Changsha (Chinese: 长沙) is the capital and most populous city of
Hunan province in south central China. It covers 11,819 km2
(4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by
Yiyang to the
Loudi to the west,
Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun
Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010
Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the
province's population. It is part of the
Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster
Changsha is located in the
Xiang River valley plain, bordering on
Luoxiao Mountains on the east,
Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in
Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan
Mountains. It has a moist monsoon climate of the subtropical zone. The
average annual air temperature is 16.8 to 17.3 °C (62.2 to
63.1 °F) and an annual rainfall of 1,358.6 to 1,552.5 mm
(53.49 to 61.12 in).
Changsha is a famous historical and cultural city with a history of
over 3,000 years.
Changsha is famous for being the capital of
Changsha State in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital
of the Chu State (907–951) in the Ten Kingdoms period. The
lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from
Mawangdui (2nd century BC)
there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions. In
Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of
Europeans and Americans settled there.
Changsha was the site of Mao
Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major
battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly
occupied by the Japanese. Nowadays,
Changsha is an important
commercial, manufacturing and transportation center in China.
2.2 1st-century History
2.3 Jing-Chu Culture and Culture of Central Plains
2.4 Qin and Han dynasties
2.5 Three Kingdoms to Sui and Tang dynasty
2.5.1 Western Jin
2.5.2 Sui dynasty
2.6 Song dynasty
2.7 Yuan and Ming dynasty
2.8 Qing Dynasty
2.9 Modern era
2.10 Late 20th-century
4.1 Public transport
4.2 Metro Rail
5.1 Sky City
5.2 Development Zones
6 Population and Demographics
6.1 Ethnic Groups
7.4 Historical culture
8.1 Colleges and universities
8.2 International schools
8.3 Notable high schools
8.4 Notable Primary Schools
9 Notable people
11 See also
13 External links
The origins of the name "Changsha" are lost in antiquity. The name
first appears in the 11th century BC, during the reign of King Cheng
of the Zhou dynasty: a vassal lord from the
Changsha area sent a type
of softshell turtle known as "
Changsha softshell turtle" (simplified
Chinese: 长沙鳖; traditional Chinese: 長沙鼈; pinyin: Chángshā
biē) to the Zhou king as a tribute. In the 2nd century AD, historian
Ying Shao wrote that the
Qin dynasty use of the name
Changsha for the
area was a continuance of its old name.
Main article: History of Changsha
Development occurred drastically closer to 3000BC when Changsha
developed with the proliferation of Longshan culture, although there
is no firm evidence of such linkage. Despite this, pottery and
bronze ware have been discovered.
Four-goat Square Zun
In the Central Plain region during the Zhou and Shang dynasties, Yandi
and Huangdi in regards to their relationship between the Central
Plains, paid a visit. Sima Qian writes in his Records of the Grand
Historian "Huangdi, loving his (oldest son) Shaohao, gave him a parcel
of land, an area amounted to
Changsha and surrounding land."
Evidence exists that people lived and thrived in the area during the
Bronze Age. Numerous examples of pottery and items of interest were
discovered and recovered.
Jing-Chu Culture and Culture of Central Plains
Changsha entered a time of turmoil. Eastern Zhou's collapse swept in
turmoil with the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC). The Yue culture
spread and took a stronghold through the region, especially through
Changsha. During the height of the Warring States Period, the Chu
Kingdom took a hardline nationalist and reform approach and took a
large-scale military operations in South China. Chu Kingdom took
Changsha and turned the city into an important part of the
southern part of Chu. After years of war and occupation, Changsha
slowly replaced Yue culture with Chu culture. Chu culture thrived.
Nobles created tombs and got buried in tombs. In 1951-1957,
archaeologists explored numerous large and medium-sized Chu tombs from
the warring states era. There have been more than 3,000 tombs
discovered of various people.
The coming of Chu brought a lot of tools and production experience,
jump starting the economy. Massive changes quickly propelled Changsha
through the Iron Age and into the feudal age of society.
The city is sometimes called
Qingyang (simplified Chinese: 青阳;
traditional Chinese: 青陽; pinyin: Qīngyáng) in Warring States
The slow wearing of time, turbulence, and turmoil weakened the
Changsha and the region. The state of Qin send forced under Wang Jian
entered and conquered Chu.
Qin and Han dynasties
Changsha transformed into the
Changsha Kingdom. It existed as a
fiefdom under the tutelage of the Qin and later the Han dynasty. Under
Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), it became a staging post for Qin
Guangdong province. By 202 BC, it was already a
fortified city. During the Han dynasty, it was also the capital of
Changsha Kingdom, an imperial fiefdom of the Han. From Han times (206
BC – AD 220), it held the name Linxiang County and was the seat of
Changsha commandery. The county was renamed back
Changsha in 589
It was during the
Han dynasty that the
Mawangdui tombs were
constructed between 186 and 165 BC. The earliest tomb (no. 2), when
excavated in the 1970s, was seen to have preserved the corpse of Lady
Xin Zhui in a surprisingly good condition. Also found in the tomb were
the earliest versions of the Dao De Jing, the main text of Taoism,
among many other historical documents.
Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon
Three Kingdoms to Sui and Tang dynasty
Zoumalou Wu bamboo slips
With the collapse of the Han dynasty,
China fell into turmoil amidst
of the rise of the Three Kingdoms. The power base of Changsha
fragmented into three factions.
Changsha soon fell under control of the Jin dynasty. Emperor Wudi
appointed the ruler and governor to be the sixth son of a general Sima
Yi. The local government had over 100 counties at the beginning of the
dynasty. Over the course of the dynasty, the local government of
Changsha lost control over a few counties, leaving them to local rule.
In 589, the
Sui dynasty emerged as the sole power in China. This
emergence ended the northern and Southern dynasties era and reunified
China once again under one government.
With the emergence of the Sui dynasty,
Changsha was renamed to the
name of Tanzhou. In addition, a new form of government was
reintroduced. Changsha's 3-tier division system was changed to a
2-tier state and county system, eliminating the middle canton region.
This new system is a significant improvement for efficiency. The
existing counties in the
Hunan region, including Changsha, were either
outright replaced or greatly restructured. Some of the new counties
created, such as Wangcheng, Liuyang,
Liling still exist to this day.
Neighboring town such as
Xiangtan have experienced such restructure of
counties that still exist to this day.
The Tang dynasty brought new prosperity and peace to Changsha. the
city became a place of trade between
China and Southeast Asia.
Changsha experienced violence during the Anshi Rebellion when rebels
swept through the area.
Yuelu Academy was founded in AD 976 (during the period of the Song
dynasty). It was destroyed by war in 1127 and was rebuilt in 1165
(during the Southern Song dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi
taught at the Academy in 1165. It was again destroyed, this time by
the Mongols, but was restored in the late 15th century (Ming dynasty).
Early 19th century graduates of the academy formed what one historian
called a "network of messianic alumni", including Zeng Guofan,
architect of the Tongzhi Restoration, and Cai E, a major leader in
the defense of the Republic of China. (In 1903 the academy became
Hunan High School. The modern day
Hunan University is a descendant of
the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings of the
university was restored from 1981 to 1986, presumably according to
their original Song design.)
Yuan and Ming dynasty
Changsha was fiercely defended by local Song troops during the Mongol
conquest of the Song Dynasty and, after it fell into Mongol hands an
event of mass suicide by the
Changsha defenders took place in the
Under the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911/12) dynasties,
Changsha was made a superior prefecture. Its name was also reverted to
From 1664 onward, it was the capital of Hunan, prospering as one of
China's chief rice markets. During the Taiping Rebellion, the city was
besieged by the rebels (1854) but never fell; it then became the
principal base for the suppression of the rebellion. It was opened to
foreign trade in 1904. Further development followed the opening of the
railway to Hankou in
Hubei province in 1918, which was later extended
Guangdong province in 1936. Although Changsha's
population grew, the city remained primarily commercial in character
and before 1937 had little industry apart from some small
cotton-textile, glass, and nonferrous-metal plants and handicraft
Historic district "Duzheng Street", the location of local government
in Qing dynasty
In 1852 Taiping forces laid a siege on
Changsha through 3 months, but
they gave up the offensive thereafter and moved on toward Wuhan.
Then, the 1903 Treaty of
Shanghai between the
Qing dynasty and Japan
opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches
and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University
bachelors, which later became a medical center named Xiangya and a
secondary school named the Yali School.
Mao Zedong, the founder of the People's Republic of China, began his
political career in Changsha. He was a student at the
Hunan Number 1
Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a
teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed
Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War but has since been restored. The former
office of the
Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong
once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters,
photographs and other historical items from the 1920s.
Until May 1927, communist support remained strong in
the massacre carried out by the right-wing faction of the KMT troops.
The faction owed its allegiance to
Chiang Kai-shek during its
offensive against the KMT's left-wing faction under Wang Jingwei, who
was then allied closely with the Communists. The purge of communists
and suspected communists was part of Chiang's plans for consolidating
his hold over the KMT, weakening Wang's control, and thereby over the
entire China. In a period of twenty days, Chiang's forces killed more
than ten thousand people in
Changsha and its outskirts.
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), the strategic
Changsha made it the focus of four campaigns by the
Japanese to capture it from the hands of the Chinese Nationalists:
these campaigns were the 1st Changsha, the 2nd Changsha, the 3rd
Changsha, and the 4th Changsha. The city was able to repulse the first
three attacks, thanks to Xue Yue's leadership, but ultimately fell
into Japanese hands in 1944 for a year until the Japanese were
defeated in a counterattack and forced to surrender. Before
these Japanese campaigns, the city was already virtually destroyed by
Changsha Fire, which was a deliberate fire ordered by
Kuomintang commanders who mistakenly feared the city was about to fall
to the Japanese; Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek had suggested that the
city should be burned so that the Japanese force would gain nothing
after entering it.
The city later became the territory of then-expanding Communist China
when it was finally completed in 1949 after the
Kuomintang were driven
Tianxin Pavilion, from where
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom made an attack
Former site of Mobil Corp. on the Orange Isle
Furong Square at night
Skyline with Xiang River
Since the late 1990s,
Changsha has entered a period of rapid
development, becoming one of the important cities in the central and
western regions. At the end of 2007, Changsha, with Xiangtan, Zhuzhou
was approved by the State Council for the
Chang-Zhu-Tan " (Greater
Changsha) resource-saving and environment-friendly society"
comprehensive reform pilot area, an important engine of the rise of
central China. In 2015,
Xiangjiang New Area was approved as a national
Satellite map of built-up area
Taohualing Reservoir, Meixi Lake
Changsha is located in the south-central part of China, south of the
Yangtze River, north-east of
Hunan Province. Is located in the
southern end of the Dongting Plain to the hinterland of Hunan
transition zone, and Yueyang, Yiyang, Loudi, Zhuzhou,
Pingxiang borders. The total area of 11,819 square kilometers,
of which the urban area of 1,939 square kilometers, urban built-up
area of 306.39 square kilometers (2011 data, including Wangcheng
). Located in
Liuyang territory of the Dawei Mountain Qixingling
1607.9 meters above sea level, the highest point for the area; in the
town of the town of Heimi peak 590.5 meters above sea level for the
city to the highest point; Qiao town in Zhanhu elevation of 23.5
meters for the city's lowest point.
Xiangjiang River is the most
important river in Changsha, from south to north throughout the
territory, the length of about 75 km. The
divides the city into two major parts, Hedong and Hexi. The east part
of the city is mainly commercial and the Hexi is mainly cultural and
educational. On 10 October 2001, the city government resident moved
from Hedong Fanzheng Street to the Hexi View of Sandy Ridge, the force
in the development of Hexi economy to balance the two sides of
Changsha's neighboring areas include: cities and counties and a
Hunan including Tonggu County, Pingjiang County, Miluo
Xiangyin County of Yueyang, Taojiang County, Heshan District,
Anhua County of Yiyang,
Lianyuan City of Loudi,
Zhuzhou County, Liling
City of Zhuzhou,
Xiangxiang City of Xiangtan; and
cities and counties of
Jiangxi including Wanzai County, Yichun City,
Changsha experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with
annual average temperature being at 17.03 °C (62.7 °F),
with a mean of 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January and
29.0 °C (84.2 °F) in July. Average annual precipitation is
1,331 millimetres (52.4 in), with a 275-day frost-free period.
With a monthly possible-sunshine percentage ranging from 19% in March
to 57% in August, the city receives 1,545 hours of bright sunshine
annually. The four seasons are distinct. The summers are long and very
hot, with heavy rainfall, and autumn is comfortable and is the driest
season. Winter is chilly and overcast with lighter rainfall more
likely than downpours; cold snaps occur with temperatures occasionally
dropping below freezing. Spring is especially rainy and humid with the
sun shining less than 30% of the time. The minimum temperature ever
recorded since 1951 at the current Wangchengpo Weather Observing
Station was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F), recorded on 9 February
1972. The maximum was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 13 August 1953
and 2 August 2003 [the unofficial record of 43.0 °C
(109.4 °F) was set on 10 August 1934].
Climate data for
Changsha Wangchengpo 望城坡 57687 Weather
Observing Station (1971–2013)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Meteorological Administration
The city of
Changsha has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 2
county-level cities, and 1 county:
Suburban and rural
Nianjia Lake in the city center
Changsha South Railway Station
Changsha South Railway Station (high-speed rail service)
Changsha is well connected by roads, river, rail, and air
transportation modes, and is a regional hub for industrial, tourist,
and service sectors.
The city's public transportation system consists of an extensive bus
network with over a hundred lines as well as taxis.
Changsha Metro and
Changsha Metro is planning a 6-line network. Metro Line 2 opened
on 29 April 2014 with 20 stations for Line 2 now open on 28
June 2016. A further four lines are planned for construction
before the year 2025. Line 3 will run southwest–northeast and
will be 33.4 kilometres (20.8 mi) long. Line 4 will run
northwest-southeast and will be 29.1 kilometres (18.1 mi)
long. A maglev link running 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) between
Changsha South station and
Changsha airport was opened in April 2016,
with a construction cost of €400m. Connecting Changsha
Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, Changzhutan Intercity Rail has been opened
to traffic operations on December 26, 2016.
The G4, G4E, G4W2, G5513 and G0401 of National Expressways, G107, G106
and G319 of National Highways, S20, S21, S40, S41, S50, S60 and S71 of
Hunan provincial Expressways, connect the
Changsha metro area
nationally. There are three main bus terminals in Changsha: the South
Station, East Station and West Station, dispatching long- and
short-haul trips to cities within and outside the province of Hunan.
Changsha is surrounded by major rivers, including the Xiangjiang
Liuyang River (浏阳河), the
(靳江河), the Weishui (沩水), Longwanggang River (龙王港河),
Laodao River (捞刀河). Ships transport mainly goods from
Xianing port located in North
Changsha domestically and
Changsha Railway Station
Changsha Railway Station is located in the city center and provides
express and regular services to most cities in
China via the
Guangzhou and Shimen–
Changsha Railways. The
Railway Station is a new high speed railway station, located in Yuhua
district on the Beijing–
Railway (as part of the
Hong Kong High-Speed
Railway). The station with 8 platforms was finally opened on 26
December 2009. Since then the passenger volume has increased
greatly. The Hangzhou-Changsha-
Huaihua sector of the
Kunming high-speed railway entered service in 2014.
Huanghua International Airport.
Huanghua International Airport
Changsha Huanghua International Airport
Changsha Huanghua International Airport is a regional hub for China
Southern Airlines. The airport serves daily flights to major cities in
China, including Beijing,
Shanghai and Guangzhou, as well as Hong
Macau and Taipei. Other major airlines also provide daily
Changsha and other domestic and international
destinations.The airport provides direct flights to 45 major
international cities including Los Angeles, Singapore, Seoul, Pusan,
Osaka, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Frankfurt as well as Sydney. As of 5
August 2016, the airport daily handled 70011 people.
Main article: Economy of Changsha
Changsha Business Quarter
Changsha's population nearly tripled between the start of its
rebuilding in 1949 and the early 1980s. The city is now a major port,
handling rice, cotton, timber, and livestock, and is also a collection
and distribution point on the railway from Hankou to Guangzhou. It is
a centre of rice milling and also has oil-extraction, tea and tobacco
production, and meat-processing plants. Its textile industry produces
cotton yarn and fabrics and engages in dyeing and printing.
Agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, farm implements, and pumping
machinery are also produced.
Changsha has a large thermal generating station linked by a power grid
with the nearby industrial centres of
Zhuzhou and Xiangtan; the three
cities were designated in the 1970s as the nucleus of a major
industrial complex. In the 1960s there was some development of heavy
industry. The manufacture of machinery, especially machine tools and
precision tools, became important, and
Changsha became a center of
China's aluminum industry. The city also has cement, rubber, ceramic,
and papermaking plants and is a centre for many types of traditional
handicrafts, producing Xiang embroidery, leather goods, umbrellas, and
Coal is mined in the vicinity.
The Huangxing Road Pedestrian Street
Changsha is one of China's 20 most "economically advanced" cities. In
2008, Changsha's nominal GDP was ¥300.1 billion (US$43 billion), a
year-on-year growth of 15.1% from the previous year. Its per capita
GDP was ¥45,765 (US$6,589). Its GDP grew at an average of 14% per
year from 2001 to 2005, compared to the national average of 9% in the
period. As of 2005[update], the service sector generated roughly
around 49% of Changsha's GDP, up 112% from 2001 figures, leading to a
disposable income for urban residents of 12,343 RMB annually. This
growth is expected to continue driving the city's economic growth.
The manufacturing and construction sectors have grown relatively
steadily, growing 116% during 2001-2005. The primary sector, including
agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, has grown
slightly over this same period. In addition, the consumer market has
grown dramatically along with income levels, with the minimum salary
level at 600 RMB per month in comparison to Beijing's at 640 RMB or
Shanghai's at 750 RMB per month. Urban residents in 2005 had an
average income of about US$1,500, 15% higher than the national average
and up 10% from 2001 figures.
Changsha has attracted a substantial level of foreign investment. In
2005, for example, nearly US$1 billion worth of foreign direct
investment (FDI) poured into the city, mainly in hi-tech,
manufacturing, food production, and services. This figure is up 40%
from 2001. 59% of the total FDI has come from Hong Kong, South Korea,
Singapore, and Japan; 28% has come from the
Americas and 9% from
Europe. By the end of 2008 more than 500 foreign companies had
made over US$10 million worth of investments in Changsha. Changsha
had total retail sales of 74 RMB billion in 2006.
But rapid economic growth has made environmental pollution a serious
problem in Changsha, caused by rapidly increasing numbers of private
cars, widespread construction sites, and numerous industrial
facilities on the outskirts of the city.
Lugu Hi-tech Industry Development Zone
On 20 July 2013, the Sky City skyscraper broke ground. A
groundbreaking ceremony of the building was held. At completion it
will be the new world's tallest skyscraper. The planned final height
is 838 meters with 220 floors. The Broad Sustainable Building
company, which specializes in the rapid construction of large
buildings, planned to complete construction in early 2014.
However, the project was halted by the authorities on 24 July 2013 due
to its having started construction without prior law permits.
Some experts also questioned the safety of the 838-meter skyscraper's
being built in only 7 months. On 4 September 2013, China.com.cn
reported that the project had begun environmental assessment for
obtaining the official planning approval for the project. By 30
October the building was already in the final approval phase.
On 8 June 2016 it was reported by the People's Daily that the project
had been finally cancelled due to protests over environmental damage
to the Daze Lake wetland.
Changsha ETZ was founded in 1992. It is located in Xingsha, the
eastern Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2
(14.9 sq mi) and the current[when?] area is 38.6 km2
(14.9 sq mi). Near the zone are National Highways 319 and
107 as well as the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–
Macau Expressway. The zone
is also very close to Changsha's downtown area and the railway
station, while the distance between the zone and the city's airport is
a mere 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone
include the high-tech industry, the biology project technology
industry, and the new material industry.
Liuyang ETZ is a national biological industry base created on 10
January, 1998, located in
Dongyang Town. Its pillar industry comprises
Information technology and Health food. As of
2015, It has more than 700 registered enterprises. The total
industrial output value of the zone hits 85.6 billion yuan (US$ 13.7
billion) and its business income is 100.2 billion yuan (US$ 16.1
billion). Its builtup area covers 16.5 km2
(6.4 sq mi).
Population and Demographics
Changsha has an urban population of 7,044,118. A total of 12,966,836
reside in the metropolitan area.
The majority of people living in
Changsha are Han Chinese. A sizeable
population of several ethnic minority groups also make
The three largest minorities, the Hui, Tujia, and Miao peoples, make
up sizeable sub-populations in the city. The 2000 census shows that a
total of 48,564 people who are members of ethnic minorities live in
Changsha. The other minorities make up a significantly smaller part of
the population. Twenty ethnic minorities have fewer than 1000
individuals living in the city.
Hunan Broadcasting System is China's largest television after China
Central Television (CCTV). Its headquarters is in
produces some of the most popular programs in China, including Super
Girl. These programs have also brought a new entertainment industry
into the city, which includes singing bars, dance clubs, theater
shows, as well as related businesses including hair salons, fashion
stores, and shops for hot spicy snacks at night (especially during
Changsha has developed into an entertainment hub, the
city has also become increasingly westernized and has attracted a
growing number of foreigners.
There are various types of cuisine found in Changsha, yet Hunan
cuisine remains to be the most popular genre. Hot and spicy food is
typical of the region.
In addition, street food is also popular.
Changsha Stinky Tofu is
always identified as the icon of
Changsha Street food and is renowned
in the nation.
The city has its own
Siu yeh culture.
In May 2008, the BBC broadcast, as part of its Storyville documentary
series, the four-part The Biggest Chinese Restaurant in the World,
which explored the inner workings of the 5,000-seating-capacity West
Lake Restaurant (Xihu Lou Jiujia) in Changsha.
Changsha has one of China's largest multi-purpose sports
Helong Stadium, with 55,000 seats. The stadium was named
after the Communist military leader He Long. It is the home ground of
local football team
Hunan Billows F.C., which plays in
Two. The more modest 6,000-seat
Hunan Provincial People's Stadium,
also located in Changsha, is used by the team for their smaller
Changsha hosts the
Hunan Provincial Museum. 180,000 historical
significant artifacts franginng from the
Zhou dynasty to the recent
Qing Dynasty are hosted in the 51,000 acres of space in the
Mawangdui is a well-known tomb located 22 kilometers east of
Changsha. It was discovered with numerous artifacts from the
Han dynasty. Numerous Silk Funeral banners surround the tomb, along
with a wealth of classical texts. The tomb of Lady Dai lies in
Mawangdui is well-known due to its well-preserved state: scientists
were able to detect blood, conduct an autopsy and determined that she
died of heart disease due to a poor diet.
Changsha is a sister city with St. Paul, Minnesota. St. Paul is
China garden at Phalen Park, based on the design of
architects from Changsha. Current plans include a pavilion
replicating one in Changsha, while in return St. Paul will send the
city five statues of the
Peanuts characters. They will be placed in
Phalen's sister park, Yanghu Wetlands.
Colleges and universities
Changsha is the seat of many ancient schools and academies. It is
the site of the
Hunan Medical University (1914) and has several
colleges and institutes of higher learning.
National University of Defense Technology
Central South University
Hunan Normal University
Hunan Agricultural University
Hunan First Normal University
Hunan University of Commerce
Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Hunan University of Finance and Economics
Central South University
Central South University of Forestry and Technology
Changsha Medical University
Changsha University of Science and Technology
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Central South University
Changsha WES Academy
Notable high schools
Yali High School
Changjun High School
The First High School of Changsha
The High School Attached to
Hunan Normal University
Notable Primary Schools
Datong Primary School
Yanshan Primary School
Yucai Primary School
Shazitang Primary School
Yuying Primary School
Qingshuitang Primary School
Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region
Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region is the birthplace of:
Mao Zedong – Founding father of the People's Republic of China
Zeng Guofan – Most influential politician of
China in 19th Century
Liu Shaoqi – President of the People's Republic of
Zhu Rongji – Premier of the People's Republic of China, 1997–2002
Hu Yaobang – General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party
Yang Kaihui – Mao Zedong's first wife
Huang Xing – Chinese revolutionary leader and the first army
commander-in-chief of the Republic of China
Tian Han – author of the lyrics to "March of the Volunteers",
China's national anthem
Qi Xueqi – general in the
Lei Feng – A People's Liberation Army's cultural icon
Liang Heng – writer and literary scholar
Tan Dun – contemporary composer (soundtracks for the films Crouching
Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero)
Tang Sulan – writer and politician.
Xiong Ni – Olympic male diver and gold medalist
Li Xiaopeng – Olympic male gymnast and gold medalist
Liu Xuan - Olympic female gymnast and gold medalist
Meng Jia – singer and actress, former member of the Korean-Chinese
girl group Miss A
Lay (entertainer) – a member of South Korean-Chinese boy band under
SM entertainment, EXO
Qi Baishi – Painter
Shen Wei - dancer and the choreographer of modern dance for the 2008
He Jiong – One of the most famous TV show hosts in China
Xiao Zhen Zhen - One of the most famous Chinese beauties.
Changsha is represented by the star
Zeta Corvi in a Chinese
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Changsha)
List of twin towns and sister cities in China
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Changsha.
Changsha travel guide from Wikivoyage
Changsha Interactive Map, Information on Locations
Changsha Government website
Changsha National High-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Hunan University of Arts and Science
Hunan Normal University
Hunan Agricultural University
Culture of Hunan
Nü shu writing system
Avatar Hallelujah Mountain
County-level divisions of
Chengbu Autonomous County
Quyuan Mgmt Dist
Jianghua Autonomous County
Hongjiang Mgmt Dist
Jingzhou Autonomous County
Mayang Autonomous County
Tongdao Autonomous County
Xinhuang Autonomous County
Zhijiang Autonomous County
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta (YRD)
Central Plain (Zhongyuan)
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Yangtze River Valley)
National Central Cities
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Comparatively large cities
Prefecture-level cities by Province
Other cities (partly shown below)
(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot
Xinjiang - XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi
Former Prefecture-level cities
Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia
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County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special
Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities.
3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir,
Inner Mongolia as part of it.
4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of
Taiwan no longer have any internal division
announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of
All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
Provincial capitals of China
Hohhot (Inner Mongolia)
Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of
administered by the Republic of
China (see Political status of