Channel Tunnel (French: Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed
the Chunnel) is a 50.45-kilometre (31.35 mi) rail tunnel
linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles,
Calais in northern France, beneath the English
Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is 75 m
(250 ft) deep below the sea bed, and 115 m (380 ft)
below sea level. At 37.9 kilometres (23.5 mi), the
tunnel has the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world,
Seikan Tunnel in Japan is both longer overall at 53.85
kilometres (33.46 mi) and deeper at 240 metres (790 ft)
below sea level. The speed limit for trains in the tunnel is 160
kilometres per hour (99 mph).
The tunnel carries high-speed
Eurostar passenger trains, the
Eurotunnel Shuttle for road vehicles—the largest such transport in
the world—and international goods trains. The tunnel connects
end-to-end with the
LGV Nord and
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 high-speed railway
Ideas for a cross-Channel fixed link appeared as early as
1802, but British political and press pressure over the
compromising of national security stalled attempts to construct a
tunnel. An early attempt at building a
Channel Tunnel was made in
the late 19th century, on the English side "in the hope of forcing the
hand of the English Government". The eventual successful project,
organised by Eurotunnel, began construction in 1988 and opened in
1994. At £5.5 billion (1985 prices), it was at the time the most
expensive construction project ever proposed. The cost finally
amounted to £9 billion ($21 billion), well over its predicted
Since its construction, the tunnel has faced a few mechanical
problems. Both fires and cold weather have temporarily disrupted its
People have attempted to use the tunnel to enter the UK illegally
since 1997, creating the ongoing issue of the Migrants around Calais
on the French side, causing both diplomatic disagreement, as well as
1.1 Earlier proposals
1.2 Initiation of project
2.4 TBM Design
2.5 Railway design
2.5.2 Power supply
2.5.4 Track system
2.5.5 Ventilation, cooling and drainage
2.6 Rolling stock
2.6.1 Eurotunnel Shuttle
2.6.2 Freight locomotives
2.6.3 International passenger
2.6.4 Service locomotives
3.1 Usage and services
3.1.1 Passenger traffic volumes
3.1.2 Freight traffic volumes
3.1.3 Economic performance
5 Regional impact
6 Unauthorized immigration
6.1 Diplomatic efforts
6.2 Illegal attempts to cross and deaths
7 Mechanical incidents
7.2 Train failures
8 Unusual traffic
9 Mobile network coverage
10 Other (non-transport) services
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
* 1802: Albert Mathieu put forward a cross-Channel tunnel proposal.
Channel Tunnel Company Ltd began preliminary trials
1882: The Abbot's Cliff heading had reached 897 yards (820 m) and
Shakespeare Cliff was 2,040 yards (1,870 m) in length
January 1975: A UK–
France government-backed scheme, that started in
1974, was cancelled
Treaty of Canterbury was signed, allowing the
project to proceed
June 1988: First tunnelling commenced in France
December 1988: UK TBM commenced operation
December 1990: Service tunnel broke through under the Channel
May 1994: Tunnel formally opened by Queen
Elizabeth II and President
Mid-1994: Freight and passenger trains commenced operation
November 1996: Fire in a lorry shuttle severely damaged the tunnel
November 2007: High Speed 1, linking London to the tunnel, opened
September 2008: Another fire in a lorry shuttle severely damaged the
Eurostar trains stranded in the tunnel due to melting
snow affecting the trains' electrical hardware
November 2011: First commercial freight service run on High Speed 1
In 1802, Albert Mathieu-Favier, a French mining engineer, put forward
a proposal to tunnel under the English Channel, with illumination from
oil lamps, horse-drawn coaches, and an artificial island positioned
mid-Channel for changing horses. Mathieu-Favier's design envisaged
a bored two-level tunnel with the top tunnel used for transport and
the bottom one for groundwater flows.
In 1839, Aimé Thomé de Gamond, a Frenchman, performed the first
geological and hydrographical surveys on the Channel, between Calais
and Dover. Thomé de Gamond explored several schemes and, in 1856, he
presented a proposal to
Napoleon III for a mined railway tunnel from
Gris-Nez to Eastwater Point with a port/airshaft on the Varne
sandbank at a cost of 170 million francs, or less than
Thomé de Gamond's plan of 1856 for a cross-Channel link, with a
port/airshaft on the
Varne sandbank mid-Channel
In 1865, a deputation led by
George Ward Hunt
George Ward Hunt proposed the idea of a
tunnel to the
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer of the day, William Ewart
Around 1866, William Low and Sir
John Hawkshaw promoted ideas, but
apart from preliminary geological studies none were implemented.
An official Anglo-French protocol was established in 1876 for a
cross-Channel railway tunnel. In 1881, the British railway
Edward Watkin and Alexandre Lavalley, a French Suez
Canal contractor, were in the Anglo-French Submarine Railway Company
that conducted exploratory work on both sides of the Channel. On the
English side a 2.13-metre (7 ft) diameter Beaumont-English boring
machine dug a 1,893-metre (6,211 ft) pilot tunnel from
Shakespeare Cliff. On the French side, a similar machine dug
1,669 m (5,476 ft) from Sangatte. The project was abandoned
in May 1882, owing to British political and press campaigns asserting
that a tunnel would compromise Britain's national defences. These
early works were encountered more than a century later during the TML
A 1907 film, Tunnelling the
English Channel by pioneer filmmaker
Georges Méliès, depicts
King Edward VII
King Edward VII and President Armand
Fallières dreaming of building a tunnel under the English Channel.
In 1919, during the Paris Peace Conference, the British prime
minister, David Lloyd George, repeatedly brought up the idea of a
Channel tunnel as a way of reassuring
France about British willingness
to defend against another German attack. The French did not take the
idea seriously, and nothing came of Lloyd George's proposal.
In the 1920s
Winston Churchill was an advocate for the Channel Tunnel,
using that exact nomenclature in an essay entitled "Should Strategists
Veto The Tunnel?" The essay was published on 27 July 1924 in the
Weekly Dispatch, and argued vehemently against those that believed the
tunnel could be used by a Continental enemy in an invasion of Britain.
Churchill extolled his enthusiasm for the project again in an article
Daily Mail on 12 February 1936, "Why Not A Channel
There was another proposal in 1929, but nothing came of this
discussion and the idea was shelved. Proponents estimated construction
to be about US$150 million. The engineers had addressed the concerns
of both nations' military leaders by designing two sumps—one near
the coast of each country—that could be flooded at will to block the
tunnel. This design feature did not override the concerns of both
nations' military leaders, and other concerns about hordes of
undesirable tourists who would disrupt English habits of living.
Military fears continued during the Second World War. After the fall
of France, as Britain prepared for an expected German invasion, a
Royal Navy officer in the Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons
Development calculated that Hitler could use slave labour to build two
Channel tunnels in 18 months. The estimate caused rumours that Germany
had already begun digging.
A British film from Gaumont Studios, The Tunnel (also called
TransAtlantic Tunnel), was released in 1935 as a futuristic science
fiction project concerning the creation of a transatlantic tunnel. It
referred briefly to its protagonist, a Mr. McAllan, as having
completed a British Channel tunnel successfully in 1940, five years
into the future of the film's release.
By 1955, defence arguments had become less relevant due to the
dominance of air power, and both the British and French governments
supported technical and geological surveys. In 1958 the 1881 workings
were cleared in preparation for a £100,000 geological survey by the
Channel Tunnel Study Group. 30% of the funding came from the Channel
Tunnel Co Ltd, the largest shareholder of which was the British
Transport Commission, as successor to the South Eastern Railway. A
detailed geological survey was carried out in 1964–65.
Although the two countries agreed to build a tunnel in 1964, the phase
1 initial studies and signing of a second agreement to cover phase 2
took until 1973. Construction work of this government-funded
project to create two tunnels designed to accommodate car shuttle
wagons on either side of a service tunnel started on both sides of the
Channel in 1974.
On 20 January 1975, to the dismay of their French partners, the
now-governing Labour Party in Britain cancelled the project due to
uncertainty about EEC membership, doubling cost estimates and the
general economic crisis at the time. By this time the British tunnel
boring machine was ready and the Ministry of Transport was able to do
a 300 m (980 ft) experimental drive. This short tunnel
was reused as the starting and access point for tunnelling operations
from the British side. The cancellation costs were estimated to be
Opposition to the tunnel over the decades reflected the high value the
British placed on their insularity, and their preference for imperial
links that they controlled directly. Only after the British Empire
collapsed in the 1950s, and air travel replaced sea travel, could they
appreciate the desirability of closer ties to the continent. With
opposition fading, the government could more carefully consider the
long-term economic and strategic value, and the new sense of a
European identity. The British government's attitude toward a tunnel
changed from hostility in 1948 to acceptance and promotion in 1964.
This change reflected not only a more favourable view of being part of
European unity, but also the calculation that the tunnel would provide
economic advantages, especially if Britain ever joined the European
Economic Community. By the 1960s, British attitudes toward the tunnel
also reflected a realistic reappraisal of the country's international
status: after Suez 1956 everyone realized the islands were no longer a
super-power. Britain's prestige and security now seemed safest when
tied closely to the continent.
Initiation of project
See also: Premiership of
Margaret Thatcher § Channel Tunnel
In 1979, the "Mouse-hole Project" was suggested when the Conservatives
came to power in Britain. The concept was a single-track rail tunnel
with a service tunnel, but without shuttle terminals. The British
government took no interest in funding the project, but Margaret
Thatcher, the prime minister, said she had no objection to a privately
funded project. In 1981 Thatcher and François Mitterrand, the French
president, agreed to establish a working group to evaluate a privately
funded project. In June 1982 the Franco-British study group favoured a
twin tunnel to accommodate conventional trains and a vehicle shuttle
service. In April 1985 promoters were invited to submit scheme
proposals. Four submissions were shortlisted:
a rail proposal based on the 1975 scheme presented by Channel Tunnel
Eurobridge: a 4.5 km (2.8 mi) span suspension bridge with a
roadway in an enclosed tube
Euroroute: a 21 km (13 mi) tunnel between artificial islands
approached by bridges, and
Channel Expressway: large diameter road tunnels with mid-channel
The cross-Channel ferry industry protested under the name "Flexilink".
In 1975 there was no campaign protesting against a fixed link, with
one of the largest ferry operators (Sealink) being state-owned.
Flexilink continued rousing opposition throughout 1986 and 1987.
Public opinion strongly favoured a drive-through tunnel, but
ventilation issues, concerns about accident management, and fear of
driver mesmerisation led to the only shortlisted rail submission,
CTG/F-M, being awarded the project in January 1986. Among reasons
given for the selection was that it caused least disruption to
shipping in the Channel, least environmental disruption, was the best
protected against terrorism, and was the most likely to attract
sufficient private finance.
A block diagram describing the organisation structure used on the
project. Eurotunnel is the central organisation for construction and
operation (via a concession) of the tunnel
Channel Tunnel Group consisted of two banks and five
construction companies, while their French counterparts,
France–Manche, consisted of three banks and five construction
companies. The role of the banks was to advise on financing and secure
loan commitments. On 2 July 1985, the groups formed Channel Tunnel
Group/France–Manche (CTG/F–M). Their submission to the British and
French governments was drawn from the 1975 project, including
11 volumes and a substantial environmental impact statement.
The design and construction was done by the ten construction companies
in the CTG/F-M group. The French terminal and boring from
undertaken by the five French construction companies in the joint
venture group GIE Transmanche Construction. The English Terminal and
Shakespeare Cliff was undertaken by the five British
construction companies in the Translink Joint Venture. The two
partnerships were linked by
TransManche Link (TML), a bi-national
project organisation. The Maître d'Oeuvre was a supervisory
engineering body employed by Eurotunnel under the terms of the
concession that monitored project activity and reported back to the
governments and banks.
In France, with its long tradition of infrastructure investment, the
project garnered widespread approval. In April the French National
Assembly gave unanimous support and, in June 1987, after a public
inquiry, the Senate gave unanimous support. In Britain, select
committees examined the proposal, making history by holding hearings
away from Westminster, in Kent. In February 1987, the third reading of
Channel Tunnel Bill took place in the House of Commons, and was
carried by 94 votes to 22. The
Channel Tunnel Act gained Royal
assent and passed into law in July. Parliamentary support for the
project came partly from provincial members of Parliament on the basis
of promises of regional
Eurostar through train services that never
materialised; the promises were repeated in 1996 when the contract for
construction of the
Channel Tunnel Rail Link
Channel Tunnel Rail Link was awarded.
The tunnel is a build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) project with a
concession. TML would design and build the tunnel, but financing
was through a separate legal entity, Eurotunnel. Eurotunnel absorbed
CTG/F-M and signed a construction contract with TML, but the British
and French governments controlled final engineering and safety
decisions, now in the hands of the
Channel Tunnel Safety Authority.
The British and French governments gave Eurotunnel a 55-year operating
concession (from 1987; extended by 10 years to 65 years in 1993)
to repay loans and pay dividends. A Railway Usage Agreement was signed
British Rail and
SNCF guaranteeing future revenue
in exchange for the railways obtaining half of the tunnel's capacity.
Private funding for such a complex infrastructure project was of
unprecedented scale. An initial equity of £45 million was raised
by CTG/F-M, increased by £206 million private institutional
placement, £770 million was raised in a public share offer that
included press and television advertisements, a syndicated bank loan
and letter of credit arranged £5 billion. Privately
financed, the total investment costs at 1985 prices were
£2.6 billion. At the 1994 completion actual costs were, in 1985
prices, £4.65 billion: an 80% cost overrun. The cost overrun
was partly due to enhanced safety, security, and environmental
demands. Financing costs were 140% higher than forecast.
Working from both the English side and the French side of the Channel,
eleven tunnel boring machines or TBMs cut through chalk marl to
construct two rail tunnels and a service tunnel. The vehicle shuttle
terminals are at Cheriton (part of Folkestone) and Coquelles, and are
connected to the English M20 and French A16 motorways respectively.
Tunnelling commenced in 1988, and the tunnel began operating in
1994. In 1985 prices, the total construction cost was
£4.65 billion (equivalent to £13 billion in 2015), an 80%
cost overrun. At the peak of construction 15,000 people were
employed with daily expenditure over £3 million. Ten workers,
eight of them British, were killed during construction between 1987
and 1993, most in the first few months of boring.
Class 319 EMUs ran excursions trips into the tunnel from Sandling
railway station on 7 May 1994, the first passenger trains to do so
A two-inch (50-mm) diameter pilot hole allowed the service tunnel to
break through without ceremony on 30 October 1990. On 1 December
1990, Englishman Graham Fagg and Frenchman Phillippe Cozette broke
through the service tunnel with the media watching. Eurotunnel
completed the tunnel on time, and it was officially opened, one
year later than originally planned, by Queen
Elizabeth II and the
French president, François Mitterrand, in a ceremony held in Calais
on 6 May 1994. The Queen travelled through the tunnel to
Calais on a
Eurostar train, which stopped nose to nose with the train that carried
President Mitterrand from Paris. Following the ceremony President
Mitterrand and the Queen travelled on Le Shuttle to a similar ceremony
in Folkestone. A full public service did not start for several
Channel Tunnel Rail Link
Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL), now called High Speed 1, runs 69
miles (111 km) from
St Pancras railway station
St Pancras railway station in London to the
tunnel portal at
Folkestone in Kent. It cost £5.8 billion. On 16
September 2003 the prime minister, Tony Blair, opened the first
section of High Speed 1, from
Folkestone to north Kent. On 6 November
2007 the Queen officially opened
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 and St Pancras
International station, replacing the original slower link to
Waterloo International railway station.
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 trains travel at
up to 300 km/h (186 mph), the journey from London to Paris
taking 2 hours 15 minutes, to Brussels 1 hour
In 1994, the
American Society of Civil Engineers
American Society of Civil Engineers elected the tunnel as
one of the seven modern Wonders of the World. In 1995, the
Popular Mechanics published the results.
Channel Tunnel exhibit at the
National Railway Museum in York,
England, showing the circular cross section of the tunnel with the
overhead line powering a
Eurostar train. Also visible is the segmented
Surveying undertaken in the 20 years before construction confirmed
earlier speculations that a tunnel could be bored through a chalk marl
stratum. The chalk marl is conducive to tunnelling, with
impermeability, ease of excavation and strength. The chalk marl runs
along the entire length of the English side of the tunnel, but on the
French side a length of 5 kilometres (3 mi) has variable and
difficult geology. The tunnel consists of three bores: two 7.6-metre
(25 ft) diameter rail tunnels, 30 metres (98 ft) apart, 50
kilometres (31 mi) in length with a 4.8-metre (16 ft)
diameter service tunnel in between. The three bores are connected by
cross-passages and piston relief ducts. The service tunnel was used as
a pilot tunnel, boring ahead of the main tunnels to determine the
conditions. English access was provided at Shakespeare Cliff, French
access from a shaft at Sangatte. The French side used five tunnel
boring machines (TBMs), the English side six. The service tunnel uses
Service Tunnel Transport System (STTS) and Light Service Tunnel
Vehicles (LADOGS). Fire safety was a critical design issue.
Between the portals at Beussingue and Castle Hill the tunnel is 50.5
kilometres (31 mi) long, with 3.3 kilometres (2 mi) under
land on the French side and 9.3 kilometres (6 mi) on the UK side,
and 37.9 kilometres (24 mi) under sea. It is the third-longest
rail tunnel in the world, behind the
Gotthard Base Tunnel
Gotthard Base Tunnel in
Switzerland and the
Seikan Tunnel in Japan, but with the longest
under-sea section. The average depth is 45 metres (148 ft)
below the seabed. On the UK side, of the expected 5 million
cubic metres (6.5×10^6 cu yd) of spoil approximately
1 million cubic metres (1.3×10^6 cu yd) was used for
fill at the terminal site, and the remainder was deposited at Lower
Shakespeare Cliff behind a seawall, reclaiming 74 acres
(30 ha) of land. This land was then made into the Samphire
Hoe Country Park. Environmental impact assessment did not identify any
major risks for the project, and further studies into safety, noise,
and air pollution were overall positive. However, environmental
objections were raised over a high-speed link to London.
Geological profile along the tunnel as constructed. For most of its
length the tunnel bores through a chalk marl stratum (layer)
Successful tunnelling required a sound understanding of the topography
and geology and the selection of the best rock strata through which to
dig. The geology of this site generally consists of northeasterly
dipping Cretaceous strata, part of the northern limb of the
Wealden-Boulonnais dome. Characteristics include:
Continuous chalk on the cliffs on either side of the Channel
containing no major faulting, as observed by
Verstegan in 1605.
Four geological strata, marine sediments laid down
90–100 million years ago; pervious upper and middle chalk above
slightly pervious lower chalk and finally impermeable Gault Clay. A
sandy stratum, glauconitic marl (tortia), is in between the chalk marl
and gault clay.
A 25–30-metre (82–98 ft) layer of chalk marl (French: craie
bleue) in the lower third of the lower chalk appeared to present the
best tunnelling medium. The chalk has a clay content of 30–40%
providing impermeability to groundwater yet relatively easy excavation
with strength allowing minimal support. Ideally the tunnel would be
bored in the bottom 15 metres (49 ft) of the chalk marl, allowing
water inflow from fractures and joints to be minimised, but above the
gault clay that would increase stress on the tunnel lining and swell
and soften when wet.
On the English side, the stratum dip is less than 5°; on the French
side this increases to 20°. Jointing and faulting are present on both
sides. On the English side, only minor faults of displacement less
than 2 metres (7 ft) exist; on the French side, displacements of
up to 15 metres (49 ft) are present owing to the Quenocs
anticlinal fold. The faults are of limited width, filled with calcite,
pyrite and remoulded clay. The increased dip and faulting restricted
the selection of route on the French side. To avoid confusion,
microfossil assemblages were used to classify the chalk marl. On the
French side, particularly near the coast, the chalk was harder, more
brittle and more fractured than on the English side. This led to the
adoption of different tunnelling techniques on the two sides.
The Quaternary undersea valley Fosse Dangaered, and Castle Hill
landslip at the English portal, caused concerns. Identified by the
1964–65 geophysical survey, the Fosse Dangaered is an infilled
valley system extending 80 metres (262 ft) below the seabed, 500
metres (1,640 ft) south of the tunnel route in mid-channel. A
1986 survey showed that a tributary crossed the path of the tunnel,
and so the tunnel route was made as far north and deep as possible.
The English terminal had to be located in the Castle Hill landslip,
which consists of displaced and tipping blocks of lower chalk,
glauconitic marl and gault debris. Thus the area was stabilised by
buttressing and inserting drainage adits. The service tunnel acted
as a pilot preceding the main ones, so that the geology, areas of
crushed rock, and zones of high water inflow could be predicted.
Exploratory probing took place in the service tunnel, in the form of
extensive forward probing, vertical downward probes and sideways
Marine soundings and samplings by Thomé de Gamond were carried out
during 1833–67, establishing the seabed depth at a maximum of 55
metres (180 ft) and the continuity of geological strata (layers).
Surveying continued over many years, with 166 marine and
70 land-deep boreholes being drilled and over
4,000-line-kilometres of marine geophysical survey completed.
Surveys were undertaken in 1958–1959, 1964–1965, 1972–1974 and
The surveying in 1958–59 catered for immersed tube and bridge
designs as well as a bored tunnel, and thus a wide area was
investigated. At this time, marine geophysics surveying for
engineering projects was in its infancy, with poor positioning and
resolution from seismic profiling. The 1964–65 surveys concentrated
on a northerly route that left the English coast at Dover harbour;
using 70 boreholes, an area of deeply weathered rock with high
permeability was located just south of Dover harbour.
Given the previous survey results and access constraints, a more
southerly route was investigated in the 1972–73 survey, and the
route was confirmed to be feasible. Information for the tunnelling
project also came from work before the 1975 cancellation. On the
French side at Sangatte, a deep shaft with adits was made. On the
English side at Shakespeare Cliff, the government allowed 250 metres
(820 ft) of 4.5-metre (15 ft) diameter tunnel to be driven.
The actual tunnel alignment, method of excavation and support were
essentially the same as the 1975 attempt. In the 1986–87 survey,
previous findings were reinforced, and the characteristics of the
gault clay and the tunnelling medium (chalk marl that made up 85% of
the route) were investigated. Geophysical techniques from the oil
industry were employed.
Typical cross section, with the service tunnel between twin rail ones;
shown linking the rail tunnels is a piston relief duct, necessary to
manage pressure changes due to the movement of trains
Tunnelling was a major engineering challenge, with the only precedent
being the undersea
Seikan Tunnel in Japan, which opened in 1988. A
serious risk with underwater tunnels is major water inflow due to the
pressure from the sea above, under weak ground conditions. The tunnel
also had the challenge of time: being privately funded, early
financial return was paramount.
The objective was to construct two 7.6-metre-diameter (25 ft)
rail tunnels, 30 metres (98 ft) apart, 50 kilometres (31 mi)
in length; a 4.8-metre-diameter (16 ft) service tunnel between
the two main ones; pairs of 3.3-metre-diameter (11 ft)
cross-passages linking the rail tunnels to the service one at
375-metre (1,230 ft) spacing; piston relief ducts 2 metres
(7 ft) in diameter connecting the rail tunnels 250 metres
(820 ft) apart; two undersea crossover caverns to connect the
rail tunnels, with the service tunnel always preceding the main
ones by at least 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) to ascertain the ground
conditions. There was plenty of experience with excavating through
chalk in the mining industry, while the undersea crossover caverns
were a complex engineering problem. The French one was based on the
Mount Baker Ridge freeway tunnel in Seattle; the UK cavern was dug
from the service tunnel ahead of the main ones, to avoid delay.
Precast segmental linings in the main TBM drives were used, but two
different solutions were used. On the French side, neoprene and grout
sealed bolted linings made of cast iron or high-strength reinforced
concrete were used; on the English side, the main requirement was for
speed so bolting of cast-iron lining segments was only carried out in
areas of poor geology. In the UK rail tunnels, eight lining segments
plus a key segment were used; in the French side, five segments plus a
key. On the French side, a 55-metre (180 ft) diameter
75-metre (246 ft) deep grout-curtained shaft at
Sangatte was used
for access. On the English side, a marshalling area was 140 metres
(459 ft) below the top of Shakespeare Cliff, the New Austrian
Tunnelling method (NATM) was first applied in the chalk marl here. On
the English side, the land tunnels were driven from Shakespeare Cliff
– same place as the marine tunnels – not from Folkestone. The
platform at the base of the cliff was not large enough for all of the
drives and, despite environmental objections, tunnel spoil was placed
behind a reinforced concrete seawall, on condition of placing the
chalk in an enclosed lagoon, to avoid wide dispersal of chalk fines.
Owing to limited space, the precast lining factory was on the Isle of
Grain in the Thames estuary, which used Scottish granite aggregate
delivered by ship from the
Foster Yeoman coastal super quarry at
Loch Linnhe on the west coast of Scotland.
On the French side, owing to the greater permeability to water, earth
pressure balance TBMs with open and closed modes were used. The TBMs
were of a closed nature during the initial 5 kilometres (3 mi),
but then operated as open, boring through the chalk marl stratum.
This minimised the impact to the ground, allowed high water pressures
to be withstood and it also alleviated the need to grout ahead of the
tunnel. The French effort required five TBMs: two main marine
machines, one main land machine (the short land drives of 3 km
(2 mi) allowed one TBM to complete the first drive then reverse
direction and complete the other), and two service tunnel machines. On
the English side, the simpler geology allowed faster open-faced
TBMs. Six machines were used; all commenced digging from
Shakespeare Cliff, three marine-bound and three for the land
tunnels. Towards the completion of the undersea drives, the UK
TBMs were driven steeply downwards and buried clear of the tunnel.
These buried TBMs were then used to provide an electrical earth. The
French TBMs then completed the tunnel and were dismantled. A
900 mm (35 in) gauge railway was used on the English side
In contrast to the English machines, which were given alphanumeric
names, the French tunnelling machines were all named after women:
Brigitte, Europa, Catherine, Virginie, Pascaline, Séverine.
At the end of the tunnelling, one machine was on display at the side
M20 motorway in
Folkestone until Eurotunnel sold it on eBay for
£39,999 to a scrap metal merchant. Another machine (T4
"Virginie") still survives on the French side, adjacent to Junction 41
on the A16, in the middle of the D243E3/D243E4 roundabout. On it are
the words "hommage aux bâtisseurs du tunnel", meaning "tribute to the
builders of the tunnel".
The 11 TBM's were designed and manufactured through a joint venture
between Robbins Company of Kent, Markham & Co. and Kawasaki Heavy
Interior of the Eurotunnel Shuttle, used to carry motor vehicles
Channel Tunnel (cars are unable to be driven through it)
between its two termini. This shuttle is the largest railway wagon in
There are three communication systems: concession radio (CR) for
mobile vehicles and personnel within Eurotunnel's Concession
(terminals, tunnels, coastal shafts); track-to-train radio (TTR) for
secure speech and data between trains and the railway control centre;
Shuttle internal radio (SIR) for communication between shuttle crew
and to passengers over car radios. This service was discontinued
within one year of opening because of drivers' difficulty setting
their radios to the correct frequency (88.8 MHz).[citation
Power is delivered to the locomotives via an overhead line
(catenary) at 25 kV 50 Hz. All tunnel services run on
electricity, shared equally from English and French sources. There are
two sub-stations fed at 400 kV at each terminal, but in an emergency
the tunnel's lighting (about 20,000 light fittings) and plant can be
powered solely from either England or France.
The traditional railway south of London uses a 750 V DC
third rail to deliver electricity, but since the opening of High Speed
1 there is no longer any need for tunnel trains to use the third rail
system. High Speed 1, the tunnel and the
LGV Nord all have power
provided via overhead catenary at 25 kV 50 Hz. The
railways on "classic" lines in Belgium are also electrified by
overhead wires, but at 3000 V DC.
A cab signalling system gives information directly to train drivers on
a display. There is a train protection system that stops the train if
the speed exceeds that indicated on the in-cab display. TVM430, as
LGV Nord and High Speed 1, is used in the tunnel. The TVM
signalling is interconnected with the signalling on the high-speed
lines either side, allowing trains to enter and exit the tunnel system
without stopping. The maximum speed is 160 km/h.
Signalling in the tunnel is coordinated from two control centres: The
main control centre at the
Folkestone terminal, and a backup at the
Calais terminal, which is staffed at all times and can take over all
operations in the event of a breakdown or emergency.
This section may be too technical for most readers to understand.
Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts,
without removing the technical details. (May 2014) (Learn how and when
to remove this template message)
Conventional ballasted tunnel-track was ruled out owing to the
difficulty of maintenance and lack of stability and precision. The
Sonneville International Corporation's track system was chosen based
on reliability and cost-effectiveness based on good performance in
Swiss tunnels and worldwide. The type of track used is known as Low
Vibration Track (LVT). Like ballasted track the LVT is of the free
floating type, held in place by gravity and friction. Reinforced
concrete blocks of 100 kg support the rails every 60 cm and
are held by 12 mm thick closed cell polymer foam pads placed at
the bottom of rubber boots. The latter separate the blocks' mass
movements from the lean encasement concrete. Ballastless track
provides extra overhead clearance necessary for the passage of larger
trains. The corrugated rubber walls of the boots add a degree of
isolation of horizontal wheel-rail vibrations, and are insulators of
the track signal circuit in the humid tunnel environment. UIC60
(60 kg/m) rails of 900A grade rest on 6 mm (0.2 in)
rail pads, which fit the RN/Sonneville bolted dual leaf-springs. The
rails, LVT-blocks and their boots with pads were assembled outside the
tunnel, in a fully automated process developed by the LVT inventor,
Mr. Roger Sonneville. About 334,000 Sonneville blocks were made on the
Maintenance activities are less than projected. Initially the rails
were ground on a yearly basis or after approximately 100MGT of
traffic. Ride quality continues to be noticeably smooth and of low
noise. Maintenance is facilitated by the existence of two tunnel
junctions or crossover facilities, allowing for two-way operation in
each of the six tunnel segments thereby created, and thus providing
safe access for maintenance of one isolated tunnel segment at a time.
The two crossovers are the largest artificial undersea caverns ever
built; 150 m long, 10 m high and 18 m wide. The English crossover is
8 km (5 mi) from Shakespeare Cliff, and the French crossover
is 12 km (7 mi) from Sangatte.
Ventilation, cooling and drainage
The ventilation system maintains the air pressure in the service
tunnel higher than in the rail tunnels, so that in the event of a
fire, smoke does not enter the service tunnel from the rail tunnels.
Two cooling water pipes in each rail tunnel circulate chilled water to
remove heat generated by the rail traffic. Pumping stations remove
water in the tunnels from rain, seepage, and so on.
Entrance to the tunnel near Coquelles, France
Eurotunnel Shuttle and Eurotunnel Class 9
Initially 38 Le Shuttle locomotives were commissioned, with one
at each end of a shuttle train. The shuttles have two separate halves:
single and double deck. Each half has two loading/unloading wagons and
12 carrier wagons. Eurotunnel's original order was for nine tourist
Heavy goods vehicle
Heavy goods vehicle (HGV) shuttles also have two halves, with each
half containing one loading wagon, one unloading wagon and
14 carrier wagons. There is a club car behind the leading
locomotive. Eurotunnel originally ordered six HGV shuttle rakes.
British Rail Class 92
Forty-six Class 92 locomotives for hauling freight trains and
overnight passenger trains (the Nightstar project, which was
abandoned) were commissioned, running on both overhead AC and
third-rail DC power. However, RFF does not let these run on French
railways, so there are plans to certify Alstom
Prima II locomotives
for use in the tunnel.
British Rail Class 373 and
British Rail Class 374
Eurostar trains, based on the French TGV, built to UK
loading gauge with many modifications for safety within the tunnel,
were commissioned, with ownership split between British Rail, French
national railways (SNCF) and Belgian national railways (SNCB). British
Rail ordered seven more for services north of London. Around 2010,
Eurostar ordered ten trains from
Siemens based on its Velaro product.
Germany (DB) has since around 2005 tried to get permission to run
train services to London. At the end of 2009, extensive fire-proofing
requirements were dropped and DB received permission to run German
Intercity-Express (ICE) test trains through the tunnel. In June 2013
DB was granted access to the tunnel. In June 2014 the plans were
shelved, because there are special safety rules that requires custom
made trains (DB calls them Class 407).
Diesel locomotives for rescue and shunting work are Eurotunnel Class
0001 and Eurotunnel Class 0031.
The following chart presents the estimated number of passengers and
tonnes of freight, respectively, annually transported through the
Channel Tunnel since 1994, in millions:
Million tonnes of freight
Usage and services
The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone. The terminal
services shuttle trains that carry vehicles, and is linked to the M20
Folkestone White Horse viewed at Cheriton terminal
Transport services offered by the tunnel are as follows:
Eurotunnel Le Shuttle roll-on roll-off shuttle service for road
vehicles and their drivers and passengers,
Eurostar passenger trains,
through freight trains.
Both the freight and passenger traffic forecasts that led to the
construction of the tunnel were overestimated; in particular,
Eurotunnel's commissioned forecasts were over-predictions.
Although the captured share of Channel crossings was forecast
correctly, high competition (especially from budget airlines which
expanded rapidly in the 1990s and 2000s) and reduced tariffs led to
low revenue. Overall cross-Channel traffic was overestimated.
With the EU's liberalisation of international rail services, the
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 have been open to competition since 2010.
There have been a number of operators interested in running trains
through the tunnel and along
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 to London. In June 2013,
after several years, DB obtained a licence to operate
London trains, not expected to run before 2016 because of delivery
delays of the custom-made trains.
Passenger traffic volumes
Cross-tunnel passenger traffic volumes peaked at 18.4 million in
1998, dropped to 14.9 million in 2003, then rose to
21.0 million in 2014.
At the time of the decision about building the tunnel,
15.9 million passengers were predicted for
Eurostar trains in the
opening year. In 1995, the first full year, actual numbers were a
little over 2.9 million, growing to 7.1 million in 2000,
then dropping to 6.3 million in 2003.
Eurostar was initially
limited by the lack of a high-speed connection on the British side.
After the completion of
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 in two stages in 2003 and 2007,
traffic increased. In 2008,
Eurostar carried 9,113,371 passengers, a
10% increase over the previous year, despite traffic limitations due
to the 2008
Channel Tunnel fire.
Eurostar passenger numbers
continued to increase, reaching 10,397,894 in 2014.
(actual ticket sales)
by Eurotunnel Passenger Shuttles
A only passengers taking
Eurostar to cross the Channel
Freight traffic volumes
Freight volumes have been erratic, with a major decrease during 1997
due to a closure caused by a fire in a freight shuttle. Freight
crossings increased over the period, indicating the substitutability
of the tunnel by sea crossings. The tunnel has achieved a market share
close to or above Eurotunnel's 1980s predictions but Eurotunnel's 1990
and 1994 predictions were overestimates.
For through freight trains, the first year prediction was
7.2 million gross tonnes; the actual 1995 figure was 1.3M gross
tonnes. Through freight volumes peaked in 1998 at 3.1M tonnes.
This fell back to 1.21M tonnes in 2007, increasing slightly to 1.24M
tonnes in 2008. Together with that carried on freight shuttles,
freight growth has occurred since opening, with 6.4M tonnes carried in
1995, 18.4M tonnes recorded in 2003 and 19.6M tonnes in 2007.
Numbers fell back in the wake of the 2008 fire.
Freight Transported (tonnes)
through freight trains
Eurotunnel Truck Shuttles (est.)
Eurotunnel's freight subsidiary is Europorte 2. In September 2006
EWS, the UK's largest rail freight operator, announced that owing to
cessation of UK-French government subsidies of £52 million per
annum to cover the tunnel "Minimum User Charge" (a subsidy of around
£13,000 per train, at a traffic level of 4,000 trains per
annum), freight trains would stop running after 30 November.
Shares in Eurotunnel were issued at £3.50 per share on 9 December
1987. By mid-1989 the price had risen to £11.00. Delays and cost
overruns led to the price dropping; during demonstration runs in
October 1994 it reached an all-time low. Eurotunnel suspended payment
on its debt in September 1995 to avoid bankruptcy. In December
1997 the British and French governments extended Eurotunnel's
operating concession by 34 years, to 2086. Financial
restructuring of Eurotunnel occurred in mid-1998, reducing debt and
financial charges. Despite the restructuring,
The Economist reported
in 1998 that to break even Eurotunnel would have to increase fares,
traffic and market share for sustainability. A cost benefit
analysis of the tunnel indicated that there were few impacts on the
wider economy and few developments associated with the project, and
that the British economy would have been better off if it had not been
Under the terms of the Concession, Eurotunnel was obliged to
investigate a cross-Channel road tunnel. In December 1999 road and
rail tunnel proposals were presented to the British and French
governments, but it was stressed that there was not enough demand for
a second tunnel. A three-way treaty between the United Kingdom,
France and Belgium governs border controls, with the establishment of
control zones wherein the officers of the other nation may exercise
limited customs and law enforcement powers. For most purposes these
are at either end of the tunnel, with the French border controls on
the UK side of the tunnel and vice versa. For some city-to-city
trains, the train is a control zone. A binational emergency plan
coordinates UK and French emergency activities.
Eurostar posted its first net profit, having made a loss of
£925m in 1995. In 2005 Eurotunnel was described as being in a
serious situation. In 2013, operating profits rose 4 per cent
from 2012, to £54 million.
There is a need for full passport controls, since this is the border
Schengen Area and the Common Travel Area. There are
juxtaposed controls, meaning that passports are checked before
boarding first by officials belonging to departing country and then
officials of the destination country. These are only placed at the
Eurostar stations: French officials operate at London St Pancras,
Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International, while British
officials operate at Calais-Fréthun, Lille-Europe, Brussels-South and
Paris-Gare du Nord. There are security checks before boarding as well.
For the shuttle road-vehicle trains, there are juxtaposed passport
controls before boarding the trains.
Eurostar trains travelling from places south of Paris, there is no
passport and security check before departure, and those trains must
stop in Lille at least 30 minutes to allow all passengers to be
checked. No checks are done on board. There have been plans for
services from Amsterdam,
Cologne to London, but a major
reason to cancel them was the need for a stop in Lille.
The reason for juxtaposed controls is a wish to prevent illegal
immigration before reaching British soil, and because a check of all
passengers on a train can take 30 minutes, which creates long queues
if done at arrival.
Eurotunnel Calais Terminal
Eurotunnel Calais Terminal and Eurotunnel Folkestone
Car entering a shuttle wagon at the French terminal at Coquelles
The terminals' sites are at Cheriton (near
Folkestone in the United
Calais in France). The terminals are
designed to transfer vehicles from the motorway onto trains at a rate
of 700 cars and 113 heavy vehicles per hour.[citation
needed] The UK site uses the
M20 motorway for access. The terminals
are organised with the frontier controls juxtaposed with the entry to
the system to allow travellers to go onto the motorway at the
destination country immediately after leaving the shuttle. The area of
the UK site was severely constrained and the design was challenging.
The French layout was achieved more easily. To achieve design output,
the shuttles accept cars on double-deck wagons; for flexibility, ramps
were placed inside the shuttles to provide access to the top
Folkestone there are 20 kilometres (12 mi) of
main-line track, 45 turnouts and eight platforms. At
are 30 kilometres (19 mi) of track and 44 turnouts. At the
terminals the shuttle trains traverse a figure eight to reduce uneven
wear on the wheels. There is a freight marshalling yard west of
Cheriton at Dollands Moor Freight Yard.
A 1996 report from the
European Commission predicted that
Calais had to face increased traffic volumes due to
general growth of cross-Channel traffic and traffic attracted by the
tunnel. In Kent, a high-speed rail line to London would transfer
traffic from road to rail. Kent's regional development would
benefit from the tunnel, but being so close to London restricts the
benefits. Gains are in the traditional industries and are largely
dependent on the development of Ashford International passenger
station, without which
Kent would be totally dependent on London's
Pas-de-Calais enjoys a strong internal symbolic effect
of the Tunnel which results in significant gains in
The removal of a bottleneck by means like the tunnel does not
necessarily induce economic gains in all adjacent regions. The image
of a region being connected to the European high-speed transport and
active political response are more important for regional economic
development. Some small-medium enterprises located in the immediate
vicinity of the terminal have used the opportunity to re-brand the
profile of their business with positive effect, such as The New Inn at
Etchinghill which was able to commercially exploit its unique selling
point as being 'the closest pub to the Channel Tunnel'. Tunnel-induced
regional development is small compared to general economic
growth. The South East of England is likely to benefit
developmentally and socially from faster and cheaper transport to
continental Europe, but the benefits are unlikely to be equally
distributed throughout the region. The overall environmental impact is
almost certainly negative.
Since the opening of the tunnel, small positive impacts on the wider
economy have been felt, but it is difficult to identify major economic
successes directly attributed to the tunnel. The Eurotunnel does
operate profitably, offering an alternative transportation mode
unaffected by poor weather. High costs of construction did delay
profitability, however, and companies involved in the tunnel's
construction and operation early in operation relied on government aid
to deal with debts amounted.
See also: Migrants around
Illegal Immigrants and would-be asylum seekers have used the tunnel to
attempt to enter Britain. By 1997, the problem had attracted
international press attention, and by 1999, the French Red Cross
opened the first migrant centre at Sangatte, using a warehouse once
used for tunnel construction; by 2002, it housed up to
1,500 people at a time, most of them trying to get to the
UK. In 2001, most came from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Iran, but
African countries were also represented.
Eurotunnel, the company that operates the crossing, said that more
than 37,000 migrants were intercepted between January and July
2015. Approximately 3,000 migrants, mainly from Ethiopia,
Sudan and Afghanistan, were living in the temporary camps
Calais at the time of an official count in July 2015.
An estimated 3,000 to 5,000 migrants were waiting in
Calais for a
chance to get to England.
France operate a system of
Juxtaposed controls on
immigration and customs, where investigations happen before travel.
France is part of the Schengen Agreement, which has largely abolished
border checks between member nations, but the
United Kingdom is not.
Most illegal immigrants and would-be asylum seekers who got into
Britain found some way to ride a freight train. Trucks are loaded onto
freight trains. In a few instances, groups of migrants were able to
stow away in the cargo area of a tanker truck carrying liquid
chocolate and managed to survive, though they did not enter the UK in
one attempt. Although the facilities were fenced, airtight
security was deemed impossible; migrants would even jump from bridges
onto moving trains. In several incidents people were injured during
the crossing; others tampered with railway equipment, causing delays
and requiring repairs. Eurotunnel said it was losing £5m per
month because of the problem.
In 2001 and 2002, several riots broke out at Sangatte, and groups of
migrants (up to 550 in a December 2001 incident) stormed the fences
and attempted to enter en masse.
Other migrants use the
Eurostar passenger train. They arrive as
Eurostar passengers, but without proper entry papers.
Local authorities in both
France and the UK called for the closure of
Sangatte migrant camp, and Eurotunnel twice sought an injunction
against the centre. The
United Kingdom blamed
France for allowing
Sangatte to open, and
France blamed both the UK for its lax asylum
rules, and the EU for not having a uniform immigration policy.
The cause célèbre nature of the problem even included journalists
detained as they followed migrants onto railway property.
In 2002, after the
European Commission told
France that it was in
European Union rules on the free transfer of goods because
of the delays and closures as a result of its poor security, a double
fence was built at a cost of £5 million, reducing the numbers of
migrants detected each week reaching Britain on goods trains from 250
to almost none. Other measures included CCTV cameras and
increased police patrols. At the end of 2002, the
was closed after the UK agreed to absorb some migrants.
On 23 and 30 June 2015, striking workers associated with
MyFerryLink damaged the sections of track by burning car tires,
leading to all trains being cancelled and a backlog of vehicles.
Hundreds seeking to reach Britain made use of the situation to attempt
to stow away inside and underneath transport trucks destined for the
United Kingdom. Extra security measures included a £2 million upgrade
of detection technology, £1 million extra for dog searches, and £12
million (over three years) towards a joint fund with
security surrounding the Port of Calais.
Illegal attempts to cross and deaths
Migrants take great risks to evade security precautions. In 2002, a
dozen migrants died in crossing attempts. In the two months from
June to July 2015, ten migrants died near the French tunnel terminal,
during a period when 1,500 attempts to evade security precautions were
being made each day.
On 6 July 2015, a migrant died while attempting to climb onto a
freight train while trying to reach Britain from the French side of
the Channel. The previous month an Eritrean man was killed under
During the night of 28 July 2015, one person, aged 25–30, was found
dead after a night in which 1,500–2,000 migrants had attempted to
enter the Eurotunnel terminal.
On 4 August 2015, a Sudanese migrant walked nearly the entire length
of one of the tunnels. He was arrested close to the British side,
after having walked about 30 miles (48 km) through the
On 20 June 2017, a van driver was killed when migrants stopped
vehicles on the
A16 autoroute with a tree trunk, in order to stow away
in the cargo area. The van, registered in Poland, hit a lorry and
burst into flames, killing the van driver. Nine migrants from
Eritrea have been arrested in connection with this incident.
1996 Channel Tunnel fire
1996 Channel Tunnel fire and 2008
Channel Tunnel fire
There have been three fires in the tunnel, all on the heavy goods
vehicle (HGV) shuttles, that were significant enough to close the
tunnel, as well as other more minor incidents.
On 9 December 1994, during an "invitation only" testing phase, a fire
broke out in a Ford Escort car whilst its owner was loading it onto
the upper deck of a tourist shuttle. The fire started at about
10:00,[when?] with the shuttle train stationary in the Folkestone
terminal and was put out about 40 minutes later with no passenger
On 18 November 1996, a fire broke out on an HGV shuttle wagon in the
tunnel, but nobody was seriously hurt. The exact cause is
unknown, although it was neither a Eurotunnel equipment nor
rolling stock problem; it may have been due to arson of a heavy goods
vehicle. It is estimated that the heart of the fire reached
1,000 °C (1,800 °F), with the tunnel severely damaged over
46 metres (151 ft), with some 500 metres (1,640 ft) affected
to some extent. Full operation recommenced six months after the
On 21 August 2006, the tunnel was closed for several hours when a
truck on an HGV shuttle train caught fire.
On 11 September 2008, a fire occurred in the
Channel Tunnel at 13:57
GMT. The incident started on an HGV shuttle train travelling towards
France. The event occurred 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from the
French entrance to the tunnel. No one was killed but several people
were taken to hospitals suffering from smoke inhalation, and minor
cuts and bruises. The tunnel was closed to all traffic, with the
undamaged South Tunnel reopening for limited services two days
later. Full service resumed on 9 February 2009 after repairs
costing €60 million.
On 29 November 2012, the tunnel was closed for several hours after a
truck on an HGV shuttle caught fire.
On 17 January 2015, both tunnels were closed following a lorry fire
which filled the midsection of Running Tunnel North with smoke.
Eurostar cancelled all services. The shuttle train had been
Coquelles and stopped adjacent to
cross-passage CP 4418 just before 12:30 UTC. Thirty-eight passengers
and four members of Eurotunnel staff were evacuated into the service
tunnel, and then transported to
France using special STTS road
vehicles in the Service Tunnel. The passengers and crew were taken to
the Eurotunnel Fire/Emergency Management Centre close to the French
On the night of 19/20 February 1996, about 1,000 passengers became
trapped in the
Channel Tunnel when
Eurostar trains from London broke
down owing to failures of electronic circuits caused by snow and ice
being deposited and then melting on the circuit boards.
On 3 August 2007, an electrical failure lasting six hours caused
passengers to be trapped in the tunnel on a shuttle.
On the evening of 18 December 2009, during the December 2009 European
snowfall, five London-bound
Eurostar trains failed inside the tunnel,
trapping 2,000 passengers for approximately 16 hours, during the
coldest temperatures in eight years. A Eurotunnel spokesperson
explained that snow had evaded the train's winterisation shields,
and the transition from cold air outside to the tunnel's warm
atmosphere had melted the snow, resulting in electrical
failures. One train was turned back before
reaching the tunnel; two trains were hauled out of the tunnel by
Eurotunnel Class 0001
Eurotunnel Class 0001 diesel locomotives. The blocking of the tunnel
led to the implementation of Operation Stack, the transformation of
M20 motorway into a linear car park.
The occasion was the first time that a
Eurostar train was evacuated
inside the tunnel; the failing of four at once was described as
Channel Tunnel reopened the following
morning. Nirj Deva,
Member of the European Parliament
Member of the European Parliament for South
East England, had called for
Eurostar chief executive Richard Brown to
resign over the incidents. An independent report by Christopher
Garnett (former CEO of Great North Eastern Railway) and Claude
Gressier (a French transport expert) on the 18/19 December 2009
incidents was issued in February 2010, making 21
On 7 January 2010, a Brussels–London
Eurostar broke down in the
tunnel. The train had 236 passengers on board and was towed to
Ashford; other trains that had not yet reached the tunnel were turned
Channel Tunnel Safety Authority is responsible for some aspects of
safety regulation in the tunnel; it reports to the IGC.
Channel Tunnel safety
North running tunnel
South running tunnel
Emergency door every 375 m
The service tunnel is used for access to technical equipment in
cross-passages and equipment rooms, to provide fresh-air ventilation
and for emergency evacuation. The Service Tunnel Transport System
(STTS) allows fast access to all areas of the tunnel. The service
vehicles are rubber-tyred with a buried wire guidance system. The 24
STTS vehicles are used mainly for maintenance but also for
firefighting and in emergencies. "Pods" with different purposes, up to
a payload of 2.5–5 t (2.8–5.5 tons), are inserted into the
side of the vehicles. The vehicles cannot turn around within the
tunnel, and are driven from either end. The maximum speed is
80 km/h (50 mph) when the steering is locked. A fleet of 15
Light Service Tunnel Vehicles (LADOGS) was introduced to supplement
the STTSs. The LADOGS have a short wheelbase with a 3.4 m
(11 ft) turning circle, allowing two-point turns within the
service tunnel. Steering cannot be locked like the STTS vehicles, and
maximum speed is 50 km/h (31 mph). Pods up to 1 tonne
can be loaded onto the rear of the vehicles. Drivers in the tunnel sit
on the right, and the vehicles drive on the left. Owing to the risk of
French personnel driving on their native right side of the road,
sensors in the vehicles alert the driver if the vehicle strays to the
The three tunnels contain 6,000 tonnes (6,600 tons) of air that needs
to be conditioned for comfort and safety. Air is supplied from
ventilation buildings at
Shakespeare Cliff and Sangatte, with each
building capable of providing 100% standby capacity. Supplementary
ventilation also exists on either side of the tunnel. In the event of
a fire, ventilation is used to keep smoke out of the service tunnel
and move smoke in one direction in the main tunnel to give passengers
clean air. The tunnel was the first main-line railway tunnel to have
special cooling equipment. Heat is generated from traction equipment
and drag. The design limit was set at 30 °C (86 °F), using
a mechanical cooling system with refrigeration plants on both sides
that run chilled water circulating in pipes within the tunnel.
Trains travelling at high speed create piston-effect pressure changes
that can affect passenger comfort, ventilation systems, tunnel doors,
fans and the structure of the trains, and which drag on the
trains. Piston relief ducts of 2-metre (7 ft) diameter were
chosen to solve the problem, with 4 ducts per kilometre to give
close to optimum results. Unfortunately this design led to
unacceptable lateral forces on the trains so a reduction in train
speed was required and restrictors were installed in the ducts.
The safety issue of a possible fire on a passenger-vehicle shuttle
garnered much attention, with Eurotunnel noting that fire was the risk
attracting the most attention in a 1994 safety case for three reasons:
the opposition of ferry companies to passengers being allowed to
remain with their cars;
Home Office statistics indicating that car
fires had doubled in ten years; and the long length of the tunnel.
Eurotunnel commissioned the UK Fire Research Station – now part of
Building Research Establishment
Building Research Establishment – to give reports of vehicle
fires, and liaised with
Kent Fire Brigade to gather vehicle fire
statistics over one year. Fire tests took place at the French Mines
Research Establishment with a mock wagon used to investigate how cars
burned. The wagon door systems are designed to withstand fire
inside the wagon for 30 minutes, longer than the transit time of
27 minutes. Wagon air conditioning units help to purge dangerous
fumes from inside the wagon before travel. Each wagon has a fire
detection and extinguishing system, with sensing of ions or
ultraviolet radiation, smoke and gases that can trigger halon gas to
quench a fire. Since the HGV wagons are not covered, fire sensors are
located on the loading wagon and in the tunnel. A 10-inch
(250 mm) water main in the service tunnel provides water to the
main tunnels at 125-metre (410 ft) intervals. The
ventilation system can control smoke movement.
Special arrival sidings
accept a train that is on fire, as the train is not allowed to stop
whilst on fire in the tunnel, unless continuing its journey would lead
to a worse outcome. Eurotunnel has banned a wide range of hazardous
goods from travelling in the tunnel. Two STTS (Service Tunnel
Transportation System) vehicles with firefighting pods are on
duty at all times, with a maximum delay of 10 minutes before they
reach a burning train.
In 1999, the
Kosovo Train for Life
Kosovo Train for Life passed through the tunnel en route
to Pristina, in Kosovo.
See also: Cycling in the Channel Tunnel
In 2009, former F1 racing champion
John Surtees drove a
Ginetta G50 EV
electric sports car prototype from England to France, using the
service tunnel, as part of a charity event. He was required to keep to
the 50-kilometre-per-hour (30 mph) speed limit. To celebrate
the 2014 Tour de France's transfer from its opening stages in Britain
France in July of that year,
Chris Froome of
Team Sky rode a
bicycle through the service tunnel, becoming the first solo rider to
do so. The Crossing took under an hour, reaching speeds of
40 mph–faster than most cross-channel ferries.
Mobile network coverage
Since 2012, French operators Bouygues Telecom, Orange and
covered Running Tunnel South, the tunnel bore normally used for travel
France to Britain.
In January 2014, UK operators EE and Vodafone signed ten-year
contracts with Eurotunnel for Running Tunnel North. The agreements
will enable both operators' subscribers to use 2G and 3G services.
Both EE and Vodafone plan to offer LTE services on the route; EE said
it expected to cover the route with LTE connectivity by summer 2014.
EE and Vodafone will offer
Channel Tunnel network coverage for
travellers from the UK to France. Eurotunnel said it also held talks
Three UK but has yet to reach an agreement with the
In May 2014, Eurotunnel announced that they had installed equipment
Alcatel-Lucent to cover Running Tunnel North and simultaneously
to provide mobile service (
GSM 900/1800 MHz and UMTS
2100 MHz) by EE, O2 and Vodafone. The service of EE and Vodafone
commenced on the same date as the announcement. O2 service was
expected to be available soon afterwards.
In November 2014, EE announced that it had previously switched on LTE
earlier in September 2014. O2 turned on 2G, 3G and 4G services in
November 2014, whilst Vodafone's 4G was due to go live later.
Other (non-transport) services
Another usage of the
Channel Tunnel is the 1,000 MW high-voltage
direct current ElecLink connecting the electrical grids of the two
countries, scheduled for 2019 at a cost of €580m. The
foundation stone of the
Folkestone Converter Station was laid in
February 2017, by Jesse Norman, Minister for Industry and Energy.
British Rail Class 373
Irish Sea tunnel
Japan-Korea Undersea Tunnel
List of rail megaprojects
Strait of Gibraltar crossing
^ Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) (1995). The Channel
Tunnel: Transport systems, Volume 4. 108. Thomas Telford. p. 22.
^ Oxford Dictionary of English (2nd ed.).
OUP Oxford. 11 August 2005.
^ Stobart, Janet (20 December 2009). "Rail passengers spend a cold,
dark night stranded in Chunnel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 June
Folkestone Eurotunnel Trains". Transworld Leisure Limited.
Retrieved 11 February 2017.
^ a b Institute of Civil Engineers p. 95[inconsistent]
^ Wise, Jeff (1 October 2009). "Turkey Building the World's Deepest
Immersed Tube Tunnel". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original
on 17 May 2014.
^ Dumitrache, Alina (24 March 2010). "The
Channel Tunnel – Traveling
Under the Sea". AutoEvolution. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ a b c d Anderson, pp. xvi–xvii
^ a b Chisholm, Michael (1995). Britain on the edge of Europe. London:
Routledge. p. 151. ISBN 0-415-11921-9.
^ a b Whiteside p. 17
^ "The Channel Tunnel". library.thinkquest.org. Archived from the
original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Wilson pp. 14–21
^ Paddy at Home ("Chez Paddy") (2nd ed.). Chapman & Hall Covent
Garden, London. 1887.
^ Veditz, Leslie Allen. "The
Channel Tunnel – A Case Study" (PDF).
Fort McNair, Washington, D.C., U.S.: The Industrial College of the
Armed Forces, National Defense University. p. 8. Retrieved 9
^ "How the
Channel Tunnel was Built". Folkestone, England / Coquelles
Cedex France: Eurotunnel Group. Retrieved 9 December 2016. It was at
the time the most expensive construction project ever proposed and the
cost finally came in at £9 billion.
^ a b Flyvbjerg et al. p. 12
^ "Channel tunnel fire worst in service's history". The Guardian. 12
September 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
^ "Thousands freed from
Channel Tunnel after trains fail". BBC News.
19 December 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
^ "Four men caught in Channel Tunnel". BBC News. 4 January 2008.
Retrieved 19 July 2009.
Sangatte refugee camp". The Guardian. UK. 23 May 2002. Retrieved 19
Channel Tunnel train drivers 'haunted' by migrant deaths".
The Daily Telegraph. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
^ a b c Samuel, Henry (20 June 2017). "
Van driver killed in fireball
crash after migrants block
Calais road with tree trunks". The
Telegraph. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
^ "Subterranea Britannica:
Channel Tunnel – 1880 attempt".
subbrit.org. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
Channel Tunnel History". Eurotunnel. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
^ Whiteside pp. 18–23
^ "The Proposed Tunnel Between England and France" (PDF). The New York
Times. 7 August 1866. Retrieved 3 January 2008.
^ Gladstone, William (1902). "The Channel Tunnel". In A. W. Hutton
& H. J. Cohen. The Speeches of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone on
Home Rule, Criminal Law, Welsh And Irish Nationality, National Debt
and the Queen's Reign. The Speeches And Public Addresses of the Right
Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P. X. London: Methuen And Company.
^ Beaumont, Martin (2015). Sir
John Hawkshaw 1811-1891. The Lancashire
& Yorkshire Railway Society www.lyrs.org.uk. pp. 126–129.
^ "Things Worth Recording about Steam Navigation". The Mercury.
Hobart, Tas. 9 October 1866. p. 3. Retrieved 26 April 2014 –
via National Library of Australia.
^ Malthête, Jacques; Mannoni, Laurent (2008), L'oeuvre de Georges
Méliès, Paris: Éditions de La Martinière, p. 219,
^ MacMillan, Margaret (2002). Paris 1919. Random House. pp. 174,
^ Churchill, Winston (1976). The Collected Essays of Sir Winston
Churchill, Vol I, Churchill at War (Centenary ed.). Library of
Imperial History. pp. 260–264 and 357–359.
^ "New Plan for Channel Tunnel". Popular Mechanics. May 1929.
pp. 767–768. Retrieved 23 October 2017 – via Google
^ Breuer, William B. (2003). The Spy Who Spent the War in Bed: And
Other Bizarre Tales from World War II. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
p. 40. ISBN 0-471-26739-2.
^ Railway Magazine November 1958 p. 805
Channel Tunnel Site Investigation – 1964". Halcrow Group. 13 July
2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 26 July
2011. Online presentation of a 1964–65 film documentary of a
geological survey of the Channel, with a brief summary.
^ a b "Illustrated London News". 1975.
^ Redford, Duncan (2014). "Opposition to the Channel Tunnel,
1882–1975: Identity, Island Status and Security". History. 99 (334):
^ Grayson, Richard S. (1996). "The British Government, the Channel
Tunnel and European Unity, 1948-64". European History Quarterly. 26
^ a b Foreign & Commonwealth Office 1994, p. 5.
^ Kirkland pp. 10–11
^ "Parliamentary note on the
Channel Tunnel Rail Link" (PDF). House of
Commons Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2010.
Retrieved 5 April 2010.
^ a b c Flyvbjerg et al. pp. 96–97
^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 3
^ a b "On this day: Tunnel links UK and Europe". BBC News. 1 December
1990. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
^ Harlow, John (2 April 1995). "Phantom Trains Wreak Havoc in Channel
Tunnel". The Times. UK.
^ "Navvies". ingenious. 11 March 2008. Archived from the original on
27 July 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
^ "Thirteen workers die as safety standards are ignored in race to
build Olympic sites". The Independent. UK. 3 April 2004. Retrieved 26
^ Frankel, Glenn (31 October 1990). "Britain and
France Link Up-at
Last". The Washington Post.
^ "Chunnel birthday". Evening Mail.
Birmingham Post & Mail Ltd. 2
^ a b "On This Day – 1994: President and Queen open Chunnel". BBC
News. 6 May 1994. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
^ Woodman, Peter (14 November 2007). "High-speed Rail Link Finally
Completed". Press Association National Newswire.
^ "New high-speed rail line opens to link Britain to Europe". Channel
NewsAsia. 15 November 2007.
^ "Seven Wonders". American Society of Civil Engineers. Archived from
the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
^ Pope, Gregory T. (December 1995). "The seven wonders of the modern
world". Popular Mechanics. pp. 48–56
^ Gilbert, Jane (1 December 2006). "'Chunnel' workers link
Britain". The Daily Post (New Zealand). APN New Zealand Ltd.
^ Kirkland p. 13
^ Institute of Civil Engineers p. 208
^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 51
^ Harris, C.S.; et al., eds. (1996). Engineering Geology of the
Channel Tunnel. London: Thomas Telford. p. 57.
^ a b c Kirkland pp. 21–50
^ a b c Kirkland pp. 22–26
^ a b c d Kirkland pp. 63–128
^ Wilson p. 38
^ Kirkland p. 29
^ Wilson p. 44
^ Kirkland pp. 117–128
^ Pompee, Pierre-Jean. "Channel Tunnel: Tunnel's Construction" (PDF).
pagesperso-orange.fr. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
^ "How the
Channel Tunnel was Built". Eurotunnel Le Shuttle. Retrieved
23 October 2017.
^ Kirkland pp. 129–132
^ Kirkland pp. 134–148
^ a b Article: Railway electric traction 9 August 2009
^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office 1994, p. 9.
^ Kirkland pp. 149–155
^ Article-de: Eurotunnel#Betrieb 9 August 2009
^ Bonnett 2005, p. 78
^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office 1994, p. 14.
^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office 1994, p. 8.
Prima II tested in the Channel Tunnel". Railway Gazette
International. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
^ Kirkland pp. 175–211
^ "IGC grants
Deutsche Bahn access to Channel Tunnel".
railwaygazette.com. 13 June 2013.
^ "DB puts London –
Frankfurt plans on ice". railjournal.com. 19
^ a b Flyvbjerg et al. p. 22
^ a b c d e f g Anguera, Ricard (May 2006). "The Channel Tunnel—an
ex post economic evaluation". Transportation Research Part A: Policy
and Practice. 40 (4): 291–315. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2005.08.009.
^ Sen, Soutetsu (February 2004). "The
Channel Tunnel and its impact on
Tourism in the United Kingdom" (PDF). Geographical Paper No.
^ DVV Media UK. "IGC grants
Deutsche Bahn access to Channel Tunnel".
^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Traffic figures". Eurotunnel. Retrieved 6
^ a b "Eurotunnel 2008 traffic and revenue figures". Eurotunnel. 15
January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
^ a b "Eurotunnel 2010 traffic and revenue figures" (PDF). Eurotunnel.
18 January 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
^ a b c d "Traffic figures". Eurotunnel. Retrieved 15 January
^ a b "Study Report Annex 2". South East England Regional Assembly.
June 2004. pp. Table 11. Archived from the original on 8 November
2007. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
^ a b Eurotunnel. "Traffic figures". eurotunnelgroup.com. Retrieved 4
^ "Eurotunnel 2003 Revenue & Traffic". Eurotunnel. 20 January
2004. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
^ a b "Eurotunnel: 2005 Traffic and revenue figures". Eurotunnel. 16
January 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
^ a b "Eurotunnel 2007 Traffic and Revenue figures: a remarkable
year". Eurotunnel. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
^ a b "Eurotunnel 2009 traffic and revenue figures". Eurotunnel. 10
January 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
^ "Traffic and Revenue 2011" (PDF). Eurotunnel. Retrieved 21 December
^ "2012 revenue and traffic figures for the Eurotunnel Group" (PDF).
Eurotunnel. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
^ "Groupe Eurotunnel SA: traffic and revenue for 2013". Retrieved 2
^ "Eurotunnel Group 2014 Traffic and Revenue". Retrieved 27 January
^ "Eurotunnel gets backing for freight service". AFX. Agence
France-Presse. 28 October 2004.
^ O'Connell, Dominic (3 September 2006). "Chunnel cash row threatens
freight trains". The Times. UK. Retrieved 3 September 2006.
^ "Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition" (PDF).
josephcoates.com. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
^ Flyvbjerg et al. pp. 32–34
^ Flyvbjerg, B. Buzelius; N. Rothengatter, W (2003). Megaprojects and
Risk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–69.
^ "Eurotunnel unveils plans for second link". Birmingham Post. 6
^ "The CPS: Channel Tunnel". Crown Prosecution Service. Archived from
the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
^ Kirkland p. 331
^ "Facts and figures Eurotunnel 2000-2004/Forecast 2005: Commentry and
a suggestion". Adacte.com. June 2005. Archived from the original on 31
July 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
Eurostar hails 'record-breaking' year as profits jump". The
Independent (UK). 5 March 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
^ Kirkland pp. 255–270
^ Kirkland pp. 157–174
European Commission pp. 220–222
European Commission pp. 248–252
^ Fayman, Sonia; Metge, Pierre (September 1995). "The regional impact
of the Channel Tunnel: Qualitative and quantitative analysis".
European Planning Studies. 3 (3): 333.
^ Button, Kenneth (July 1990). "The Channel Tunnel: The Economic
Implications for the South East of England". The Geographical Journal.
Blackwell Publishing. 156 (2): 187–199. doi:10.2307/635327.
^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 68–69
^ "Eurotunnel revenues boosted by shuttle demand". UK: BBC. 18 January
2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
^ Harrison, Michael (10 February 2004). "Eurotunnel calls for
government support after record £1.3bn loss". The Independent. UK.
Retrieved 21 July 2009.
^ "Eurotunnel has £4bn too much debt". The Daily Telegraph. London.
12 January 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
^ Clark, Andrew (21 February 2006). "Debt-laden Channel tunnel rail
link is 'nationalised'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 21 July
^ a b c Kremer, Pierre (February 2002). "Sangatte: A place of hope and
despair". The Magazine of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent
Movement. Retrieved 4 August 2006.
^ Phillips, Caryl (17 November 2001). "Strangers in a strange land".
The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 4 August 2006.
^ "Britain and
France Scramble as Channel Becomes Choke Point in
Migration Crisis". The New
York Times. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July
^ Singapore, Jessica Elgot Patrick Wintour in (29 July 2015). "Calais:
man killed as migrants make 1,500 attempts to enter Eurotunnel site".
The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "More refugees attempt to reach
Channel Tunnel News DW 30 July 2015". DW.COM.
Retrieved 7 September 2017.
^ Adamson, Daniel Silas; Akbiek, Mamdouh (31 March 2015). "I nearly
drowned in chocolate". BBC World Service.
^ Stephens, Avril (31 July 2007). "Desperate journeys fraught with
danger". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 4
^ a b "Europe's most notorious refugee camp". BBC News. 12 July 2002.
Retrieved 5 August 2006. [dead link]
^ Webster, Paul (27 December 2007). "Police braced for new tunnel
raid". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 4 August 2006.
^ "UK/Ireland: Asylum (news digest)". Migration News. May 1998.
Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 3 March
^ "2001 World Press Freedom Review: France". International Press
Institute. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 4
Sangatte asylum talks due". BBC News. 26 September 2002. Retrieved
4 August 2006.
^ "Tunnel security to be tightened". BBC News. 31 May 2002. Retrieved
4 August 2006.
^ Broughton, Philip Delves; Sparrow, Andrew (27 September 2002).
"Blunkett reaches deal to shut
Sangatte camp". The Daily Telegraph.
UK. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
Calais mayor threatens to block port if UK fails to help deal with
migrants". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 2 September 2014.
Retrieved 3 March 2015.
^ "Cross-Channel transport improving after
Calais migrant chaos". BBC
News. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
^ "Calais: Polizei kesselt Hunderte Flüchtlinge am Eurotunnel ein".
Der Spiegel (in German). 31 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
^ "Calais: man killed as migrants make 1,500 attempts to enter
Eurotunnel site". The Guardian. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July
^ "Migrant dies on UK-bound freight train near Calais". The Guardian.
7 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
^ "Migrant reportedly dies trying to board Channel tunnel freight
train". The Guardian. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
Calais in Frankreich: 2000 Flüchtlinge in einer Nacht am
Eurotunnel". Der Spiegel. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
^ Bilefsky, Dan (7 August 2015). "Sudanese Migrant Tries to Reach
England by Walking Length of Channel Tunnel". The New
Retrieved 7 August 2015.
Van driver dies as he crashes into tail-back after migrants set up
roadblock near Calais". Russia: RT. 20 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June
^ Wolmar, Christian (10 December 1994). "Fire raises Channel Tunnel
fears". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 December 2009.
^ "Inquiry into the fire on Heavy Goods Vehicle Shuttle 7539 on
18 November 1996" (PDF).
Channel Tunnel Safety Authority. May
1997. ISBN 0-11-551931-9. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
^ a b Kirkland, C. J. (2002). "The fire in the Channel Tunnel" (PDF).
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 17 (2): 129–132.
doi:10.1016/S0886-7798(02)00014-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on
20 September 2010.
^ "Lorry fire closes Channel Tunnel". BBC News. 21 August 2006.
Retrieved 21 August 2006.
^ Rail Accident Investigation Branch (October 2007). Fire on HGV
shuttle in the
Channel Tunnel 21 August 2006 (PDF) (Report). Rail
Accident Report. Department for Transport.
^ Robert Wright (12 September 2008). "Channel tunnel fire causes
further cancellations". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
Channel Tunnel Fire Evacuation". Sky News. 11 September 2008.
Retrieved 9 March 2009.
^ "Eurotunnel fully open to traffic". Eurotunnel.com. Retrieved 14
^ "Fire in the Channel Tunnel". ITV. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 12
Channel Tunnel closed and services hit after lorry fire". BBC. 17
January 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
^ RAIB (28 January 2015). "Fire on board a freight shuttle in the
Channel Tunnel" (press release). Government of the United Kingdom.
Retrieved 28 January 2015. shuttle 7340 made a controlled stop in the
tunnel at cross-passage 4418
^ Wolmar, Christian (22 February 1996). "Wrong kind of snow in
tunnel..." The Independent. UK. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
^ "Delays after
Channel Tunnel fault". BBC News. 3 August 2007.
Retrieved 14 January 2010.
^ "Severe Weather Brings
Eurostar to a Halt". Sky News. 19 December
2009. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
^ Bird, Steve; Lindsay, Robert (21 December 2009). "
'fluffy' snow for weekend chaos". The Times. London. Retrieved 21
^ Gray, Melissa (19 December 2009). "
Eurostar services cancelled as
snow brings havoc". CNN. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
^ Randall, David; Lakhani, Nina (20 December 2009). "Thousands
Eurostar chaos". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20
^ "Passengers trapped on
Eurostar trains relive ordeal". BBC News. 20
December 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
^ Cole, Rob (18 December 2009). "'Nightmare' Over For Stranded
Passengers". Sky News. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
^ "Passengers home after trapped in Channel Tunnel". The Press
Association. 19 December 2009. Archived from the original on 22
December 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
^ "Chaos in Eurotunnel as several trains break down". Amsterdam
News.Net. 19 December 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July
2011. Retrieved 19 December 2009. "Four Eurostars broken down at one
time – it's absolutely unprecedented", John Keefe of Eurotunnel
... "There's never actually been an evacuation of a
Eurostar train in
the fifteen years that the tunnel has been opened and last night we
evacuated two whole trains to get people off",
^ "Eurotunnel rescues Eurostar" (PDF). Eurotunnel Press Release. 19
December 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
Eurostar transports 500 vulnerable passengers to France". BBC News.
20 December 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
^ Woodman, Peter (12 February 2010). "
Eurostar rapped over Channel
Tunnel breakdown". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
^ Garnett, Christopher; Gressier, M. Claude (12 February 2010).
Eurostar Independent Review" (PDF report). Eurostar. Retrieved 27
Eurostar disrupted after new breakdown in Channel tunnel". The
Independent. London. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
Eurostar train towed out of Channel Tunnel". Reuters. 7
January 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
Channel Tunnel Safety Authority". Channel Tunnel
Intergovernmental Commission. 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
^ Kirkland pp. 247–254
^ a b Kirkland pp. 212–230
Channel Tunnel Experience Lessons for the Future pp. 19–23
^ Kirkland pp. 231–240
^ McFarlane, Andrew (12 September 2008). "Focus turns to cause of
tunnel blaze". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
^ "Formula One: Surtees drives through Channel Tunnel". The
Independent. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
Chris Froome cycles through the Channel Tunnel". The Daily
Telegraph. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
^ Chris Froome,
Team Sky and Jaguar: 'Cycling Under The Sea' on
^ "Are you sure this is the right way Chris? Tour de
Froome becomes the first person ever to cycle UNDER the sea from
France in channel tunnel". Daily Mail. 7 July 2014.
Retrieved 3 March 2015.
^ Sahota, Dawinderpal (9 January 2014). "EE and Vodafone offer Channel
Tunnel network coverage". Telecoms.com. Retrieved 11 January
^ "Eurotunnel completes mobile telephone and internet connections in
Channel Tunnel" (PDF). Eurotunnel. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May
^ "4G From EE Live in the Channel Tunnel". EE. 21 November 2014.
Retrieved 21 November 2014.
^ Garwood, Michael (21 November 2014). "EE and O2 now providing full
2G, 3G, and 4G access in Eurotunnel". Retrieved 24 November
^ "ElecLink". Eleclink. ElecLink. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
^ "Foundation laid for UK-
France link". reNEWS – Renewable Energy
News. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
^ "Contracts awarded for ElecLink interconnector". 4c Offshore.
Retrieved 26 February 2017.
^ "Eurorunnel Press Release 23 Feb 2017" (PDF). eleclink. Retrieved 7
Anderson, Graham; Roskrow, Ben (1994). The
Channel Tunnel Story.
London: E & F N Spon. ISBN 0-419-19620-X.
Bonavia, Michael R (1987). The
Channel Tunnel Story. Newton Abbot:
David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8964-5.
European Commission. Directorate-General for Regional Policy and
Cohesion. (1996). The regional impact of the
Channel Tunnel throughout
the Community. Luxembourg: European Commission.
Flyvbjerg, B.; Buzelius, N.; Rothengatter, W. (2003). Megaprojects and
Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Foreign & Commonwealth Office (1994). The
Channel Tunnel Story:
The world's longest undersea tunnel system. London: Foreign &
Grayson, Richard S. (1996). "The British Government, the Channel
Tunnel and European Unity, 1948-64". European History Quarterly. 26
Institution of Civil Engineers (1989). The Channel Tunnel. London:
Thomas Telford. ISBN 0-7277-1546-1.
Kirkland, Colin J., ed. (1995). Engineering the Channel Tunnel.
London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0-419-17920-8.
Redford, Duncan (2014). "Opposition to the Channel Tunnel,
1882–1975: Identity, Island Status and Security". History. 99 (334):
Whiteside, Thomas (1962). The Tunnel under the Channel. Rupert
Hart-Davis. ISBN 0-684-83243-7.
Wilson, Jeremy; Spick, Jerome (1994). Eurotunnel – The
Illustrated Journey. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255539-5.
Dupont, Christophe (1990). "The
Channel Tunnel Negotiations,
1984–1986: Some aspects of the process and its outcome". Negotiation
Journal. 6 (1): 71–80.
Forbes, Horace Courtenay Gammell (1883). Shall we have a Channel
tunnel?. Aberdeen: A. Brown & Co.
Holliday, Ian (1992). "The politics of the Channel Tunnel".
Parliamentary Affairs. 45 (.2): 188–204.
"Main tunnel dig starts". RAIL. No. 93. EMAP National
Publications. 6–19 April 1989. p. 6. ISSN 0953-4563.
Moore, Gary; Sutton, Philip (30 November – 13 December 1989).
"Eurotunnel competes service tunnel". RAIL. EMAP National Publications
(110): 7. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
"New Plan For Channel Tunnel". Popular Mechanics. May 1929.
Article on a post-WW1 plan for a tunnel that was scrapped by the Great
Depression. A total cost figure of 150 million[clarification needed]
was given in 1929
Stokes, Sir John. "Chapter 14: Chunnel". fortunecity.com. Archived
from the original on 28 May 2009. Autobiography of Sir John
Stokes regarding 1882 deliberations
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eurotunnel.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Tribute website at chunnel.com
"Chunnel Tunnel 1880 Attempt". ubbrit.org.uk.
Channel Tunnel on OpenStreetMap wiki
"Channel Tunnel". Structurae.
High Speed 1
Eurostar International Limited
Getlink (Groupe Eurotunnel)
Eurotunnel Class 0001
Eurotunnel Class 0031
Eurotunnel Class 9
British Rail Class 92
British Rail Class 373
British Rail Class 374
Rail transport in France
Rail transport in the United Kingdom
Channel Tunnel Safety Authority
Channel Tunnel fire
Channel Tunnel fire
Cycling in the Channel Tunnel
London St Pancras International
Paris Gare du Nord
Marne la Vallée-Chessy (Disneyland Paris)
High Speed 1
LGV Interconnexion Est
Rail transport in the United Kingdom
Rail transport in France
Rail transport in Belgium
Rail transport in the Netherlands