Chapel Royal
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The Chapel Royal is an establishment in the Royal Household serving the spiritual needs of the sovereign and the British Royal Family. Historically it was a body of priests and singers that travelled with the monarch. The term is now also applied to the chapels within royal palaces, most notably at
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Listed building, Grade I listed royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, southwest and upstream of central London on the River Thames. The building of the palace began in 1514 for Cardinal Thomas Wo ...
and
St James's Palace St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in London, the capital of the United Kingdom. The palace gives its name to the Court of St James's, which is the monarch's royal court, and is located in the City of Westminster in London. Altho ...
, and other chapels within the Commonwealth designated as such by the monarch. Within the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is the State religion, established List of Christian denominations, Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church record ...
, some of these royal chapels may also be referred to as
Royal Peculiar A royal peculiar is a Church of England parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the diocese and the province in which it lies, and subject to the direct jurisdiction of Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the monarch, or in Cornwa ...
s, an ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the monarch. The Dean of His Majesty's Chapels Royal is a royal household office that in modern times is usually held by the
Bishop of London A bishop is an ordained clergy member who is entrusted with a position of Episcopal polity, authority and oversight in a religious institution. In Christianity, bishops are normally responsible for the governance of dioceses. The role or offic ...
. The Chapel Royal's most public role is to perform
choral A choir ( ; also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental and/or vocal music, with the ensemble typically kno ...
liturgical Liturgy is the customary public ritual of worship performed by a religious group. ''Liturgy'' can also be used to refer specifically to public worship by Christian, Christians. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal r ...
service. It has played a significant role in the musical life of the nation, with composers such as Tallis, Byrd,
Bull A bull is an intact (i.e., not Neutering, castrated) adult male of the species ''Cattle, Bos taurus'' (cattle). More muscular and aggressive than the females of the same species (i.e., Cattle, cows), bulls have long been an important symbol i ...
,
Gibbons Gibbons may refer to: * The plural of gibbon, an ape in the family Hylobatidae * Gibbons (surname) * Gibbons, Alberta * Gibbons (automobile), a British light car of the 1920s * Gibbons P.C., a leading American law firm headquartered in New Jersey * ...
and
Purcell Henry Purcell (, rare: September 1659 – 21 November 1695) was an English composer. Purcell's style of Baroque music Baroque music ( or ) refers to the period or dominant style of Western classical music composed from about 1600 to ...
all having been members of the choir. The choir consists of Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal singing the lower parts alongside the boy choristers known as the
Children of the Chapel The Children of the Chapel are the boys with unbroken voices, choristers, who form part of the Chapel Royal, the body of singers and priests serving the spiritual needs of their sovereign wherever they were called upon to do so. They were overseen ...
.


History


Middle Ages

In its early history, the English chapel royal travelled, like the rest of the court, with the monarch and performed its functions wherever he or she was residing at the time. The earliest written record of the chapel dates from , in the reign of Henry I. Specified in this document of household regulations are two gentlemen and four servants, although there may have been other people within the chapel at that time. An ordinance from the reign of Henry VI sets out the full membership of the chapel as of 1455: one Dean, 20 Chaplains and Clerks, seven Children, one Chaplain Confessor for the Household, and one Yeoman. However, in the same year the clerks petitioned the King asking that their number be increased to 24 singing men due to . From the reign of
Edward IV Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, then again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was a central figure in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars in England ...
further details survive. There were 26 chaplains and clerks, who were to be in their singing and . The children were supervised by a Master of Song, chosen by the dean from among the Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal. They were allocated supplies of meat and ale, and their own servant. There were also two Yeoman of the Chapel who acted as epistlers, reading from the bible during services. These were appointed from Children of the Chapel whose voices had recently broken.


Tudor period

The chapel remained stable throughout the reign of
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his Wives of Henry VIII, six marriages, and for his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) ...
and the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The number of singers did vary during this period however, without apparent reason, from between twenty to thirty gentlemen and eight to ten children. The chapel travelled with the King to the
Field of the Cloth of Gold The Field of the Cloth of Gold (french: Camp du Drap d'Or, ) was a Summit (meeting), summit meeting between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France from 7 to 24 June 1520. Held at Balinghem, between Ardres in Kingdom of France, ...
, and on the second invasion of France.


Drama

In the
Tudor period The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in History of England, England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in Englan ...
, the chapel increasingly took on another, unofficial, function that grew in importance into the 17th century – performing in dramas. Both the gentlemen and the children would act in pageants and plays for the royal family, held in court on feast days such as Christmas. For example at Christmas 1514, the play "The Triumph of Love and Beauty" was written and presented by
William Cornysh William Cornysh the Younger (also spelled Cornyshe or Cornish) (1465 – October 1523) was an English composer, dramatist, actor, and poet. Life In his only surviving poem, which was written in Fleet Prison, he claims that he has been convi ...
, then Master of the Children, and was performed to the King by members of the chapel, including the children. The chapel achieved its greatest eminence during the reign of
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was List of English monarchs, Queen of England and List of Irish monarchs, Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Elizabeth was the last of the five House of Tudor monarchs and is ...
, when
William Byrd William Byrd (; 4 July 1623) was an English composer of late Renaissance music. Considered among the greatest composers of the Renaissance, he had a profound influence on composers both from his native England and those on the continent. He i ...
and
Thomas Tallis Thomas Tallis (23 November 1585; also Tallys or Talles) was an English composer of High Renaissance music. His compositions are primarily vocal, and he occupies a primary place in anthologies of English Choir, choral music. Tallis is considere ...
were joint
organists An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (biology), a part of an organism Musical instruments * Organ (music), a family of keyboard musical instruments characterized by sustained tone ** Electr ...
. The
Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal The Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal was the choirmaster of the Chapel Royal#United Kingdom, Chapel Royal of England. They were responsible for the musical direction of the choir, which consisted of the Gentlemen of the Chapel and Childre ...
had, until at least 1684, the power to impress promising boy trebles from provincial choirs for service in the chapel. The theatre company affiliated with the chapel, known as the Children of the Chapel Royal, produced plays at court and then commercially until the 1620s by playwrights including
John Lyly John Lyly (; c. 1553 or 1554 – November 1606; also spelled ''Lilly'', ''Lylie'', ''Lylly'') was an English writer, dramatist of the University Wits, courtier, and parliamentarian. He was best known during his lifetime for his two books ''Eup ...
,
Ben Jonson Benjamin "Ben" Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – c. 16 August 1637) was an English playwright and poet. Jonson's artistry exerted a lasting influence upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours; he is best known for t ...
and
George Chapman George Chapman (Hitchin, Hertfordshire Hertfordshire ( or ; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It borders Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south ...
.


17th century

In the 17th century the Chapel Royal had its own building in
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...
, which burned down in 1698; since 1702 it has been based at St James's Palace. The English Chapel Royal became increasingly associated with Westminster Abbey, so that by 1625 over half of the Gentlemen of the English Chapel Royal were also members of the Westminster Abbey choir. In the 18th century the choristers sang the soprano parts in performances of
Handel George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (; baptised , ; 23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-British Baroque music, Baroque composer well known for his opera#Baroque era, operas, oratorios, anthems, concerto grosso, concerti grossi, ...
's
oratorio An oratorio () is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and solo (music), soloists. Like most operas, an oratorio includes the use of a choir, soloists, an instrumental ensemble, various distinguishable Fictional character, characters ...
s and other works. Under Charles II, the choir was often augmented by
violin The violin, sometimes known as a '' fiddle'', is a wooden chordophone (string instrument) in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body. It is the smallest and thus highest-pitched instrument ( soprano) in the family in regul ...
ists from the royal consort; at various times the chapel has also employed
composer A composer is a person who writes music. The term is especially used to indicate composers of Classical music, Western classical music, or those who are composers by occupation. Many composers are, or were, also skilled performers of music. E ...
s,
lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument with a neck (music), neck and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body. It may be either fretted or unfretted. More specifically, the term "l ...
nists and
viol The viol (), viola da gamba (), or informally gamba, is any one of a family of bow (music), bowed, fretted, and stringed instruments, stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and Tuning mechanisms for stringed instruments, pegboxes where ...
players.


Functions and functionaries

The Chapel Royal is a department of the Ecclesiastical Household, which was established in 1483, under
Edward IV Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, then again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was a central figure in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars in England ...
, as the ''Royal Free Chapel of the Household''.Charles Edward McGuire & Steven E. Plank, ''Historical Dictionary of English Music: ca. 1400-1958'', pp, 78-79. The Chapel Royal is a grouping of clerics and musicians, rather than a physical building. Traditionally, the members of the Chapel Royal are divided into clerics, choristers, and gentlemen of the chapel. The Chapel Royal is a
royal peculiar A royal peculiar is a Church of England parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the diocese and the province in which it lies, and subject to the direct jurisdiction of Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the monarch, or in Cornwa ...
(a church institute outside the usual diocesan structure of the Church); it is one of the three major royal peculiars, the others being
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is an historic, mainly Gothic architecture, Gothic Church (building), church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of ...
and the
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England is a castle chapel built in the late-medieval Perpendicular Gothic style. It is both a Royal peculiar, Royal Peculiar (a church under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch) and the Chapel of the O ...
(which includes the Royal Chapel of All Saints). The members of the ecclesiastical household in Scotland are supplied by the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland ( sco, The Kirk o Scotland; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba) is the national church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was principally shaped by John Knox, in the Scottish Reformation, Reformation of 1560, when it split from t ...
, while the members of ecclesiastical household in England are supplied by the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is the State religion, established List of Christian denominations, Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church record ...
. Since the 18th century, the Dean of the Chapel Royal in England has been the sitting
Bishop of London A bishop is an ordained clergy member who is entrusted with a position of Episcopal polity, authority and oversight in a religious institution. In Christianity, bishops are normally responsible for the governance of dioceses. The role or offic ...
, with control of music vested in the Sub-Dean (currently Paul Wright). The Chapel Royal conducts the Service of Remembrance at the
Cenotaph A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenot ...
in
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...
and combines with the choir of the host abbey or cathedral at the Royal Maundy service.


Locations

The Chapel's main locations have varied over the years. For example in the early Tudor period and in Elizabeth I's reign, the Chapel's activity was often centred on the
Greenwich Palace Greenwich ( , ,) is a town in south-east London, England, within the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London. It is situated east-southeast of Charing Cross. Greenwich is notable for its maritime history and for ...
and the
Palace of Whitehall The Palace of Whitehall (also spelt White Hall) at Westminster was the main residence of the Kingdom of England, English List of British monarchs, monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except notably Inigo Jones's Banquet ...
. Under
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until Death and state funeral of Elizabeth II, her death in 2022. She was queen ...
the Chapel's primary location is at St James's Palace.


United Kingdom


St James's Palace

The Chapel at St James's has been used regularly since 1702 and is the most commonly used facility today. Located in the main block of
St James's Palace St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in London, the capital of the United Kingdom. The palace gives its name to the Court of St James's, which is the monarch's royal court, and is located in the City of Westminster in London. Altho ...
, it was built c. 1540 and altered since, most notably by Sir Robert Smirke in 1837. The large window to the right of the Palace gatehouse is in the north wall of this Chapel which is laid out on a north-south rather than the usual east-west axis. Its ceiling richly decorated with royal initials and coats of arms is said to have been painted by Holbein. The separate
Queen's Chapel The Queen's Chapel (officially, ''The Queen's Chapel St. James Palace'' and previously the German Chapel) is a chapel in central London, England, that was designed by Inigo Jones and built between 1623 and 1625 as an external adjunct to St. James' ...
, once also physically connected to the main building of St James's Palace, was built between 1623 and 1625 as a Roman Catholic Chapel, at a time when the construction of Popish churches was otherwise prohibited in England, for Queen
Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (french: link=no, Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was List of English royal consorts, Queen of England, List of Scottish royal consorts, Scotland, and Ireland from her marriage to Charles I of England, ...
, consort of
Charles I Charles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of Holy Roman Emperors and French kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of ...
. From the 1690s it was used by Continental Lutheran courtiers and became known as the German Chapel. The "Minister for many years" of the "Royal French Chapel" at St James's Palace was Pierre Rival (d.1730), one of whose sermons is published as ''Sermon prononcé le 7 de Juillet 1713 jour d'action de graces pour la paix dans la chapelle royale françoise du palais de Saint James.'' The adjacent palace apartments burnt down in 1809 but they were not rebuilt, and in 1856–57 Marlborough Road was laid out between the palace and the Queen's Chapel.


Windsor

At
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a List of British royal residences, royal residence at Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is strongly associated with the Kingdom of England, English and succeeding British royal family, and ...
is the largest
Royal Peculiar A royal peculiar is a Church of England parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the diocese and the province in which it lies, and subject to the direct jurisdiction of Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the monarch, or in Cornwa ...
,
St George's Chapel St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England is a castle chapel built in the late-medieval Perpendicular Gothic style. It is both a Royal peculiar, Royal Peculiar (a church under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch) and the Chapel of the O ...
, but it is governed by its own college, separate from St James's, Chapel Royal. Near the Royal Apartments, there is also the smaller Private Chapel. In the grounds of Windsor's Royal Lodge is the Royal Chapel of All Saints.


Scotland

In the 15th century it is believed that the Chapel Royal referred to a
prebend A prebendary is a member of the Roman Catholic or Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is th ...
in the Church of St Mary on the Rock,
St Andrews St Andrews ( la, S. Andrea(s); sco, Saunt Aundraes; gd, Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, southeast of Dundee and northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews had a recorded population of 16,800 , making it Fife's fourt ...
. In 1501
James IV James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was List of Scottish monarchs, King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 until his death at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. He inherited the throne at the age of fifteen on the death of his father, James II ...
founded a new Chapel Royal in
Stirling Castle Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland, both historically and architecturally. The castle sits atop Castle Hill, an Intrusive rock, intrusive Crag and tail, crag, which forms part of t ...
, but from 1504 onwards the deanery of the Chapel Royal was held by successive Bishops of Galloway with the title of Bishop of the Chapel Royal and authority over all the royal palaces within Scotland. The Deanery was annexed to the Bishopric of Dunblane in 1621, and the Chapel Royal was moved to Holyrood. In 1688, following the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus , also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or ''Glorious Crossing'' in the Netherlands, is the sequence of events leading to the deposition of King James II and ...
, a mob in Edinburgh broke into the Abbey, entered the Chapel Royal and desecrated the royal tombs. From then on the building fell into decay, and became a roofless ruin. The restoration of the Abbey has been proposed several times since the 18th century – in 1835 by the architect James Gillespie Graham as a meeting place for the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and in 1906 as a chapel for the Knights of the Thistle – but both proposals were rejected.


Other Chapels Royal

At the daughter Chapel Royal at
Hampton Court Palace Hampton Court Palace is a Listed building, Grade I listed royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, southwest and upstream of central London on the River Thames. The building of the palace began in 1514 for Cardinal Thomas Wo ...
, a permanent chorus was created in 1868. The chorus, which sings on Sundays and major feast days, consists of fourteen boy members and six gentlemen members.Lewis Foreman & Susan Foreman, ''London: A Musical Gazetteer'' (Yale University Press, 2005), p. 80. An organ was built in 1712 and most recently restored in 2013. Two patronised Chapels Royal almost never attended by the monarch are the Chapels of
St John the Evangelist John the Evangelist ( grc-gre, Ἰωάννης, Iōánnēs; Aramaic: ܝܘܚܢܢ; Ge'ez: ዮሐንስ; ar, يوحنا الإنجيلي, la, Ioannes, he, יוחנן cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to ...
and St Peter ad Vincula in the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially His Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separa ...
, having their own chaplains and choirs. In 2012, Roger Hall, the Chaplain of the Tower of London, was made
canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Canon (fiction), the conceptual material accepted as official in a fictional universe by its fan base * Literary canon, an accepted body of works considered as high culture ** Western can ...
of the Chapel Royal at the Tower of London, the first such appointment since the 16th century. In 2016, The King’s Chapel of the Savoy, in Westminster, London, which is the monarch's by right of the
Duchy of Lancaster The Duchy of Lancaster is the private estate of the British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster. The principal purpose of the estate is to provide a source of independent income to the sovereign. The estate consists of a portfolio of lands, propert ...
, was brought for ecclesiastical purposes within the jurisdiction of the Chapels Royal. Chapels with a royal original purpose, but currently without royal
patronage Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists su ...
, include the Royal Chapel of St Katherine-upon-the-Hoe in the Royal Citadel in
Plymouth Plymouth () is a port city status in the United Kingdom, city and unitary authority in South West England. It is located on the south coast of Devon, approximately south-west of Exeter and south-west of London. It is bordered by Cornwall to ...
. However, in 1927, King
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother Q ...
re-granted the title ''Royal Chapel'' to the Garrison Church. Several other locations have also formerly hosted the Chapel Royal, including the former Chapel Royal in
Brighton Brighton () is a seaside resort and one of the two main areas of the City of Brighton and Hove in the county of East Sussex, England. It is located south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Ag ...
. This was used by visiting royalty and as the primary
chapel of ease A chapel of ease (or chapel-of-ease) is a church architecture, church building other than the parish church, built within the bounds of a parish for the attendance of those who cannot reach the parish church conveniently. Often a chapel of ea ...
to St Peter's Church in Brighton. The chapel was formally separated from St. Peter's parish in 2010, and became a parish in its own right. Another former Chapel Royal was situated in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. On a bay at the mouth of the River Liffey, it is in the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster, bordered on the south by the Dublin Mountains, a part of th ...
prior to the independence of Ireland in the 1920s. The Chapel Royal in Dublin operated within
Dublin Castle Dublin Castle ( ga, Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a former Motte-and-bailey castle and current Government of Ireland, Irish government complex and conference centre. It was chosen for its position at the highest point of central Dublin. U ...
, which served as the official seat for the
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (), or more formally Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland, was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 in Ireland, 1690 until the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This sp ...
.


Canada

Three sanctuaries in Canada have the designation of Chapel Royal, and all of them are located in the province of
Ontario Ontario ( ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.Ontario is located in the geographic Eastern Canada, eastern half of Canada, but it has historically and politically been considered to be part of Central Canada. Located ...
. Mohawk Chapel in
Brantford Brantford ( 2021 population: 104,688) is a city in Ontario Ontario ( ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.Ontario is located in the geographic Eastern Canada, eastern half of Canada, but it has historically and pol ...
was designated as a Chapel Royal in 1904 by
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India, from 22 January 1901 until Death and state funeral of Edward VII, his death in 1910. The second chil ...
. The designation was made in recognition of the historic alliance between the Mohawk people and the Crown, referred to as the Covenant Chain. In 2004, Elizabeth II designated Christ Church near
Deseronto Deseronto is a town in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario, in Hastings County, located at the mouth of the Napanee River on the shore of the Bay of Quinte, on the northern side of Lake Ontario. The town was name ...
as a Chapel Royal. The chapel served as the church for the
Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is the main First Nation reserve of the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte First Nation. The territory is located in Ontario east of Belleville on the Bay of Quinte. Tyendinaga is located near the site of the former Moh ...
, and was designated as a Chapel Royal in recognition of the community's military service. The first two Chapels Royal are situated within Mohawk communities that were established in Canada after the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the American Revolution. Widely considered as the war that secured the independence of t ...
. Several gifts from the Crown were bestowed on these Chapels Royal, including silver communion services and a Bible from Queen Anne, a
triptych A triptych ( ; from the Greek language, Greek adjective ''τρίπτυχον'' "''triptukhon''" ("three-fold"), from ''tri'', i.e., "three" and ''ptysso'', i.e., "to fold" or ''ptyx'', i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) t ...
from King
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, in N ...
, a Bible from
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until Death and state funeral of Queen Victoria, her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 21 ...
, and a bicentennial chalice from Queen Elizabeth II. In 2010, Elizabeth II presented to the Mohawk Chapel a set of silver hand bells engraved with the words, "Silver Chain of Friendship, 1710–2010," to commemorate the tricentennial of the first meeting between Mohawk representatives and the Crown. In April 2016, the Queen approved in principle that St Catherine's Chapel in
Toronto Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most pop ...
be designated a Chapel Royal. The chapel itself is situated within
Massey College Massey College is a graduate residential college A residential college is a division of a university that places academic activity in a community setting of students and faculty, usually at a halls of residence, residence and with shared meals, ...
, a college of the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (UToronto or U of T) is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park (Toronto), Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 ...
, conceived by
Vincent Massey Charles Vincent Massey (February 20, 1887December 30, 1967) was a Canadian lawyer and diplomat who served as Governor General of Canada, the List of Governors General of Canada#Governors General of Canada, 1867–present, 18th since Canadian C ...
, a former
Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the . The is head of state of Canada and the 14 other Commonwealth realms, but resides in oldest and most populous realm ...
. It became Canada's third Chapel Royal on 21 June 2017, during National Indigenous Peoples Day. St. Catherine's Chapel was designated as a Chapel Royal in recognition of the sesquicentennial of Canada, the relationship between Massey College and the
Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation ( oj, Mazina'iga-ziibing Misi-zaagiwininiwag, ''meaning: "Mississauga people at the Credit River"'') is a Mississauga Ojibwa First Nations in Canada, First Nation located near Brantford in south-central On ...
, and as a gesture of reconciliation.


See also

*
Anglican church music Anglican church music is music that is written for Christian worship in Anglicanism, Anglican religious services, forming part of the liturgy. It mostly consists of pieces written to be sung by a church choir, which may sing ''a cappella'' or ...
* Honorary Chaplain to the King *
Religion in Canada Religion in Canada encompasses a wide range of groups and beliefs. Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Je ...
*
Religion in the United Kingdom Religion in the United Kingdom, and in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,000 years by various forms of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based o ...


References

* "London (i), §II, 1: Music at court: The Chapel Royal", ''Grove Music Online'' ed. L. Macy (Accessed 16 September 2004)
Grovemusic.com
* ''
The Buildings of England ''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers. It is the definite ...
, London 6: Westminster'' (2003) page 587. * "Blow, John." ''Grove Music Online'' ed. L. Macy (Accessed 13 December 2006)
Grovemusic.com
* "Purcell." ''Grove Music Online'' ed. L. Macy (Accessed 13 December 2006)
Grovemusic.com


External links


Her Majesty's 2010 Christmas message from the Chapel Royal Hampton Court

Website of the British monarchy entry for Chapels Royal

Chapel Royal of Hampton Court Palace



Friends of Blackburn Cathedral
{{authority control Monarchy in Canada British monarchy Chapels in the United Kingdom Classical music in the United Kingdom History of the Church of England Church of Scotland * English choirs