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Changsha
Changsha
(Chinese: 长沙) is the capital and most populous city of Hunan
Hunan
province in south central China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang
Yueyang
and Yiyang
Yiyang
to the north, Loudi
Loudi
to the west, Xiangtan
Xiangtan
and Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang
Pingxiang
of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha
Changsha
has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population.[2] It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan
Chang-Zhu-Tan
city cluster or megalopolis Changsha
Changsha
is located in the Xiang River
Xiang River
valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains
Luoxiao Mountains
on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake
Dongting Lake
on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains. It has a moist monsoon climate of the subtropical zone. The average annual air temperature is 16.8 to 17.3 °C (62.2 to 63.1 °F) and an annual rainfall of 1,358.6 to 1,552.5 mm (53.49 to 61.12 in).[3] Changsha
Changsha
is a famous historical and cultural city with a history of over 3,000 years.[4] Changsha
Changsha
is famous for being the capital of Changsha
Changsha
State in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital of the Chu State (907–951) in the Ten Kingdoms period. The lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui
Mawangdui
(2nd century BC) there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions. In 1904, Changsha
Changsha
was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha
Changsha
was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Nowadays, Changsha
Changsha
is an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation center in China.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-History

2.1.1 Folklore

2.2 1st-century History 2.3 Jing-Chu Culture and Culture of Central Plains 2.4 Qin and Han dynasties 2.5 Three Kingdoms to Sui and Tang dynasty

2.5.1 Western Jin 2.5.2 Sui dynasty

2.6 Song dynasty 2.7 Yuan and Ming dynasty 2.8 Qing Dynasty 2.9 Modern era 2.10 Late 20th-century

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Administration

4 Transportation

4.1 Public transport 4.2 Metro Rail 4.3 Roads 4.4 River 4.5 Rail 4.6 Air

5 Economy

5.1 Sky City 5.2 Development Zones

6 Population and Demographics

6.1 Ethnic Groups

7 Culture

7.1 Media 7.2 Cuisine 7.3 Sports 7.4 Historical culture

8 Education

8.1 Colleges and universities 8.2 International schools 8.3 Notable high schools 8.4 Notable Primary Schools

9 Notable people 10 Astronomy 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The origins of the name "Changsha" are lost in antiquity. The name first appears in the 11th century BC, during the reign of King Cheng of the Zhou dynasty: a vassal lord from the Changsha
Changsha
area sent a type of softshell turtle known as " Changsha
Changsha
softshell turtle" (simplified Chinese: 长沙鳖; traditional Chinese: 長沙鼈; pinyin: Chángshā biē) to the Zhou king as a tribute. In the 2nd century AD, historian Ying Shao wrote that the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
use of the name Changsha
Changsha
for the area was a continuance of its old name.[5] History[edit] Main article: History of Changsha Pre-History[edit] Development occurred drastically closer to 3000BC when Changsha developed with the proliferation of Longshan culture, although there is no firm evidence of such linkage.[6] Despite this, pottery and bronze ware have been discovered.

Four-goat Square Zun

Folklore[edit] In the Central Plain region during the Zhou and Shang dynasties, Yandi and Huangdi in regards to their relationship between the Central Plains, paid a visit. Sima Qian writes in his Records of the Grand Historian "Huangdi, loving his (oldest son) Shaohao, gave him a parcel of land, an area amounted to Changsha
Changsha
and surrounding land." 1st-century History[edit] Evidence exists that people lived and thrived in the area during the Bronze Age. Numerous examples of pottery and items of interest were discovered and recovered. Jing-Chu Culture and Culture of Central Plains[edit] Changsha
Changsha
entered a time of turmoil. Eastern Zhou's collapse swept in turmoil with the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC). The Yue culture spread and took a stronghold through the region, especially through Changsha. During the height of the Warring States Period, the Chu Kingdom took a hardline nationalist and reform approach and took a large-scale military operations in South China. Chu Kingdom took control of Changsha
Changsha
and turned the city into an important part of the southern part of Chu. After years of war and occupation, Changsha slowly replaced Yue culture with Chu culture. Chu culture thrived. Nobles created tombs and got buried in tombs. In 1951-1957, archaeologists explored numerous large and medium-sized Chu tombs from the warring states era. There have been more than 3,000 tombs discovered of various people. The coming of Chu brought a lot of tools and production experience, jump starting the economy. Massive changes quickly propelled Changsha through the Iron Age and into the feudal age of society. The city is sometimes called Qingyang
Qingyang
(simplified Chinese: 青阳; traditional Chinese: 青陽; pinyin: Qīngyáng) in Warring States period texts. The slow wearing of time, turbulence, and turmoil weakened the Changsha
Changsha
and the region. The state of Qin send forced under Wang Jian entered and conquered Chu. Qin and Han dynasties[edit] Changsha
Changsha
transformed into the Changsha
Changsha
Kingdom. It existed as a fiefdom under the tutelage of the Qin and later the Han dynasty. Under the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(221–206 BC), it became a staging post for Qin expeditions into Guangdong
Guangdong
province. By 202 BC, it was already a fortified city. During the Han dynasty, it was also the capital of Changsha
Changsha
Kingdom, an imperial fiefdom of the Han. From Han times (206 BC – AD 220), it held the name Linxiang County and was the seat of the Changsha
Changsha
commandery. The county was renamed back Changsha
Changsha
in 589 It was during the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
that the Mawangdui
Mawangdui
tombs were constructed between 186 and 165 BC. The earliest tomb (no. 2), when excavated in the 1970s, was seen to have preserved the corpse of Lady Xin Zhui
Xin Zhui
in a surprisingly good condition. Also found in the tomb were the earliest versions of the Dao De Jing, the main text of Taoism, among many other historical documents.

Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon

Three Kingdoms to Sui and Tang dynasty[edit]

Zoumalou Wu bamboo slips

With the collapse of the Han dynasty, China
China
fell into turmoil amidst of the rise of the Three Kingdoms. The power base of Changsha fragmented into three factions. Western Jin[edit] Changsha
Changsha
soon fell under control of the Jin dynasty. Emperor Wudi appointed the ruler and governor to be the sixth son of a general Sima Yi. The local government had over 100 counties at the beginning of the dynasty. Over the course of the dynasty, the local government of Changsha
Changsha
lost control over a few counties, leaving them to local rule. Sui dynasty[edit] In 589, the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
emerged as the sole power in China. This emergence ended the northern and Southern dynasties era and reunified China
China
once again under one government. With the emergence of the Sui dynasty, Changsha
Changsha
was renamed to the name of Tanzhou. In addition, a new form of government was reintroduced. Changsha's 3-tier division system was changed to a 2-tier state and county system, eliminating the middle canton region. This new system is a significant improvement for efficiency. The existing counties in the Hunan
Hunan
region, including Changsha, were either outright replaced or greatly restructured. Some of the new counties created, such as Wangcheng, Liuyang, Liling
Liling
still exist to this day. Neighboring town such as Xiangtan
Xiangtan
have experienced such restructure of counties that still exist to this day.

Tang dynasty

Dufu
Dufu
Pavilion

The Tang dynasty brought new prosperity and peace to Changsha. the city became a place of trade between China
China
and Southeast Asia. Changsha
Changsha
experienced violence during the Anshi Rebellion when rebels swept through the area. Song dynasty[edit]

Yuelu Academy
Yuelu Academy
was founded in AD 976 (during the period of the Song dynasty). It was destroyed by war in 1127 and was rebuilt in 1165 (during the Southern Song dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi taught at the Academy in 1165. It was again destroyed, this time by the Mongols, but was restored in the late 15th century (Ming dynasty). Early 19th century graduates of the academy formed what one historian called a "network of messianic alumni", including Zeng Guofan, architect of the Tongzhi Restoration,[7] and Cai E, a major leader in the defense of the Republic of China.[8] (In 1903 the academy became Hunan
Hunan
High School. The modern day Hunan
Hunan
University is a descendant of the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings of the university was restored from 1981 to 1986, presumably according to their original Song design.)

Yuan and Ming dynasty[edit] Changsha
Changsha
was fiercely defended by local Song troops during the Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty and, after it fell into Mongol hands an event of mass suicide by the Changsha
Changsha
defenders took place in the city. Under the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911/12) dynasties, Changsha
Changsha
was made a superior prefecture. Its name was also reverted to Changsha. Qing Dynasty[edit] From 1664 onward, it was the capital of Hunan, prospering as one of China's chief rice markets. During the Taiping Rebellion, the city was besieged by the rebels (1854) but never fell; it then became the principal base for the suppression of the rebellion. It was opened to foreign trade in 1904. Further development followed the opening of the railway to Hankou in Hubei
Hubei
province in 1918, which was later extended to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in Guangdong
Guangdong
province in 1936. Although Changsha's population grew, the city remained primarily commercial in character and before 1937 had little industry apart from some small cotton-textile, glass, and nonferrous-metal plants and handicraft enterprises.

Historic district "Duzheng Street", the location of local government in Qing dynasty

In 1852 Taiping forces laid a siege on Changsha
Changsha
through 3 months, but they gave up the offensive thereafter and moved on toward Wuhan. Then, the 1903 Treaty of Shanghai
Shanghai
between the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors, which later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School. Modern era[edit] Mao Zedong, the founder of the People's Republic of China, began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan
Hunan
Number 1 Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
but has since been restored. The former office of the Hunan
Hunan
Communist Party
Communist Party
Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs and other historical items from the 1920s. Until May 1927, communist support remained strong in Changsha
Changsha
before the massacre carried out by the right-wing faction of the KMT troops. The faction owed its allegiance to Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
during its offensive against the KMT's left-wing faction under Wang Jingwei, who was then allied closely with the Communists. The purge of communists and suspected communists was part of Chiang's plans for consolidating his hold over the KMT, weakening Wang's control, and thereby over the entire China. In a period of twenty days, Chiang's forces killed more than ten thousand people in Changsha
Changsha
and its outskirts.

1938 Changsha
Changsha
Fire

During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–45), the strategic location of Changsha
Changsha
made it the focus of four campaigns by the Japanese to capture it from the hands of the Chinese Nationalists: these campaigns were the 1st Changsha,[9] the 2nd Changsha, the 3rd Changsha, and the 4th Changsha. The city was able to repulse the first three attacks, thanks to Xue Yue's leadership, but ultimately fell into Japanese hands in 1944 for a year until the Japanese were defeated in a counterattack and forced to surrender.[10][11] Before these Japanese campaigns, the city was already virtually destroyed by the 1938 Changsha
Changsha
Fire, which was a deliberate fire ordered by Kuomintang
Kuomintang
commanders who mistakenly feared the city was about to fall to the Japanese; Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
had suggested that the city should be burned so that the Japanese force would gain nothing after entering it.[12] The city later became the territory of then-expanding Communist China when it was finally completed in 1949 after the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
were driven to Taiwan.

Tianxin Pavilion, from where Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
made an attack on Changsha

Former site of Mobil Corp. on the Orange Isle

Furong Square at night

Late 20th-century[edit]

Skyline with Xiang River

Since the late 1990s, Changsha
Changsha
has entered a period of rapid development, becoming one of the important cities in the central and western regions. At the end of 2007, Changsha, with Xiangtan, Zhuzhou was approved by the State Council for the Chang-Zhu-Tan
Chang-Zhu-Tan
" (Greater Changsha) resource-saving and environment-friendly society" comprehensive reform pilot area, an important engine of the rise of central China. In 2015, Xiangjiang
Xiangjiang
New Area was approved as a national new district Geography[edit]

Satellite map of built-up area

Taohualing Reservoir, Meixi Lake

Changsha
Changsha
is located in the south-central part of China, south of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, north-east of Hunan
Hunan
Province. Is located in the southern end of the Dongting Plain to the hinterland of Hunan transition zone, and Yueyang, Yiyang, Loudi, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan
Xiangtan
and Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Pingxiang
Pingxiang
borders. The total area of 11,819 square kilometers, of which the urban area of 1,939 square kilometers, urban built-up area of 306.39 square kilometers (2011 data, including Wangcheng [10]). Located in Liuyang
Liuyang
territory of the Dawei Mountain Qixingling 1607.9 meters above sea level, the highest point for the area; in the town of the town of Heimi peak 590.5 meters above sea level for the city to the highest point; Qiao town in Zhanhu elevation of 23.5 meters for the city's lowest point. Xiangjiang
Xiangjiang
River is the most important river in Changsha, from south to north throughout the territory, the length of about 75 km. The Xiangjiang
Xiangjiang
River divides the city into two major parts, Hedong and Hexi. The east part of the city is mainly commercial and the Hexi is mainly cultural and educational. On 10 October 2001, the city government resident moved from Hedong Fanzheng Street to the Hexi View of Sandy Ridge, the force in the development of Hexi economy to balance the two sides of Changsha.[13] Changsha's neighboring areas include: cities and counties and a district of Hunan
Hunan
including Tonggu County, Pingjiang County, Miluo City, Xiangyin County
Xiangyin County
of Yueyang, Taojiang County, Heshan District, Anhua County
Anhua County
of Yiyang, Lianyuan
Lianyuan
City of Loudi, Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
County, Liling City of Zhuzhou, Xiangtan
Xiangtan
County, Xiangxiang
Xiangxiang
City of Xiangtan; and cities and counties of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
including Wanzai County, Yichun City, and Pingxiang
Pingxiang
City. Climate[edit] Changsha
Changsha
experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with annual average temperature being at 17.03 °C (62.7 °F), with a mean of 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January and 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) in July. Average annual precipitation is 1,331 millimetres (52.4 in), with a 275-day frost-free period. With a monthly possible-sunshine percentage ranging from 19% in March to 57% in August, the city receives 1,545 hours of bright sunshine annually. The four seasons are distinct. The summers are long and very hot, with heavy rainfall, and autumn is comfortable and is the driest season. Winter is chilly and overcast with lighter rainfall more likely than downpours; cold snaps occur with temperatures occasionally dropping below freezing. Spring is especially rainy and humid with the sun shining less than 30% of the time. The minimum temperature ever recorded since 1951 at the current Wangchengpo Weather Observing Station was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F), recorded on 9 February 1972. The maximum was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 13 August 1953 and 2 August 2003 [the unofficial record of 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) was set on 10 August 1934].

Climate data for Changsha
Changsha
Wangchengpo 望城坡 57687 Weather Observing Station (1971–2013)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 26.9 (80.4) 30.6 (87.1) 32.7 (90.9) 36.1 (97) 36.3 (97.3) 38.2 (100.8) 39.7 (103.5) 40.6 (105.1) 38.2 (100.8) 35.1 (95.2) 30.9 (87.6) 24.9 (76.8) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) 8.7 (47.7) 9.7 (49.5) 14.7 (58.5) 21.3 (70.3) 26.1 (79) 29.9 (85.8) 33.7 (92.7) 33.3 (91.9) 28.3 (82.9) 23.1 (73.6) 17.2 (63) 11.3 (52.3) 21.4 (70.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.7 (40.5) 6.2 (43.2) 10.9 (51.6) 16.8 (62.2) 21.6 (70.9) 25.9 (78.6) 29.3 (84.7) 28.7 (83.7) 24.2 (75.6) 18.5 (65.3) 12.5 (54.5) 7.1 (44.8) 17.2 (62.97)

Average low °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 3.4 (38.1) 7.8 (46) 13.7 (56.7) 18.4 (65.1) 22.4 (72.3) 25.3 (77.5) 24.9 (76.8) 20.3 (68.5) 14.7 (58.5) 9.0 (48.2) 3.4 (38.1) 13.7 (56.7)

Record low °C (°F) −9.5 (14.9) −12.0 (10.4) −2.3 (27.9) 1.9 (35.4) 8.9 (48) 13.1 (55.6) 19.7 (67.5) 16.7 (62.1) 11.8 (53.2) 2.4 (36.3) −2.8 (27) −10.3 (13.5) −12 (10.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.1 (2.602) 95.2 (3.748) 128.5 (5.059) 207.2 (8.157) 178.5 (7.028) 202.4 (7.969) 93.0 (3.661) 107.0 (4.213) 56.8 (2.236) 84.2 (3.315) 71.2 (2.803) 41.2 (1.622) 1,331.3 (52.413)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13.6 14.0 17.8 18.8 16.3 13.3 9.7 9.9 9.8 11.1 10.2 9.4 153.9

Average relative humidity (%) 83 85 85 84 83 84 77 79 81 81 80 79 81.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 76.2 63.0 69.4 88.3 122.8 144.8 238.3 229.6 160.0 133.4 115.7 103.2 1,544.7

Percent possible sunshine 24 20 19 23 29 35 56 57 43 38 36 32 35

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Administration[edit] The city of Changsha
Changsha
has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 2 county-level cities, and 1 county:

Map

Furong 1 Yuelu Kaifu Yuhua Wangcheng Changsha County Ningxiang (city) Liuyang (city) 1. Tianxin

Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Pop. (2010 Census)

Area (km²) Dens. (/km²)

City Proper

Furong District 芙蓉区 Fúróng Qū 523,730 42 12,470

Tianxin District 天心区 Tiānxīn Qū 475,663 74 6,428

Yuelu District 岳麓区 Yuèlù Qū 801,861 552 1,453

Kaifu District 开福区 Kāifú Qū 567,373 187 3,034

Yuhua District 雨花区 Yǔhuā Qū 725,353 114 6,363

Suburban and rural

Wangcheng District 望城区 Wàngchéng Qū 523,489 970 540

Liuyang
Liuyang
City 浏阳市 Liúyáng Shì 1,278,928 4,999 256

Ningxiang
Ningxiang
City 宁乡市 Níngxiāng Shì 1,168,056 2,906 402

Changsha
Changsha
County 长沙县 Chángshā Xiàn 979,665 1,997 491

Nianjia Lake in the city center

Transportation[edit]

Changsha South Railway Station
Changsha South Railway Station
(high-speed rail service)

Changsha
Changsha
is well connected by roads, river, rail, and air transportation modes, and is a regional hub for industrial, tourist, and service sectors. Public transport[edit] The city's public transportation system consists of an extensive bus network with over a hundred lines as well as taxis. Metro Rail[edit] Main articles: Changsha Metro
Changsha Metro
and Changsha
Changsha
Maglev Changsha Metro
Changsha Metro
is planning a 6-line network.[14] Metro Line 2 opened on 29 April 2014[15] with 20 stations for Line 2[14] now open on 28 June 2016.[16][17] A further four lines are planned for construction before the year 2025.[15] Line 3 will run southwest–northeast and will be 33.4 kilometres (20.8 mi) long. Line 4 will run northwest-southeast and will be 29.1 kilometres (18.1 mi) long.[18] A maglev link running 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) between Changsha
Changsha
South station and Changsha
Changsha
airport was opened in April 2016, with a construction cost of €400m.[15][19][20] Connecting Changsha with Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
and Xiangtan, Changzhutan Intercity Rail has been opened to traffic operations on December 26, 2016.[21]

Changsha
Changsha
Railway
Railway
Station

Roads[edit] The G4, G4E, G4W2, G5513 and G0401 of National Expressways, G107, G106 and G319 of National Highways, S20, S21, S40, S41, S50, S60 and S71 of Hunan
Hunan
provincial Expressways, connect the Changsha
Changsha
metro area nationally. There are three main bus terminals in Changsha: the South Station, East Station and West Station, dispatching long- and short-haul trips to cities within and outside the province of Hunan. River[edit] Changsha
Changsha
is surrounded by major rivers, including the Xiangjiang (湘江), the Liuyang
Liuyang
River (浏阳河), the Xiangjiang
Xiangjiang
River (靳江河), the Weishui (沩水), Longwanggang River (龙王港河), and the Laodao River
Laodao River
(捞刀河). Ships transport mainly goods from Xianing port located in North Changsha
Changsha
domestically and internationally. Rail[edit] Changsha Railway Station
Changsha Railway Station
is located in the city center and provides express and regular services to most cities in China
China
via the Beijing– Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Shimen– Changsha
Changsha
Railways. The Changsha
Changsha
South Railway
Railway
Station is a new high speed railway station, located in Yuhua district on the Beijing– Guangzhou
Guangzhou
High-Speed Railway
Railway
(as part of the planned Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen– Hong Kong
Hong Kong
High-Speed Railway). The station with 8 platforms[22] was finally opened on 26 December 2009.[23] Since then the passenger volume has increased greatly.[24] The Hangzhou-Changsha- Huaihua
Huaihua
sector of the Shanghai-Changsha- Kunming
Kunming
high-speed railway entered service in 2014. Air[edit]

Terminal of Changsha
Changsha
Huanghua
Huanghua
International Airport.

Main article: Changsha
Changsha
Huanghua
Huanghua
International Airport Changsha Huanghua International Airport
Changsha Huanghua International Airport
is a regional hub for China Southern Airlines. The airport serves daily flights to major cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Guangzhou, as well as Hong Kong, Macau
Macau
and Taipei. Other major airlines also provide daily service between Changsha
Changsha
and other domestic and international destinations.The airport provides direct flights to 45 major international cities including Los Angeles, Singapore, Seoul, Pusan, Osaka, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Frankfurt as well as Sydney.[25] As of 5 August 2016, the airport daily handled 70011 people.[26] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Changsha

Changsha
Changsha
Business Quarter

Changsha's population nearly tripled between the start of its rebuilding in 1949 and the early 1980s. The city is now a major port, handling rice, cotton, timber, and livestock, and is also a collection and distribution point on the railway from Hankou to Guangzhou. It is a centre of rice milling and also has oil-extraction, tea and tobacco production, and meat-processing plants. Its textile industry produces cotton yarn and fabrics and engages in dyeing and printing. Agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, farm implements, and pumping machinery are also produced. Changsha
Changsha
has a large thermal generating station linked by a power grid with the nearby industrial centres of Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
and Xiangtan; the three cities were designated in the 1970s as the nucleus of a major industrial complex. In the 1960s there was some development of heavy industry. The manufacture of machinery, especially machine tools and precision tools, became important, and Changsha
Changsha
became a center of China's aluminum industry. The city also has cement, rubber, ceramic, and papermaking plants and is a centre for many types of traditional handicrafts, producing Xiang embroidery, leather goods, umbrellas, and buttons. Coal
Coal
is mined in the vicinity.

The Huangxing Road Pedestrian Street

Changsha
Changsha
is one of China's 20 most "economically advanced" cities. In 2008, Changsha's nominal GDP was ¥300.1 billion (US$43 billion), a year-on-year growth of 15.1% from the previous year. Its per capita GDP was ¥45,765 (US$6,589).[27] Its GDP grew at an average of 14% per year from 2001 to 2005, compared to the national average of 9% in the period. As of 2005[update], the service sector generated roughly around 49% of Changsha's GDP, up 112% from 2001 figures, leading to a disposable income for urban residents of 12,343 RMB annually. This growth is expected to continue driving the city's economic growth.[28] The manufacturing and construction sectors have grown relatively steadily, growing 116% during 2001-2005. The primary sector, including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, has grown slightly over this same period. In addition, the consumer market has grown dramatically along with income levels, with the minimum salary level at 600 RMB per month in comparison to Beijing's at 640 RMB or Shanghai's at 750 RMB per month.[29] Urban residents in 2005 had an average income of about US$1,500, 15% higher than the national average and up 10% from 2001 figures.[30] Changsha
Changsha
has attracted a substantial level of foreign investment. In 2005, for example, nearly US$1 billion worth of foreign direct investment (FDI) poured into the city, mainly in hi-tech, manufacturing, food production, and services. This figure is up 40% from 2001. 59% of the total FDI has come from Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Japan; 28% has come from the Americas
Americas
and 9% from Europe.[31] By the end of 2008 more than 500 foreign companies had made over US$10 million worth of investments in Changsha.[32] Changsha had total retail sales of 74 RMB billion in 2006.[33] But rapid economic growth has made environmental pollution a serious problem in Changsha, caused by rapidly increasing numbers of private cars, widespread construction sites, and numerous industrial facilities on the outskirts of the city.

Lugu Hi-tech Industry Development Zone

Sky City[edit] On 20 July 2013, the Sky City skyscraper broke ground.[34] A groundbreaking ceremony of the building was held. At completion it will be the new world's tallest skyscraper. The planned final height is 838 meters with 220 floors.[34] The Broad Sustainable Building company, which specializes in the rapid construction of large buildings, planned to complete construction in early 2014.[34][35][36] However, the project was halted by the authorities on 24 July 2013 due to its having started construction without prior law permits.[37][38] Some experts also questioned the safety of the 838-meter skyscraper's being built in only 7 months.[39] On 4 September 2013, China.com.cn reported that the project had begun environmental assessment for obtaining the official planning approval for the project.[40] By 30 October the building was already in the final approval phase.[41] On 8 June 2016 it was reported by the People's Daily that the project had been finally cancelled due to protests over environmental damage to the Daze Lake wetland. Development Zones[edit] The Changsha
Changsha
ETZ was founded in 1992. It is located in Xingsha, the eastern Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current[when?] area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi). Near the zone are National Highways 319 and 107 as well as the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong– Macau
Macau
Expressway. The zone is also very close to Changsha's downtown area and the railway station, while the distance between the zone and the city's airport is a mere 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include the high-tech industry, the biology project technology industry, and the new material industry.[42] The Liuyang
Liuyang
ETZ is a national biological industry base created on 10 January, 1998, located in Dongyang
Dongyang
Town. Its pillar industry comprises biological pharmacy, Information technology
Information technology
and Health food. As of 2015, It has more than 700 registered enterprises. The total industrial output value of the zone hits 85.6 billion yuan (US$ 13.7 billion) and its business income is 100.2 billion yuan (US$ 16.1 billion).[43] Its builtup area covers 16.5 km2 (6.4 sq mi).[44] Population and Demographics[edit] Changsha
Changsha
has an urban population of 7,044,118. A total of 12,966,836 reside in the metropolitan area.[45] Ethnic Groups[edit] The majority of people living in Changsha
Changsha
are Han Chinese. A sizeable population of several ethnic minority groups also make Changsha
Changsha
home. The three largest minorities, the Hui, Tujia, and Miao peoples, make up sizeable sub-populations in the city. The 2000 census shows that a total of 48,564 people who are members of ethnic minorities live in Changsha. The other minorities make up a significantly smaller part of the population. Twenty ethnic minorities have fewer than 1000 individuals living in the city.[45][46] Culture[edit] Media[edit] Hunan
Hunan
Broadcasting System is China's largest television after China Central Television (CCTV). Its headquarters is in Changsha
Changsha
and produces some of the most popular programs in China, including Super Girl. These programs have also brought a new entertainment industry into the city, which includes singing bars, dance clubs, theater shows, as well as related businesses including hair salons, fashion stores, and shops for hot spicy snacks at night (especially during summer). While Changsha
Changsha
has developed into an entertainment hub, the city has also become increasingly westernized and has attracted a growing number of foreigners. Cuisine[edit] There are various types of cuisine found in Changsha, yet Hunan cuisine remains to be the most popular genre. Hot and spicy food is typical of the region. In addition, street food is also popular. Changsha
Changsha
Stinky Tofu is always identified as the icon of Changsha
Changsha
Street food and is renowned in the nation. The city has its own Siu yeh
Siu yeh
culture. In May 2008, the BBC broadcast, as part of its Storyville documentary series, the four-part The Biggest Chinese Restaurant in the World, which explored the inner workings of the 5,000-seating-capacity West Lake Restaurant (Xihu Lou Jiujia) in Changsha. Sports[edit] Changsha
Changsha
has one of China's largest multi-purpose sports stadiums— Helong
Helong
Stadium, with 55,000 seats. The stadium was named after the Communist military leader He Long. It is the home ground of local football team Hunan
Hunan
Billows F.C., which plays in China
China
League Two. The more modest 6,000-seat Hunan
Hunan
Provincial People's Stadium, also located in Changsha, is used by the team for their smaller games.[47] Historical culture[edit] Changsha
Changsha
hosts the Hunan
Hunan
Provincial Museum. 180,000 historical significant artifacts franginng from the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
to the recent Qing Dynasty are hosted in the 51,000 acres of space in the museum.[48] Mawangdui
Mawangdui
is a well-known tomb located 22 kilometers east of Changsha.[49][50] It was discovered with numerous artifacts from the Han dynasty. Numerous Silk Funeral banners surround the tomb, along with a wealth of classical texts.[51][52] The tomb of Lady Dai lies in Mawangdui
Mawangdui
is well-known due to its well-preserved state: scientists were able to detect blood, conduct an autopsy and determined that she died of heart disease due to a poor diet.[53][54] Changsha
Changsha
is a sister city with St. Paul, Minnesota. St. Paul is developing a China
China
garden at Phalen Park, based on the design of architects from Changsha.[55] Current plans include a pavilion replicating one in Changsha, while in return St. Paul will send the city five statues of the Peanuts
Peanuts
characters. They will be placed in Phalen's sister park, Yanghu Wetlands.[56] Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

Hunan
Hunan
University

Changsha
Changsha
is the seat of many ancient schools and academies.[57] It is the site of the Hunan
Hunan
Medical University (1914) and has several colleges and institutes of higher learning. National

National University of Defense Technology Central South University Hunan
Hunan
University

Public

Hunan
Hunan
Normal University Hunan
Hunan
Agricultural University Hunan
Hunan
First Normal University Hunan
Hunan
University of Commerce Hunan
Hunan
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Hunan
Hunan
University of Finance and Economics Central South University
Central South University
of Forestry and Technology Changsha
Changsha
University Changsha
Changsha
Medical University Changsha University
Changsha University
of Science and Technology

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. International schools[edit]

Central South University

Changsha
Changsha
WES Academy

Notable high schools[edit]

Yali High School Changjun High School The First High School of Changsha The High School Attached to Hunan
Hunan
Normal University

Notable Primary Schools[edit]

Datong
Datong
Primary School Yanshan Primary School Yucai Primary School Shazitang Primary School Yuying Primary School Qingshuitang Primary School

Notable people[edit] Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region
Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region
is the birthplace of:

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
– Founding father of the People's Republic of China Zeng Guofan
Zeng Guofan
– Most influential politician of China
China
in 19th Century Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi
– President of the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC), 1959–1968 Zhu Rongji
Zhu Rongji
– Premier of the People's Republic of China, 1997–2002 Hu Yaobang
Hu Yaobang
– General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (1980–1987) Yang Kaihui
Yang Kaihui
– Mao Zedong's first wife Huang Xing
Huang Xing
– Chinese revolutionary leader and the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Tian Han
Tian Han
– author of the lyrics to "March of the Volunteers", China's national anthem Qi Xueqi
Qi Xueqi
– general in the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) Lei Feng
Lei Feng
– A People's Liberation Army's cultural icon Liang Heng – writer and literary scholar Tan Dun
Tan Dun
– contemporary composer (soundtracks for the films Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero) Tang Sulan – writer and politician. Xiong Ni – Olympic male diver and gold medalist Li Xiaopeng – Olympic male gymnast and gold medalist Liu Xuan - Olympic female gymnast and gold medalist Meng Jia
Meng Jia
– singer and actress, former member of the Korean-Chinese girl group Miss A Lay (entertainer)
Lay (entertainer)
– a member of South Korean-Chinese boy band under SM entertainment, EXO Qi Baishi
Qi Baishi
– Painter Shen Wei
Shen Wei
- dancer and the choreographer of modern dance for the 2008 Beijing
Beijing
Olympics He Jiong – One of the most famous TV show hosts in China Xiao Zhen Zhen - One of the most famous Chinese beauties.

Astronomy[edit] Changsha
Changsha
is represented by the star Zeta Corvi
Zeta Corvi
in a Chinese constellation.[58] See also[edit]

1938 Changsha
Changsha
Fire Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Changsha) List of twin towns and sister cities in China

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External links[edit]

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Changsha
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Changsha
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Changsha
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Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

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Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

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Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

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Gansu

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Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

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Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124344581 LCCN: n81066397 GND: 40097

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