bredesen coined the term "charismatic" in 1962 to describe what was happening in mainline Protestant
Protestant
denominations. Confronted with the term "neo-Pentecostal", he preferred to call it "the charismatic renewal in the historic churches". Before 1955 the religious mainstream did not embrace Pentecostal doctrines. If a church member or clergyman openly expressed such views, they would (either voluntarily or involuntarily) separate from their existing denomination. The charismatic movement represented a reversal of this previous pattern as those influenced by Pentecostal spirituality chose to remain in their original denominations.[1] The high church wing of the American Episcopal Church became the first traditional ecclesiastical organization to feel the impact of the new movement internally. The beginning of the charismatic movement is usually dated to Sunday, April 3, 1960, when Dennis J. Bennett, rector of St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California
Van Nuys, California
recounted his Pentecostal experience to his parish, doing it again on the next two Sundays, including Easter (April 17), during which many of his congregation shared his experience, causing him to be forced to resign.[2] The resulting controversy and press coverage spread an awareness of the emerging charismatic movement. The movement grew to embrace other mainline churches, where clergy began receiving and publicly announcing their Pentecostal experiences. These clergy began holding meetings for seekers and healing services which included praying over and anointing of the sick. The Catholic Charismatic Renewal began in 1967 at Duquesne University
Duquesne University
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[3] Despite the fact that Pentecostals currently tend to share more in common with evangelicals than with either Roman Catholics or mainline Protestants,[citation needed] the charismatic movement was not initially influential among evangelical churches. C. Peter Wagner traces the spread of the charismatic movement within evangelicalism to around 1985. He termed this movement the Third Wave of the Holy Spirit.[4] The Third Wave has expressed itself through the formation of churches and denomination-like organizations. These groups are referred to as "neo-charismatic".[citation needed] The Vineyard Movement and the British New Church Movement exemplify Third Wave or neo-charismatic organizations. Beliefs[edit] Charismatic Christians believe that the gifts (Greek charismata χάρισμα, from charis χάρις, grace) of the Holy Spirit as described in the New Testament
New Testament
are available to contemporary Christians through the infilling or baptism of the Holy Spirit, with-or-without the laying on of hands.[5] Although the Bible
Bible
lists many gifts from God through His Holy Spirit, there are nine specific gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8–10 that are Supernatural in nature and are the focus of and distinguishing feature of the Charismatic Movement: Word of Wisdom, Word of Knowledge, Faith, Gifts of Healing, Miraculous Powers, Prophecy, Distinguishing between Spirits, Speaking in different Tongues (Languages), and Interpretation of Tongues. While Pentecostals and charismatics share these beliefs, there are differences. Many in the charismatic movement deliberately distanced themselves from Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
for cultural and theological reasons. Foremost among theological reasons is the tendency of many Pentecostals to insist that speaking in tongues is always the initial physical sign of receiving Spirit baptism. Although specific teachings will vary from group to group, charismatics generally believe that the baptism with the Holy Spirit occurs at the new birth and prefer to call subsequent encounters with the Holy Spirit by other names, such as "being filled".[5] In contrast to Pentecostals, charismatics tend to accept a range of supernatural experiences (such as prophecy, miracles, healing, or "physical manifestations of an altered state of consciousness") as evidence of having been baptized or filled with the Holy Spirit.[6] Pentecostals are also distinguished from the charismatic movement on the basis of style.[7] Also, Pentecostals have traditionally placed a high value on evangelization and missionary work. Charismatics, on the other hand, have tended to see their movement as a force for revitalization and renewal within their own church traditions.[8] Detractors argue these sign and revelatory gifts were manifested in the New Testament
New Testament
for a specific purpose, upon which once accomplished these signs were withdrawn and no longer function.[9] This position is called cessationism, and is claimed by its proponents to be the almost universal position of Christians until the Charismatic movement started.[9] The Charismatic Movement
Charismatic Movement
is based on a belief that these gifts are still available today. Denominations influenced[edit]

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Protestantism

Topics

Reformation Great Awakenings History Culture Demographics Persecution Criticism

Major branches

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptist
Baptist
churches Calvinism Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism

Minor branches

Hussitism Waldensianism Plymouth Brethren Holiness movement Quakerism Multiple others

Interdenominational movements

Evangelicalism Charismatic movement Neo-charismatic movement

Other developments

Arminianism Pietism Puritanism Neo-orthodoxy Paleo-orthodoxy Christian fundamentalism Modernism and liberalism

Related movements

Nondenominational churches House churches

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Anglicanism[edit] In America, the Episcopalian Dennis Bennett is sometimes cited as one of the charismatic movement's seminal influence.[10] Bennett was the Rector at St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California
Van Nuys, California
when he announced to the congregation in 1960 that he had received the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.[11] Soon after this he ministered in Seattle, where he ran many workshops and seminars about the work of the Holy Spirit.[12] In the United Kingdom, Colin Urquhart, Michael Harper, David Watson and others were in the vanguard of similar developments. The Massey conference in New Zealand, 1964 was attended by several Anglicans, including the Rev. Ray Muller, who went on to invite Bennett to New Zealand in 1966, and played a leading role in developing and promoting the Life in the Spirit seminars. Other Charismatic movement leaders in New Zealand include Bill Subritzky. Evangelicalism[edit] The movement led to the creation of independent evangelical charismatic churches more in tune with the revival of the Holy Spirit. Calvary Chapel
Calvary Chapel
Costa Mesa, California was one of the first evangelical charismatic churches, founded in 1965.[13] In the United Kingdom, Jesus
Jesus
Army, founded in 1969, is an example of the impact outside of the United States.[14] Many other congregations were established in the rest of the world.[15] Lutheranism[edit] Larry Christenson, a Lutheran theologian based in San Pedro, California, did much in the 1960s and 1970s to interpret the charismatic movement for Lutherans. A very large annual conference was held in Minneapolis during those years. Charismatic Lutheran congregations in Minnesota became especially large and influential; especially "Hosanna!" in Lakeville, and North Heights in St. Paul.[citation needed] The next generation of Lutheran charismatics cluster around the Alliance of Renewal Churches.[citation needed] There is currently considerable charismatic activity among young Lutheran leaders in California centered on an annual gathering at Robinwood Church in Huntington Beach.[citation needed] Richard A. Jensen's Touched by the Spirit published in 1974, played a major role of the Lutheran understanding to the charismatic movement. Methodism[edit] When the Methodist
Methodist
movement was initiated, "many individuals in London, Oxford and Bristol reported supernatural healings, visions, dreams, spiritual impressions, power in evangelizing, [and] extraordinary bestowments of wisdom".[16] John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, "firmly maintained that the Spiritual gifts are a natural consequence of genuine holiness and dwelling of God’s Spirit in a man."[16] As such, Methodist
Methodist
Churches hold to the theological position of continuationism.[16] With its history of promoting holiness and experiential faith, Methodist
Methodist
Churches permit charismatic worship.[17] Charismatics in the United States allied with the Good News caucus and those in Great Britain have been supported by the Lay Witness Movement,[18] which works with Methodist
Methodist
Evangelicals Together.[17] In the United Methodist
Methodist
Church, the charismatic apostolate Aldersgate Renewal Ministries was formed to "to pray and work together for the renewal of the church by the power of the Holy Spirit".[19] It runs events at local United Methodist
Methodist
churches, as well as the Methodist School for Supernatural Ministry.[19] Calvinism[edit] In congregational and Presbyterian
Presbyterian
churches which profess a traditionally Calvinist
Calvinist
or Reformed theology
Reformed theology
there are differing views regarding present-day continuation or cessation of the gifts (charismata) of the Spirit.[9][20] Generally, however, Reformed charismatics distance themselves from renewal movements with tendencies which could be perceived as overemotional, such as Word of Faith, Toronto Blessing, Brownsville Revival and Lakeland Revival. Prominent Reformed
Reformed
charismatic denominations are the Sovereign Grace Churches and the Every Nation
Every Nation
Churches in the United States, in Great Britain there is the Newfrontiers
Newfrontiers
churches and movement, founded by Terry Virgo.[21] Adventism[edit] Main article: Charismatic Adventism A minority of Seventh-day Adventists today are charismatic. They are strongly associated with those holding more "progressive" Adventist beliefs. In the early decades of the church charismatic or ecstatic phenomena were commonplace.[22][23] Roman Catholicism[edit]

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Main article: Catholic Charismatic Renewal Since 1967 the charismatic movement has been active within the Roman Catholic Church.[citation needed] In the United States the Catholic Charismatic Renewal was focused in individuals like Kevin Ranaghan and others at the University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
in Notre Dame, Indiana. Duquesne University
Duquesne University
in Pittsburgh, which was founded by the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, a Catholic religious community, began hosting charismatic revivals in 1977. In a foreword to a 1983 book by Léon Joseph Cardinal Suenens, at that time the Pope's delegate to the Catholic Charismatic Renewal, the Prefect[clarification needed] comments on the Post Second Vatican Council period stating,

At the heart of a world imbued with a rationalistic skepticism, a new experience of the Holy Spirit suddenly burst forth. And, since then, that experience has assumed a breadth of a worldwide Renewal movement. What the New Testament
New Testament
tells us about the Charisms—which were seen as visible signs of the coming of the Spirit—is not just ancient history, over and done with, for it is once again becoming extremely topical.

and

to those responsible for the ecclesiastical ministry—from parish priests to bishops—not to let the Renewal pass them by but to welcome it fully; and on the other (hand) ... to the members of the Renewal to cherish and maintain their link with the whole Church and with the Charisms of their pastors.[24]

In the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church, the movement became particularly popular in the Filipino, Korean, and Hispanic
Hispanic
communities of the United States, in the Philippines, and in Latin America, mainly Brazil. Travelling priests and lay people associated with the movement often visit parishes and sing what are known as charismatic masses. It is thought to be the second largest distinct sub-movement (some 120 million members) within global Catholicism, along with Traditional Catholicism.[25] A further difficulty is the tendency for many charismatic Catholics to take on what others in their church might consider sacramental language and assertions of the necessity of " Baptism
Baptism
in the Holy Spirit," as a universal act. This causes difficulty as there is little to distinguish the "Baptism" from the sacrament of confirmation.[26] In this regard, a Study seminar organized jointly in São Paulo
São Paulo
by the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and the Bishops Conference of Brazil
Brazil
raised these issues. Technically, among Catholics, the " Baptism
Baptism
of the Holy Spirit" is neither the highest nor fullest manifestation of the Holy Spirit. Thus " Baptism
Baptism
of the Spirit" is one experience among many within Christianity
Christianity
(as are the extraordinary manifestations of the Spirit in the lives of the saints, notably St. Francis of Assisi
St. Francis of Assisi
and St. Teresa of Avila, who levitated), and thus less dogmatically held by Catholic charismatics (than by Pentecostals).[27] Possibly, Padre Pio
Padre Pio
(now St. Pio) provides a modern-day Catholic example of this experience. Describing his confirmation, when he was 12 years old, Padre Pio
Padre Pio
said that he "wept with consolation" whenever he thought of that day because "I remember what the Most Holy Spirit caused me to feel that day, a day unique and unforgettable in all my life! What sweet raptures the Comforter made me feel that day! At the thought of that day, I feel aflame from head to toe with a brilliant flame that burns, consumes, but gives no pain." In this experience, Padre Pio
Padre Pio
said he was made to feel God's "fullness and perfection." Thus a case can be made that he was "baptized by the Spirit" on his confirmation day in 1899. It was one spiritual experience among many that he would have.[28] The Compendium to the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
states:

160. What are Charisms? 799–801. Charisms are special gifts of the Holy Spirit which are bestowed on individuals for the good of others, the needs of the world, and in particular for the building up of the Church. The discernment of charisms is the responsibility of the Magisterium.

Eastern Orthodoxy[edit]

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(20th century (Neo-Palamism))

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Other topics

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titles Statistics by country

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The charismatic movement has not exerted the same influence on the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
that it has on other mainstream Christian denominations. Individual priests, such as Fr. James Tavralides, Fr. Constantine Monios and Fr. David Buss, Fr. Athanasius Emmert of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese, Fr. Eusebius A. Stephanou of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, founder of the Brotherhood of St. Symeon the New Theologian and editor of "The Logos", and Fr. Boris Zabrodsky of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in America, founder of the Service Committee for Orthodox Spiritual Renewal (SCOSR) which published the Theosis Newsletter, were some of the more prominent leaders of the Charismatic Renewal within Orthodoxy.[citation needed] Theologians and scholars[edit] See also: Renewal Theologians

Jack Deere (Presbyterian) Paul Fiddes (Baptist) Wayne Grudem
Wayne Grudem
( Reformed
Reformed
/ Vineyard) Willem Ouweneel (Open Brethren) Kevin Ranaghan (Roman Catholic) J. Rodman Williams (Presbyterian) Hobart Freeman (Non-denominational)

See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal

Cessationism versus Continuationism Charismatic Christianity Direct revelation Glossolalia Pentecostalism Prayer meeting

References[edit]

^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, pp. 38–39. ^ "DENNIS BENNETT BIOGRAPHY". www.emotionallyfree.org. Retrieved January 16, 2018.  ^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, pp. 38–41. ^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, pp. 43–44. ^ a b Menzies & Menzies 2000, p. 39. ^ Poloma, Margaret M; Green, John C (2010), The Assemblies of God: Godly Love and the Revitalization of American Pentecostalism, New York: New York University Press, p. 64, ISBN 978-0-8147-6783-2 . ^ Saunders, Theodore ‘Teddy'; Sansom, Hugh (1992), David Watson, a Biography, Sevenoaks: Hodder, p. 71 . ^ Menzies & Menzies 2000, p. 40. ^ a b c Masters, Peter; Whitcomb, John (Jun 1988). Charismatic Phenomenon(ISBN ). London: Wakeman. p. 113. ISBN 9781870855013.  ^ Balmer, Randall (2004), "Charismatic Movement", Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism: Revised and Expanded Edition (2nd ed.), Waco: Baylor . ^ Dennis J. Bennett Nine O'Clock in the Morning (Gainesville; 1970. Reprinted 2001, 2004) ^ "Anglican Pioneer in Renewal". Telus. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^ Douglas A. Sweeney, The American Evangelical Story: A History of the Movement, Baker Academic, U.S., 2005, pp. 150–51 ^ Simon Cooper, Mike Farrant, Fire in Our Hearts: The Story of the Jesus
Jesus
Fellowship/ Jesus
Jesus
Army, Multiply Publications, England, 1997, p. 169 ^ "Understanding the Charismatic Movement". The Exchange – A Blog by Ed Stetzer. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ a b c Živadinović, Dojcin (2015). "Wesley and Charisma: An Analysis of John Wesley's View of Spiritual Gifts". Andrews University Seminary Student Journal. 1 (2): 53–71.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Blumhofer, Edith Waldvogel; Spittler, Russell P.; Wacker, Grant A. (1999). Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism. University of Illinois Press. p. 171. ISBN 9780252067563.  ^ Methodist
Methodist
Evangelicals Together, Lay Witness Movement, accessed July 19, 2017 ^ a b Richey, Russell E.; Rowe, Kenneth E.; Schmidt, Jeanne Miller (October 1, 2012). American Methodism: A Compact History. Abingdon Press. p. 232. ISBN 9781426765179.  ^ Masters, Peter; Wright, Professor Verna (1988). Healing Epidemic. London: Wakeman Trust. p. 227. ISBN 9781870855006.  ^ " Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed
Reformed
Churches". tateville.com. Archived from the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ Patrick, Arthur (c. 1999). "Early Adventist worship, Ellen White and the Holy Spirit: Preliminary Historical Perspectives". Spiritual Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. Retrieved February 15, 2008.  ^ Patrick, Arthur (c. 1999). "Later Adventist Worship, Ellen White and the Holy Spirit: Further Historical Perspectives". Spiritual Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. Retrieved February 15, 2008.  ^ Suenens, Léon Joseph (1983). Renewal and the Powers of Darkness (Malines document). Darton, Longman & Todd. ISBN 978-0-232-51591-6.  ^ Barrett, David, "Christian World Communions: Five Overviews of Global Christianity, AD 1800–2025", International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 33 (1): 25–32 . ^ McDonnell, Killian; Montague, George T (1994), Christian Initiation and Baptism
Baptism
in the Holy Spirit: Evidence from the First Eight Centuries, Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier Books . ^ "Study Seminar organized in Brazil", L'Osservatore romano (Italian ed.), p. 4, November 4, 2005 . ^ Ruffin, C Bernard (1991), Padre Pio: The True Story, Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, pp. 312–13 .

Bibliography[edit]

Menzies, William W; Menzies, Robert P (2000), Spirit and Power: Foundations of Pentecostal Experience, Zondervan, ISBN 978-0-310-86415-8 .

Further reading[edit]

Clement, Arthur J. Pentecost or Pretense?: an Examination of the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Milwaukee, Wis.: Northwestern Publishing House, 1981. 255, [1] p. ISBN 0-8100-0118-7 Fiddes, Paul (1980), Charismatic renewal: a Baptist
Baptist
view: a report received by the Baptist
Baptist
Union Council with commentary, London: Baptist Publications . Fiddes, Paul (1984), Martin, David; Mullen, Peter, eds., The theology of the charismatic movement, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 19–40 . Parry, David (1979). "Not Mad, Most Noble Festus": Essays on the Renewal Movement. London: Dartman, Longman & Todd. 103 p. N.B.: Approaches the Charismatic Movement
Charismatic Movement
from a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
perspective.

+ John and Elizabeth Sherill, They Speak With Other Tongues, Chosen Books, 2011. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charismatic Renewal.

Renewal Theology : Charismatic Pentecostal Theology. "Charismatic Renewal", By denomination, Big church directory . "What can we learn from the Charismatic Movement?", Forward in Christ, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, October 1996, archived from the original on January 1, 2015  ( Confessional Lutheran
Confessional Lutheran
perspective) Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
and The Charismatic Movement : Perspective of Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals.

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New religious movements

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