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The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
(Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche[note 1]) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark
Sark
and some smaller islands. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy
Normandy
and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom,[2] the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands.[3] The Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
are not members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
or of the European Union. They have a total population of about 164,541, and the bailiwicks' capitals, Saint Helier
Saint Helier
and Saint Peter Port, have populations of 33,500 and 16,488, respectively. The total area of the islands is 198 km2. The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century. Each has its own independent laws, elections, and representative bodies (although in modern times, politicians from the islands' legislatures are in regular contact). Any institution common to both is the exception rather than the rule. The Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey, Alderney and Sark
Sark
– each with its own legislature. The term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830, possibly first by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
as a collective name for the islands.[4]:158

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 List of islands 1.2 Names 1.3 Waters 1.4 Highest point

2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 From the Iron Age 2.3 From the Duchy of Normandy 2.4 From the seventeenth century 2.5 20th century

2.5.1 World War II 2.5.2 Post-1945

3 Politics 4 Economy 5 Transport and communications

5.1 Post 5.2 Transport

5.2.1 Road 5.2.2 Sea 5.2.3 Air 5.2.4 Rail

5.3 Media 5.4 Telephone 5.5 Internet

6 Culture

6.1 Faith and religious history

7 Other islands in the English Channel 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Geography[edit]

The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and adjacent coast of France.

Viewed from Jersey's north coast, Jethou, Herm
Herm
and Sark
Sark
are hazy outlines on the horizon.

The two major islands are Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey. They make up 99% of the population and 92% of the area. List of islands[edit] The permanently inhabited islands of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and their population and area are:

Jersey
Jersey
100,080 (118 km2) Guernsey
Guernsey
63,026 (65 km2) Alderney
Alderney
2,000 (8 km2) Sark
Sark
600 (5 km2) Herm
Herm
60 (2 km2) Jethou
Jethou
3 (0.2 km2) Brecqhou
Brecqhou
(Brechou) (0.3 km2)

There are also several uninhabited islets. Four are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey:

The Minquiers Écréhous Les Dirouilles Les Pierres de Lecq
Pierres de Lecq
(the Paternosters)

These lie off Alderney:

Burhou Casquets Ortac Renonquet

These lie off Guernsey:

Caquorobert Crevichon Grande Amfroque Les Houmets Lihou
Lihou
(occupied for part of the year)

(See also List of islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey) Names[edit] In general the larger islands have the -ey suffix, and the smaller ones have the -hou
-hou
suffix; these are believed to be from the Old Norse ey and holmr, respectively which means island and islet. The Chausey
Chausey
Islands south of Jersey
Jersey
are not generally included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
but are occasionally described in English as 'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction. They were historically linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, and not part of the British Isles
British Isles
or of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
in a political sense. They are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville (Manche). While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders rarely visit them as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. In official Jersey
Jersey
French, the islands are called 'Îles de la Manche', while in France, the term 'Îles Anglo-normandes' (Anglo-Norman isles) is used to refer to the British 'Channel Islands' in contrast to other islands in the Channel. Chausey
Chausey
is referred to as an 'Île normande' (as opposed to anglo-normande). 'Îles Normandes' and 'Archipel Normand' have also, historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole. Waters[edit] The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some islands such as Burhou, the Écréhous, and the Minquiers
Minquiers
have been designated Ramsar sites. The waters around the islands include the following:

The Swinge
The Swinge
(between Alderney
Alderney
and Burhou) The Little Swinge (between Burhou
Burhou
and Les Nannels) La Déroute (between Jersey
Jersey
and Sark, and Jersey
Jersey
and the Cotentin) Le Raz Blanchard, or Race of Alderney
Alderney
(between Alderney
Alderney
and the Cotentin) The Great Russel
Great Russel
(between Sark, Jéthou and Herm) The Little Russel
Little Russel
(between Guernsey, Herm
Herm
and Jéthou) Souachehouais (between Le Rigdon and L'Étacq, Jersey) Le Gouliot (between Sark
Sark
and Brecqhou) La Percée (between Herm
Herm
and Jéthou)

Highest point[edit] The highest point in the islands is Les Platons
Les Platons
in Jersey
Jersey
at 143 metres (469 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is the Atlantic Ocean (sea level). History[edit] Main articles: History of Jersey, History of Guernsey, and German occupation of the Channel Islands

La Gran'mère du Chimquière, Statue menhir, Saint Martin, Guernsey

Prehistory[edit] The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe.[5] The islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period. The numerous dolmens and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at La Hougue Bie[6] in Jersey
Jersey
or the statue menhirs of Guernsey. From the Iron Age[edit] Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age
Iron Age
period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders. The Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri (Lenur Islands) and is included in the Peutinger Table[7]:4 The traditional Latin names used for the islands (Caesarea for Jersey, Sarnia for Guernsey, Riduna for Alderney) derive (possibly mistakenly) from the Antonine Itinerary. Gallo-Roman culture was adopted to an unknown extent in the islands.[8] In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands. Samson of Dol, Helier, Marculf
Marculf
and Magloire
Magloire
are among saints associated with the islands. In the sixth century, they were already included in the diocese of Coutances where they remained until reformation. The islands were inhabited by Britons (the people who also inhabited Wales, West Country, and nearby Brittany), having emigrated from Britain in the face of invading Anglo-Saxons. From the beginning of the ninth century, Norse raiders appeared on the coasts. Norse settlement succeeded initial attacks, and it is from this period that many place names of Norse origin appear, including the modern names of the islands. From the Duchy of Normandy[edit] In 933, the islands were granted to William I Longsword
William I Longsword
by Raoul King of Western Francia[9] and annexed to the Duchy of Normandy. In 1066, William II of Normandy
Normandy
invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, also known as William the Conqueror. In the period 1204–1214, King John lost the Angevin lands
Angevin lands
in northern France, including mainland Normandy, to King Philip II of France, but managed to retain control of the Channel Islands. In 1259, his successor, Henry III of England, by the Treaty of Paris, officially surrendered his claim and title to the Duchy of Normandy, while the King of France gave up claim to the Channel Islands, which was based upon his position as feudal overlord of the Duke of Normandy. Since then, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
have been governed as possessions of the Crown and were never absorbed into the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and its successor kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and the United Kingdom. The islands were invaded by the French in 1338, who held some territory until 1345. Edward III of England
Edward III of England
granted a Charter in July 1341 to Jersey, Guernsey, Sark
Sark
and Alderney, confirming their customs and laws to secure allegiance to the English Crown.[10]:2–4 Owain Lawgoch, a mercenary leader of a Free Company
Free Company
in the service of the French Crown, attacked Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
in 1372, and in 1373 Bertrand du Guesclin
Bertrand du Guesclin
besieged Mont Orgueil.[11] The young King Richard II of England
England
reconfirmed in 1378 the Charter rights granted by his grandfather, followed in 1394 with a second Charter granting, because of great loyalty shown to the Crown, exemption for ever, from English tolls, customs and duties.[10]:5–10 Jersey
Jersey
was occupied by the French in 1461 as part of an exchange of helping the Lancastrians fight against the Yorkists during The War of the Roses. It was retaken by the Yorkists in 1468. In 1483 a Papal bull
Papal bull
decreed that the islands would be neutral during time of war. This privilege of neutrality enabled islanders to trade with both France
France
and England
England
and was respected until 1689 when it was abolished by Order in Council following the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
in Great Britain.[citation needed] Various attempts to transfer the islands from the diocese of Coutances (to Nantes (1400), Salisbury (1496), and Winchester (1499)) had little effect until an Order in Council of 1569 brought the islands formally into the diocese of Winchester. Control by the bishop of Winchester was ineffectual as the islands had turned overwhelmingly Calvinist and the episcopacy was not restored until 1620 in Jersey
Jersey
and 1663 in Guernsey.[citation needed] Sark
Sark
in the 16th century was uninhabited until colonised from Jersey in the 1560s. The grant of seigneurship from Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
in 1565 forms the basis of Sark's constitution today. From the seventeenth century[edit] Main article: Channel Islands
Channel Islands
in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Jersey
Jersey
held out strongly for the Royalist cause, providing refuge for Charles, Prince of Wales
Wales
in 1646 and 1649–1650, while the more strongly Presbyterian Guernsey more generally favoured the parliamentary cause (although Castle Cornet was held by Royalists and did not surrender until October 1651.[12][13][14] The islands acquired commercial and political interests in the North American colonies. Islanders became involved with the Newfoundland fisheries in the seventeenth century. In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile in Jersey
Jersey
in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey, now part of the United States of America. Sir Edmund Andros
Edmund Andros
of Guernsey
Guernsey
was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England.[citation needed] In the late eighteenth century, the Islands were dubbed "the French Isles". Wealthy French émigrés fleeing the Revolution sought residency in the islands. Many of the town domiciles existing today were built in that time. In Saint Peter Port, a large part of the harbour had been built by 1865. 20th century[edit]

German fortifications, built during the Second World War, are presently scattered throughout the landscape of the Channel Islands.

World War II[edit] Main article: German occupation of the Channel Islands

During the German occupation of Jersey, a stonemason repairing the paving of the Royal Square incorporated a V for victory under the noses of the occupiers. This was later amended to refer to the Red Cross ship Vega. The addition of the date 1945 and a more recent frame has transformed it into a monument.

The islands were the only British territory to be occupied by the German Army during World War II. The British Government
British Government
demilitarised the islands in June 1940, and the lieutenant-governors were withdrawn on 21 June, leaving the insular administrations to continue government as best they could under impending military occupation.[15] Before German troops landed, between 30 June and 4 July 1940, evacuation took place. Many young men had already left to join the Allied armed forces, as volunteers. 6,600 out of 50,000 left Jersey while 17,000 out of 42,000 left Guernsey.[16] Thousands of children were evacuated with their schools to England
England
and Scotland.

Crowds cheer as the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are liberated at Saint Peter Port in 1945

The population of Sark
Sark
largely remained where they were;[15] but in Alderney, the entire population, save for six persons, left. In Alderney, the occupying Germans built four camps in which over 700 people out of a total worker population of about 6,000 died. Due to the destruction of documents, it is impossible to state how many forced workers died in the other islands.[15] Alderney
Alderney
had the only Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
on British soil.[17][18] The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly following the Invasion of Normandy
Normandy
in June 1944. There was considerable hunger and privation during the five years of German occupation, particularly in the final months when the population was close to starvation. Intense negotiations resulted in some humanitarian aid being sent via the Red Cross, leading to the arrival of Red Cross
Red Cross
parcels in the supply ship SS Vega in December 1944. The German occupation of 1940–45 was harsh: over 2,000 Islanders were deported by the Germans,[15] some Jews were sent to concentration camps; Partisan resistance and retribution, accusations of collaboration, and slave labour also occurred. Many Spaniards, initially refugees from the Spanish Civil War, were brought to the islands to build fortifications.[19][20] Later, Russians and Central Europeans[who?] continued the work.[20] Many land mines were laid, with 65,718 land mines laid in Jersey
Jersey
alone.[21] There was no resistance movement in the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
on the scale of that in mainland France. This has been ascribed to a range of factors including the physical separation of the Islands, the density of troops (up to one German for every two Islanders), the small size of the Islands precluding any hiding places for resistance groups, and the absence of the Gestapo
Gestapo
from the occupying forces. Moreover, much of the population of military age had joined the British Army already. The end of the occupation came after VE-Day
VE-Day
on 8 May 1945, Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
being liberated on 9 May. The German garrison in Alderney
Alderney
was left until 16 May, and it was one of the last of the Nazi German remnants to surrender.[22] The first evacuees returned on the first sailing from Great Britain
Great Britain
on 23 June,[15] but the people of Alderney were unable to start returning until December 1945. Many of the evacuees who returned home had difficulty reconnecting with their families after five years of separation.[16] Post-1945[edit] Following the liberation of 1945, reconstruction led to a transformation of the economies of the islands, attracting immigration and developing tourism. The legislatures were reformed and non-party governments embarked on social programmes, aided by the incomes from offshore finance, which grew rapidly from the 1960s.[23] The islands decided not to join the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
when the UK joined, and remain outside.[24] Since the 1990s declining profitability of agriculture and tourism has challenged the governments of the islands.[25] Politics[edit] Main articles: Crown dependencies, Politics of Jersey, Politics of Guernsey, and Politics of Alderney

Flag of Jersey

Flag of Guernsey

Flag of Alderney

Flag of Sark

Flag of Herm

The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
fall into two separate self-governing bailiwicks, the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Bailiwick of Jersey. Both are British Crown dependencies, and neither is part of the United Kingdom. They have been part of the Duchy of Normandy
Normandy
since the tenth century, and Queen Elizabeth II is often referred to by her traditional and conventional title of Duke of Normandy. However, pursuant to the Treaty of Paris (1259), she governs in her right as The Queen (the "Crown in right of Jersey",[26] and the "Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey"),[27] and not as the Duke. This notwithstanding, it is a matter of local pride for monarchists to treat the situation otherwise: the Loyal Toast at formal dinners is to 'The Queen, our Duke', rather than to 'Her Majesty, The Queen' as in the UK.[28] A bailiwick is a territory administered by a bailiff. Although the words derive from a common root ('bail' = 'to give charge of') there is a vast difference between the meaning of the word 'bailiff' (English) and 'Bailiff' (CI). (The former is a court-appointed private debt-collector authorised to collect judgment debts, while the latter is the most important citizen within his Bailiwick.) The Bailiff in each bailiwick is the civil head, presiding officer of the States, and also head of the judiciary. In the early part of the twenty-first century, the existence of governmental offices such as the bailiffs' which incorporate multiple roles straddling the different branches of Government came under increased scrutiny for their apparent contravention of the doctrine of separation of powers—most notably in the Guernsey
Guernsey
case of McGonnell -v- United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(2000) 30 EHRR 289, which following final judgement at the European Court of Human Rights became part of the impetus for much recent constitutional change, particularly the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c.4) in the UK itself, including the separation of the roles of the Lord Chancellor, the abolition of the House of Lords' judicial role, and its replacement by the UK Supreme Court. The Islands' bailiffs, however, still retain their historic roles. The systems of government in the Islands date from Norman times, which accounts for the names of the legislatures, the States, derived from the Norman 'États' or 'estates' (i.e. the Crown, the Church, and the people). The States have evolved over the centuries into democratic parliaments.

Entrance to the public gallery of the States Chamber in Jersey.

The UK Parliament
UK Parliament
has power to legislate for the Islands, but Acts of Parliament do not extend to the Islands automatically. Usually, the Act gives power to extend the application of the Act to the Islands by an Order in Council, after consultation. For the most part the Islands legislate for themselves.[29] Each island has its own primary legislature, known as the States of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the States of Jersey, with Chief Pleas in Sark
Sark
and the States of Alderney
Alderney
– the Channel Islands are not represented in the UK Parliament. Laws passed by the States are given royal assent by The Queen in Council, to whom the islands' governments are responsible.[30] The islands are not part of the European Union
European Union
and, thus, were not a party to the 2016 referendum on the EU membership, but are part of the Customs Territory of the European Community
European Community
by virtue of Protocol Three to the Treaty on European Union. In September 2010, a Channel Islands Brussels Office was set up jointly by the two Bailiwicks to develop the Channel Islands' influence with the EU, to advise the Channel Islands' governments on European matters, and to promote economic links with the EU.[31] Both bailiwicks are members of the British–Irish Council, and Jèrriais
Jèrriais
and Guernésiais
Guernésiais
are recognised regional languages of the Isles. The legal courts are separate; separate courts of appeal have been in place since 1961. Among the legal heritage from Norman law is the Clameur de Haro. The basis of the legal systems of both Bailiwicks is Norman customary law (Coutume) rather than the English Common Law, although elements of the latter have become established over time. Islanders are full British citizens, and therefore European citizens. Any British citizen who applies for a passport in Jersey
Jersey
or Guernsey receives a passport bearing the words "British Islands, Bailiwick of Jersey" or "British Islands, Bailiwick of Guernsey". Under the provisions of Protocol Three, Channel Islanders who do not have a close connection with the UK (no parent or grandparent from the UK, and have never been resident in the UK for a five-year period) do not automatically benefit from the EU provisions on free movement within the EU, and their passports receive an endorsement to that effect. This affects only a minority of islanders. Under the UK Interpretation Act 1978, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are deemed to be part of the British Islands,[32] not to be confused with the British Isles. For the purposes of the British Nationality Act 1981, the “British Islands” include the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Great Britain and Northern Ireland), the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Isle of Man, taken together, unless the context otherwise requires.[33] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Jersey See also: Guernsey
Guernsey
pound and Jersey
Jersey
pound Tourism is the major industry in the smaller islands (with some agriculture). However, Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
have, since the 1960s, become major offshore financial centres on the scale of the Cayman Islands or Bermuda.[34] Guernsey's horticultural and greenhouse activities have been more significant than in Jersey, and Guernsey
Guernsey
has maintained light industry as a higher proportion of its economy than Jersey. Jersey's economy since the 1980s has been substantially more reliant on finance.[citation needed] Both islands are now heavily dependent on the finance industry, this along with a high cost of living has resulted in a general widening between the rich and poor. Both bailiwicks issue their own banknotes and coins, which circulate freely in all the islands alongside UK coinage and Bank of England
England
and Scottish banknotes.[35] There are many exports, largely consisting of crafted goods and farmed produce.[citation needed] Transport and communications[edit] Post[edit] Main articles: Jersey
Jersey
Post and Guernsey
Guernsey
Post Since 1969, Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
have operated postal administrations independently of the UK's Royal Mail, with their own postage stamps, which can be used for postage only in their respective Bailiwicks. UK stamps are no longer valid, but mail to the islands, and to the Isle of Man, is charged at UK inland rates. It was not until the early 1990s that the islands joined the UK's postcode system, Jersey postcodes using the initials JE and Guernsey
Guernsey
GY. Transport[edit] Main articles: Transport in Guernsey
Guernsey
and Transport in Jersey Road[edit] Main article: Roads in Jersey Each of the three largest islands has a distinct vehicle registration scheme:

Guernsey
Guernsey
(GBG): a number of up to five digits; Jersey
Jersey
(GBJ): J followed by up to six digits (JSY vanity plates are also issued); Alderney
Alderney
(GBA): AY followed by up to five digits (four digits are the most that have been used, as redundant numbers are re-issued).

In Sark, where most motor traffic is prohibited, the few vehicles – nearly all tractors – do not display plates. Bicycles display tax discs. Sea[edit] In the 1960s, names used for the cross-Channel ferries plying the mail route between the islands and Weymouth, Dorset, were taken from the popular Latin names for the islands: Caesarea (Jersey), Sarnia (Guernsey) and Riduna (Alderney). Fifty years later, the ferry route between the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the UK is operated by Condor Ferries from both St Helier, Jersey
Jersey
and St Peter Port, Guernsey, using high-speed catamaran fast craft to Poole
Poole
in the UK. A regular passenger ferry service on the Commodore Clipper goes from both Channel Island ports to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
daily, and carries both passengers and freight. Ferry services to Normandy
Normandy
are operated by Manche
Manche
Îles Express, and services between Jersey
Jersey
and Saint Malo
Saint Malo
are operated by Compagnie Corsaire and Condor Ferries. The Isle of Sark
Sark
Shipping Company operates small ferries to Sark. On 20 August 2013, Huelin-Renouf, which had operated a "lift-on lift-off" container service for 80 years between the Port of Southampton and the Port of Jersey, ceased trading.[36] Senator Alan Maclean, a Jersey
Jersey
politician had previously tried to save the 90-odd jobs furnished by the company to no avail.[37] On 20 September, it was announced that Channel Island Lines would continue this service, and would purchase the MV Huelin Dispatch from Associated British Ports who in turn had purchased them from the receiver in the bankruptcy.[38] The new operator was to be funded by Rockayne Limited, a closely held association of Jersey
Jersey
businesspeople.[38] Air[edit] There are three airports in the Channel Islands; Alderney
Alderney
Airport, Guernsey
Guernsey
Airport and Jersey
Jersey
Airport, which are directly connected to each other by services operated by Blue Islands
Blue Islands
and Aurigny. Rail[edit] Historically there have been railway networks on Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, but all of the lines on Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
have been closed and dismantled. Today there are three working railways in the Channel Islands, of which the Alderney
Alderney
Railway is the only one providing a regular timetabled passenger service. The other two are a 7 1⁄4 in (184 mm) gauge miniature railway, also on Alderney, and the heritage steam railway operated on Jersey
Jersey
as part of the Pallot Heritage Steam Museum. Media[edit] Regional television and radio broadcasts are available in the islands. These services are provided by BBC Radio Jersey, BBC Radio Guernsey, BBC Channel Islands, ITV Channel Television, Island FM, and Channel 103. Jubilee Hospital Radio provided Guernsey
Guernsey
hospitals with a radio service, Radio Lions serves Jersey
Jersey
hospitals. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services online, through Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn. Television programmes are broadcast from the Frémont Point transmitting station. A local television service was called Channel Islands Live started transmitting in early 2016, from the studios at Dorset Street, St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands. There are several local newspapers including the Guernsey
Guernsey
Press and the Jersey
Jersey
Evening Post and magazines. Telephone[edit] Main article: Telecommunications in Jersey Jersey
Jersey
always operated its own telephone services independently of Britain's national system, Guernsey
Guernsey
established its own telephone service in 1968. Both islands still form part of the British telephone numbering plan, but Ofcom
Ofcom
on the mainlines does not have responsibility for telecommunications regulatory and licensing issues on the islands. It is responsible for wireless telegraphy licensing throughout the islands, and by agreement, for broadcasting regulation in the two large islands only. Internet[edit] Modern broadband speeds are available in all the islands, including VDSL
VDSL
for home and business. Providers include Sure and JT. The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG
.GG
(Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and .JE
.JE
(Jersey), which are managed by channelisles.net.[39] Culture[edit] Main articles: Culture of Jersey
Jersey
and Culture of Guernsey See also: Music of the Channel Islands

A sea festival advertised using Dgèrnésiais.

The Norman language
Norman language
predominated in the islands until the nineteenth century, when increasing influence from English-speaking settlers and easier transport links led to Anglicisation.[40] There are four main dialects/languages of Norman in the islands, Auregnais (Alderney, extinct in late twentieth century), Dgèrnésiais
Dgèrnésiais
(Guernsey), Jèrriais
Jèrriais
(Jersey) and Sercquiais (Sark, an offshoot of Jèrriais).[41] Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
spent many years in exile, first in Jersey
Jersey
and then in Guernsey, where he finished Les Misérables. Guernsey
Guernsey
is the setting of Hugo's later novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer (The Toilers of the Sea).[42] A "Guernsey-man" also makes an appearance in chapter 91 of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.[43] The annual "Muratti", the inter-island football match, is considered the sporting event of the year, although, due to broadcast coverage, it no longer attracts the crowds of spectators, travelling between the islands, that it did during the twentieth century.[44] Cricket
Cricket
is popular in the Channel Islands. The Jersey
Jersey
cricket team and the Guernsey
Guernsey
cricket team are both Associate members of the International Cricket
Cricket
Council. The teams have played each other in the Inter-insular match since 1957. In 2001 and 2002, the Channel Islands entered a team into the MCCA Knockout Trophy, the one-day tournament of the Minor counties of English and Welsh cricket.[45] Channel Island sportsmen and women compete in the Commonwealth Games for their respective islands and the islands have also been enthusiastic supporters of the Island Games. Shooting is a popular sport, in which islanders have won Commonwealth medals.[46] Guernsey's traditional colour for sporting and other purposes is green and Jersey's is red.[47]

This statue of a crapaud (toad) in St Helier
Helier
represents the traditional nickname for Jersey
Jersey
people.

The main islanders have traditional animal nicknames:[48][49]

Guernsey: les ânes ("donkeys" in French and Norman): the steepness of St Peter Port
St Peter Port
streets required beasts of burden, but Guernsey
Guernsey
people also claim it is a symbol of their strength of character – which Jersey
Jersey
people traditionally interpret as stubbornness. Jersey: les crapauds ("toads" in French and Jèrriais): Jersey
Jersey
has toads and snakes, which Guernsey
Guernsey
lacks. Sark: les corbins ("crows" in Sercquiais, Dgèrnésiais
Dgèrnésiais
and Jèrriais, les corbeaux in French): crows could be seen from the sea on the island's coast. Alderney: les lapins ("rabbits" in French and Auregnais): the island is noted for its warrens.

Faith and religious history[edit] Main article: List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the Channel Islands Christianity was brought to the islands around the sixth century; according to tradition, Jersey
Jersey
was evangelised by St Helier, Guernsey by St Samson of Dol, and the smaller islands were occupied at various times by monastic communities representing strands of Celtic Christianity. At the Reformation, the islands turned Calvinist under the influence of an influx of French-language pamphlets published in Geneva. Anglicanism
Anglicanism
was imposed in the seventeenth century, but the Non-Conformist tendency re-emerged with a strong adoption of Methodism. The presence of long-term Catholic communities from France and seasonal workers from Brittany
Brittany
and Normandy
Normandy
added to the mix of denominations.[citation needed] In late twentieth Century, a strong Roman Catholic presence re-emerged with the many Portuguese workers (both from Mainland Portugal
Portugal
and the Island of Madeira) coming to live in the islands, and more recently Polish Roman Catholics and other Eastern Europe worshipers. Today, more evangelical churches have been established. Services are held in a number of languages. 39% of the population are non-religious.[50][51] Other islands in the English Channel[edit] There are other islands in the English Channel
English Channel
which are not part of the Channel Islands. Among these are the French islands Bréhat, Île de Batz, Chausey, Tatihou
Tatihou
and Îles Saint-Marcouf. The Isle of Wight, which is part of England, is between the Channel and the Solent. See also[edit]

Channel Islands
Channel Islands
portal Jersey
Jersey
portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

Part of a series on the

History of the British Isles

Overview

United Kingdom

England

Isle of Wight Isles of Scilly

Scotland

Shetland Orkney Inner Hebrides Outer Hebrides

Wales

Anglesey

Northern Ireland

Ireland Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Mann) Channel Islands

Jersey Guernsey

Prehistoric period

Prehistoric Britain

Prehistoric England Prehistoric Scotland

Prehistoric Shetland Prehistoric Orkney

Prehistoric Wales

Prehistoric Ireland Prehistoric Mann

Classical period

Roman Britain Roman Scotland Roman Wales Protohistoric Ireland, Roman Ireland Sub-Roman Britain

Medieval period

Medieval England

Early medieval England High medieval England Late medieval England

Medieval Scotland

Early medieval Scotland High medieval Scotland Late medieval Scotland

Medieval Wales

Early medieval Wales High medieval Wales Late medieval Wales

Medieval Ireland

Early medieval Ireland High medieval Ireland Late medieval Ireland

Medieval Mann

Early modern period

Early modern Britain Early modern England Early modern Scotland Early modern Wales Early modern Ireland Early modern Mann

Late modern period

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 1707)

Victorian period Edwardian period First World War Interwar period Second World War Post-war period (political history) Post-war period (social history)

Late modern Ireland Late modern Mann

v t e

German occupation of the Channel Islands List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the Channel Islands Places named after the Channel Islands

Notes[edit]

^ The term Îles de la Manche
Manche
is the official French appellation in the islands themselves, whereas in France
France
the usual term is Îles Anglo-Normandes.

References[edit]

^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "Royal.gov.uk". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ Ministry of Justice. "Fact sheet on the UK's relationship with the Crown Dependencies" (PDF). GOV.UK. Retrieved 14 February 2016. HM Government is responsible for the defence and international relations of the Islands.  ^ Graham, Richard (2015). At their Majesties’ Service. Gateway Publishing. ISBN 9781902471129.  ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisjersey.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisjersey.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ Rule, Margaret. A Gallo-Roman Trading Vessel from Guernsey. Guernsey Museums & Galleries. ISBN 978-1871560039.  ^ Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7 ^ Stapleton, Thomas (1840). Magni rotuli scaccarii Normanniæ sub regibus Angliæ. p. lii.  ^ a b Thornton, Tim (2004). The Charters of Guernsey. Woodfield Publishing. ISBN 978-1903953655.  ^ Bertrand du Guesclin: The Black Dog of Brittany
Brittany
Thisisjersey.com, copyright 2010, accessed 31 October 2010. ^ Lemprière 1970, p. [page needed]. ^ Moore 2005, p. 226. ^ Ellis 1937. ^ a b c d e The German Occupation of the Channel Islands, Cruikshank, Oxford 1975 ISBN 0-19-285087-3 ^ a b " Guernsey
Guernsey
Evacuees Oral History". Guernseyevacuees.wordpress.com. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ Christine O'Keefe. "Appendix F: Concentration Camps: Endlösung – The Final Solution". Retrieved 6 June 2009  ^ Matisson Consultants. "Aurigny ; un camp de concentration nazi sur une île anglo-normande (English: Alderney, a Nazi concentration camp on an island Anglo-Norman)". Retrieved 6 June 2009  (in French) ^ Thisisjersey.com/ ^ a b Ginns, Michael (2009). Jersey
Jersey
Occupied: The German Armed Forces in Jersey
Jersey
1940–1945. Channel Island Publishing. ISBN 1905095295.  ^ German Fortifications in Jersey, Ginns & Bryans, Jersey
Jersey
1975 ^ Legacy Publishers. "Nazi Germany Surrenders: February 1945 – May 1945"  ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisjersey.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ Gov.je Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisguernsey.com. 9 May 1945. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "Public Hearing: Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers" (PDF). States of Jersey. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2010.  ^ "Review of the Roles of the Jersey
Jersey
Crown Officers" (PDF). States of Jersey. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 27 November 2010.  ^ "This is Jersey: History & Heritage". thisisjersey.com. Retrieved 27 November 2010.  ^ UK Supreme Court, R (on the application of Barclay and another) v. Secretary of State for Justice [2014] UKSC 54 [1] ^ "Background briefing on the Crown Dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Isle of Man" (PDF). Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ " Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
begin recruiting for senior Brussels positions" (PDF). Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ ""British Islands" means the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Isle of Man. (1889)". Statutelaw.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "British Nationality Act 1981". Legislation, UK, Acts. Office of Public Sector Information. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009. the Islands” means the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; [...] the United Kingdom” means Great Britain, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and the Islands, taken together.  [Schedule 1., s. 50 (1)] ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 8" (PDF). Z/Yen. 2010.  ^ "Other British Islands' Notes Bank of England". www.bankofengland.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-28.  ^ bbc.co.uk: "Shipping company Huelin-Renouf stops trading" 20 Aug 2013 ^ "Talks under way to save 90 jobs at Huelin-Renouf" 17 Aug 2013 ^ a b "New Channel Island company offers freight service". BBC News. 20 September 2013.  ^ CHANNELISLES.NET ^ The Triumph of the Country, Kelleher, Jersey
Jersey
1994, ISBN 0-9518162-4-1 ^ La Grève de Lecq, Roger Jean Lebarbenchon, 1988 ISBN 2-905385-13-8 ^ "Trail of the unexpected: Victor Hugo’s Guernsey", The Independent, 3 July 2010. ^ Herman Melville, Moby-Dick
Moby-Dick
(St Botoph Society edition, 1892) pp. 381–384. Excerpts available at Google Books. ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisjersey.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "Minor Counties Trophy Matches played by Channel Islands". Cricketarchive.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "Thecgf.com". Thecgf.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "Non-FIFA National Teams Colours". Rsssf.com. 28 November 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2010.  ^ Dictionnaire Jersiais-Français, 1966 ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisguernsey.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.  ^ "First ever Jersey
Jersey
official religion statistics show 39% of islanders are non-religious". humanism.org.uk. British Humanist Association. 2015-12-02.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Annual Social Survey 2015" (PDF). www.gov.je. States of Jersey. 2015-12-02. p. 8. 

Bibliography[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Vol. 5 (1951), Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Chicago – London – Toronto Ellis, F H (1937), "The Great Rebellion - Parliamentary invasion", Annual Bulletin of La Société Jersiaise  — Republished "This is the eighth part of a 54-page article". The Great Rebellion - Parliamentary invasion. 15 September 2014.  Lemprière, Raoul (1970), Portrait of the Channel Islands, London: Hale, ISBN 0-7091-1541-5  Moore, David W. (2005), The Other British Isles: A History of Shetland, Orkney, the Hebrides, Isle of Man, Anglesey, Scilly, Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands, McFarland, p. 226, ISBN 9780786489244 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutChannel Islandsat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

 "Channel Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911.  States of Alderney States of Guernsey States of Jersey Government of Sark

v t e

The Channel Islands

Bailiwick of Guernsey

Guernsey

Herm Lihou Jethou Les Hanois Les Houmets Crevichon Bréhon

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Ortac Burhou Les Casquets

Sark

Brecqhou

Bailiwick of Jersey

Jersey Les Écréhous La Motte Les Minquiers Pierres de Lecq Les Dirouilles

See also: Chausey

Links to related articles

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v t e

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Chagossians
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v t e

Guernsey articles

History Geography Geology

History

Archaeology Braye du Valle Fortifications of Guernsey

Bréhon Tower Castle Cornet Chateau des Marais Doyle Monument Fort Grey Fort Hommet Vale Castle

German occupation during World War II

Evacuation Resistance Relationships Civilian life Deportations Fort Hommet
Fort Hommet
10.5cm German fortification of Guernsey Channel Islands Occupation Society
Channel Islands Occupation Society
(CIOS)

Jews in Guernsey Royal Guernsey
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Guernsey
Militia Maritime history Windmills Witch trials

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