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Changchun
Changchun
(simplified Chinese: 长春; traditional Chinese: 長春; pinyin: Chángchūn) is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.[4] Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun
Changchun
is administered as a sub-provincial city, comprising 7 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities.[5] According to the 2010 census of China, Changchun
Changchun
had a total population of 7,674,439 under its jurisdiction. The city's urbanized (or metro) area, comprising 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010 as the Shuangyang
Shuangyang
and Jiutai
Jiutai
districts are not urbanized yet.[2] It is the largest industrial, educational, scientific and transportation hub in Northeast China. The name of the city means "long spring" in Chinese. Between 1932 and 1945, Changchun
Changchun
was renamed Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; literally: "new capital") by the Japanese as it became the capital of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, occupying modern Northeast China. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949, Changchun
Changchun
was established as the provincial capital of Jilin
Jilin
in 1954. Known locally as China's "City of Automobiles",[6] Changchun
Changchun
is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector.[7] Because of its key role in the domestic automobile industry, Changchun
Changchun
was sometimes referred to as the " Detroit
Detroit
of China."[8] Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun
Changchun
is also one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P.R. China
China
in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate.[6][not in citation given]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Railway era 1.3 City planning and development from 1906–1931 1.4 Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and World War II

1.4.1 Construction of Hsinking 1.4.2 Japanese chemical warfare agents

1.5 Siege of Changchun 1.6 People's Republic

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups

5 Economy

5.1 Development zones

5.1.1 Changchun
Changchun
Automotive Economic Trade
Trade
and Development Zone 5.1.2 Changchun
Changchun
High Technology Development Zone 5.1.3 Changchun
Changchun
Economic and Technological Development Zone

6 Infrastructure

6.1 Railways 6.2 Road network 6.3 Air

7 Military 8 Education

8.1 Universities and colleges 8.2 Middle schools 8.3 Primary and secondary schools

9 Sports and stadiums 10 Film 11 People 12 See also 13 References

13.1 Citations 13.2 Sources

14 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] Changchun
Changchun
was initially established on imperial decree as a small trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor in the Qing dynasty. Trading activities mainly involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, the Jiaqing Emperor selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it " Changchun
Changchun
Ting".[9] At the end of 18th century peasants from overpopulated provinces such as Shandong
Shandong
and Hebei
Hebei
began to settle in the region. In 1889, the village was promoted into a city known as " Changchun
Changchun
Fu".[10] Railway era[edit] In May 1898, Changchun
Changchun
got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin
Harbin
to Lüshun
Lüshun
(the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway), constructed by the Russian Empire.[11]

The South Manchuria Railway
South Manchuria Railway
office of Changchun

After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
of 1904–1905, the Kuancheng station (Kuanchengtze, in contemporary spelling) became the last Russian station on this branch.[11] The next station just a short distance to the south—the new "Japanese" Changchun
Changchun
station—became the first station of the South Manchuria
Manchuria
Railway,[12] which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge (after a short period of using the narrow Japanese 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge during the war).[13] A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun
Changchun
Station, and vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria
Manchuria
Railway" (i.e. the standard gauge) would continue from Changchun
Changchun
Station to Kuancheng Station.[12] An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria
Manchuria
from 1910 to 1911.[14] It was the worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague which was spread through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli.[15] This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria
Manchuria
and Mongolia
Mongolia
which ultimately claimed 60,000 victims.[16] City planning and development from 1906–1931[edit]

City planning map of Changchun

The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
of 1904–05 and saw the transfer and assignment to Japan in 1906 the railway between Changchun
Changchun
and Port Arthur, and all the branches.[17] Having realized the strategic importance of Changchun's location with respect to Japan, China
China
and Russia, the Japanese Government sent a group of planners and engineers to Changchun
Changchun
to determine the best site for a new railway station. Without the consent of Chinese Government, Japan purchased and seized land from local farmers on which the Changchun Railway Station
Changchun Railway Station
was to be constructed as the centre of the South Manchuria Railway
South Manchuria Railway
Affiliated Areas (SMRAA).[18] In order to turn Changchun
Changchun
into the centre for extracting the agricultural and mineral resources of Manchuria, Japan developed a blueprint for Changchun
Changchun
and invested heavily in the construction of the city. As the prelude and preparation of invasion and long-lasting occupation of China, Japan initiated at the beginning of 1907 the planning programme of the SMRAA which embodied distinctive colonial characteristics. The guiding ideology of the overall design was to build a high standard colonial city with sophisticated facilities, multiple functions and large scale. The comprehensive plan was to meet the needs of:

Comfort demand of Japanese employees at Manchurian Railways Assurances of Changchun
Changchun
to be a base for Japanese control of the whole Manchuria Effective counterweight of Russia
Russia
in this part of China.

Accordingly, nearly 7 million Yen
Yen
on average was allocated on a year-to-year basis for urban planning and construction during the period of 1907–31.[19] Railway nexus status was thickly by underlined in the planning and construction, the main design concepts of which read as follows: under conventional grid pattern terms, two geoplagiotropic boulevards were newly carved eastward and westward from the grand square of the new railway station. The two helped forming two intersections with the gridded prototypes, which led to two circles of South and West. The two sub-civic centres served as axis on which eight radial roads were blazed that took the shape of a sectoral structure. This kind of radial circles and the design concept of urban roads were at that time quite advanced and scientific. It activated to great extend the serious urban landscapes as well as a clearly identification of the traditional gridded pattern. With the new Changchun
Changchun
railway station as its centre, the urban plan divided the SMRAA into such rectangles as residential quarters of 15%, commerce of 33%, grain depot of 19%, factories of 12%, public entertainment of 9% and administrative organs(including Japanese garrison) of 12%.[19] Each block provided the railway station with supporting and systematic services in the light of its own functions. In the meantime, a comprehensive system of judiciary and military police was established which was totally independent of China. This accounted for the widespread domain of military facilities within the urban construction area of 3. 967k㎡,such as railway garrison, gendarmerie, police department and its 18 local police stations.[19] Perceiving Changchun
Changchun
as a tabula rasa upon which to erect new and sweeping conceptions of the built environment, Japanese used the city as a practical laboratory to create two distinct and idealized urban milieus, each appropriate to a particular era. From 1906 to 1931 Changchun
Changchun
served as a key railway town through which the Japanese orchestrated informal empire; between 1932 and 1945 the city became home to a grandiose, new Asian capital. Yet while the façades the town and later the capital—as well as the attitudes of the state they upheld—contrasted markedly, the shifting styles of planning and architecture consistently attempted to represent Japanese rule as progressive, beneficent, and modern. Behind the development of Changchun, in addition to the railway trade driven, it suggested an important period of the Northeast modern architectural culture reflecting the urban design endeavours and revealing Japanese ambition of invading and occupying China. Japanese architecture and culture had been widely applied to Manchukuo
Manchukuo
to highlight the special status of the Japanese puppet. Once again, the urban planning will and should stem from a culture, be it aggressive or creative. Changchun’s planning and construction process can serve as a good example. Changchun
Changchun
expanded rapidly as the junction between of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway
South Manchurian Railway
and the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway, while remaining the break of gauge point between the Russian and standard gauges into the 1930s,[20] Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and World War II[edit] On March 10, 1932 the capital of Manchukuo, a Japan-controlled puppet state in Manchuria, was established in Changchun.[21] The city was then renamed Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; Wade–Giles: Hsin-ching; Japanese:Shinkyō; literally "New Capital") on March 13.[22] The Emperor Puyi
Puyi
resided in the Imperial Palace (Chinese: 帝宮; pinyin: Dì gōng) which is now the Museum of the Manchu State Imperial Palace. During the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
period, the region experienced harsh suppression, brutal warfare on the civilian population, forced conscription and labor and other Japanese sponsored government brutalities; at the same time a rapid industrialisation and militarisation took place. Hsinking was a well-planned city with broad avenues and modern public works. The city underwent rapid expansion in both its economy and infrastructure. Many of buildings built during the Japanese colonial era still stand today, including those of the Eight Major Bureaus of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
(Chinese: 八大部; pinyin: Bādà bù) as well as the Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Construction of Hsinking[edit]

Hsinking Master Plan Map (1934)

Hsinking was the only Direct-controlled municipality (特别市) in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
after Harbin
Harbin
was incorporated into the jurisdiction of Binjiang Province.[23] In March 1932, the Inspection Division of South Manchuria
Manchuria
Railway started to draw up the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking (simplified Chinese: 大新京都市计画; traditional Chinese: 大新京都市計畫; pinyin: Dà xīn jīngdū shì jìhuà). The Bureau of capital construction (simplified Chinese: 国都建设局; traditional Chinese: 國都建設局; pinyin: Guódū jiànshè jú) which was directly under the control of State Council of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
was established to take complete responsibility of the formulation and the implementation of the plan.[24] Kuniaki Koiso, the Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, and Yasuji Okamura, the Vice Chief-of-Staff, finalized the plan of a 200 km2 (77 sq mi) construction area. The Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking was influenced by the renovation plan of Paris
Paris
in the 19th century, the garden city movement, and theories of American cities' planning and design in the 1920s. The city development plan included extensive tree planting. By 1934 Hsinking was known as the Forest Capital with Jingyuetan Park built, which is now China's largest Plantation and a AAAA-rated recreational area.[25] In accordance with the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking, the area of publicly shared land (including the Imperial Palace, government offices, roads, parks and athletic grounds) in Hsinking was 47 km2 (18 sq mi), whilst the area of residential, commercial and industrial developments was planned to be 53 km2 (20 sq mi).[26]。 However, Hsinking's population exceeded the prediction of 500,000 by 1940. In 1941, the Capital Construction Bureau modified the original plan, which expanded the urban area to 160 km2 (62 sq mi). The new plan also focused on the construction of satellite towns around the city with a planning of 200 m2 (2,200 sq ft) land per capita.[24] Because the effects of war, the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking remained unfinished. By 1944, the built up urban area of Hsinking reached 80 km2 (31 sq mi), while the area used for greening reached 70.7 km2 (27.3 sq mi). As Hsinking's city orientation was the administrative center and military commanding center, land for military use exceeded the originally planned figure of 9 percent, while only light manufacturing including packing industry, cigarette industry and paper-making had been developed during this period. Japanese force also controlled Hsinking's police system, instead of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
government.[27] Major officers of Hsinking police were all ethnic Japanese.[28] The population of Hsinking also experienced rapid growth after being established as the capital of Manchukuo. According to the census in 1934 taken by the police agency, the city's municipal area had 141,712 inhabitants.[29] By 1944 the city's population had risen to 863,607,[30] with 153,614 Japanese settlers. This population amount made Hsinking the third largest metropolitan city in Manchukuo
Manchukuo
after Mukden and Harbin, as the metropolitan mainly focused on military and politics function.[31]

Special
Special
City Government office of Hsinking 

Datong
Datong
Avenue in Hsinking (1939) 

Manchukuo
Manchukuo
ministry building (built. 1935) 

Manchukuo
Manchukuo
supreme court (built 1938) 

Japanese chemical warfare agents[edit] Main article: Unit 100 In 1936, the Japanese established Unit 100
Unit 100
to develop plague biological weapons, although the declared purpose of Unit 100
Unit 100
was to conduct research about diseases originating from animals.[32] During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945) and World War II
World War II
the headquarters of Unit 100
Unit 100
("Wakamatsu Unit") was located in downtown Hsinking, under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu.[33] This facility was involved in research of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100
Unit 100
ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction. Siege of Changchun[edit]

Chinese Red Army entering Changchun.

Main article: Siege of Changchun On August 20, 1945 the city was captured by the Soviet Red Army
Soviet Red Army
and renamed Changchun.[34] The Russians maintained a presence in the city during the Chinese civil war
Chinese civil war
until 1946. Kuomintang
Kuomintang
forces occupied the city in 1946, but were unable to hold the countryside against communist forces. The city fell to the communists in 1948 after the five-month Siege of Changchun
Siege of Changchun
by the People's Liberation Army. Between 10 and 30 percent[35] of the civilian population starved to death under the siege; estimates range from 150,000[36] to 330,000.[37] As of 2015[update] the PRC government avoids all mention of the siege.[38] People's Republic[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
Liberation Monument

Renamed Changchun
Changchun
by the People's Republic of China
China
government, it became the capital of Jilin
Jilin
in 1954. The Changchun
Changchun
Film Studio is also one of the remaining film studios of the era. Changchun
Changchun
Film Festival has become a unique gala for film industries since 1992.[39] From the 1950s, Changchun
Changchun
was designated to become a center for China's automotive industry. Construction of the First Automobile Works (FAW) began in 1953[40] and production of the Jiefang CA-10 truck, based on the Soviet ZIS-150
ZIS-150
started in 1956.[41] Soviet Union lent assistance during these early years, providing technical support, tooling, and production machinery.[40] In 1958, FAW introduced the famous Hongqi (Red Flag) limousines[41] This series of cars are billed as "the official car for minister-level officials".[42] Changchun
Changchun
hosted the 2007 Winter Asian Games.[43] Geography[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
and vicinities, NASA World Wind screenshot, 2005-05-18

Changchun
Changchun
lies in the middle portion of the Northeast China
China
Plain. Its municipality area is located at latitude 43° 05′−45° 15′ N and longitude 124° 18′−127° 02' E. The total area of Changchun municipality is 20,571 km2 (7,943 sq mi), including metro areas of 2,583 square kilometres (997 sq mi), and a city proper area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi). The city is situated at a moderate elevation, ranging from 250 to 350 metres (820 to 1,150 ft) within its administrative region.[1] In the eastern portion of the city, there lies a small area of low mountains. The city is also situated at the crisscross point of the third east–westward "Europe-Asia Continental Bridge".[citation needed] Changchun
Changchun
prefecture is dotted with 222 rivers and lakes. The Yitong River, a small tributary of the Songhua River, runs through the city proper. Climate[edit] Changchun
Changchun
has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa). Winters are long (lasting from November to March), cold, and windy, but dry, due to the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, with a January mean temperature of −15.1 °C (4.8 °F). Spring and fall are somewhat short transitional periods, with some precipitation, but are usually dry and windy. Summers are hot and humid, with a prevailing southeasterly wind due to the East Asian monsoon; July averages 23.1 °C (73.6 °F). Snow is usually light during the winter, and annual rainfall is heavily concentrated from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47 percent in July to 66 percent in January and February, a typical year will see around 2,617 hours of sunshine, and a frost-free period of 140 to 150 days. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −33.0 °C (−27 °F) to 35.7 °C (96 °F).[44]

Climate data for Changchun

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 4.6 (40.3) 14.5 (58.1) 19.5 (67.1) 28.3 (82.9) 35.2 (95.4) 35.7 (96.3) 34.5 (94.1) 34.3 (93.7) 30.6 (87.1) 27.8 (82) 20.7 (69.3) 11.7 (53.1) 35.7 (96.3)

Average high °C (°F) −9.8 (14.4) −5 (23) 3.5 (38.3) 14.1 (57.4) 21.4 (70.5) 26.1 (79) 27.6 (81.7) 26.4 (79.5) 21.3 (70.3) 12.9 (55.2) 1.7 (35.1) −6.6 (20.1) 11.13 (52.04)

Daily mean °C (°F) −15.1 (4.8) −10.7 (12.7) −2.0 (28.4) 7.8 (46) 15.2 (59.4) 20.6 (69.1) 23.1 (73.6) 21.6 (70.9) 15.4 (59.7) 7.0 (44.6) −3.4 (25.9) −11.7 (10.9) 5.65 (42.17)

Average low °C (°F) −19.9 (−3.8) −15.9 (3.4) −7.6 (18.3) 1.9 (35.4) 9.3 (48.7) 15.4 (59.7) 19.0 (66.2) 17.3 (63.1) 10.1 (50.2) 1.9 (35.4) −7.8 (18) −16.1 (3) 0.63 (33.13)

Record low °C (°F) −33 (−27) −28.1 (−18.6) −27.4 (−17.3) −12.2 (10) −3.4 (25.9) 4.5 (40.1) 11.1 (52) 6.3 (43.3) −1.4 (29.5) −13.4 (7.9) −24.7 (−12.5) −31 (−24) −33 (−27)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.2 (0.126) 4.5 (0.177) 12.3 (0.484) 21.9 (0.862) 49.9 (1.965) 99.7 (3.925) 161.1 (6.343) 121.7 (4.791) 51.9 (2.043) 28.9 (1.138) 10.3 (0.406) 5.0 (0.197) 570.4 (22.457)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.7 4.6 5.5 7.1 9.8 13.6 15.4 12.4 8.8 6.7 5.7 5.4 98.7

Average relative humidity (%) 66 61 53 49 51 65 78 79 69 61 63 66 63.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 188.5 195.3 239.2 241.3 261.2 247.6 220.3 235.2 234.8 214.3 174.6 164.3 2,616.6

Percent possible sunshine 66 66 65 60 58 54 47 54 63 63 60 60 59

Source #1: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Source #2: Weather China[45]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
People's Government

The sub-provincial city of Changchun
Changchun
has direct jurisdiction over 7 districts, 2 county-level cities and 1 County:

Map

Nanguan Kuancheng Chaoyang Erdao Luyuan Shuangyang Jiutai Nong'an County Yushu (city) Dehui (city)

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 census) Area (km2)

City proper

Chaoyang District 朝阳区 Cháoyáng Qū 675,270 237

Nanguan District 南关区 Nánguān Qū 533,979 81

Kuancheng District 宽城区 Kuānchéng Qū 457,959 238

Erdao District 二道区 Èrdào Qū 402,090 452

Luyuan District 绿园区 Lùyuán Qū 602,072 216

Suburb

Shuangyang
Shuangyang
District 双阳区 Shuāngyáng Qū 377,933 1,677

Jiutai
Jiutai
District 九台区 Jiǔtái Qū 738,606 3375

Satellite cities

Dehui 德惠市 Déhuì Shì 839,786 3,435

Yushu 榆树市 Yúshù Shì 1,160,969 4,712

Rural

Nong'an County 农安县 Nóng'ān Xiàn 1,029,680 5,400

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1932 104,305 —    

1934 160,381 +53.8%

1939 415,473 +159.1%

1944 863,607 +107.9%

1953 855,197 −1.0%

1964 4,221,445 +393.6%

1982 5,744,769 +36.1%

1990 6,421,956 +11.8%

2000 7,135,439 +11.1%

2010 7,677,089 +7.6%

Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions. In 1958, 5 counties were put under Changchun's jurisdiction, increasing the total population to over 4 million.

According to the Sixth China
China
Census, the total population of the City of Changchun
Changchun
reached 7.677 million in 2010.[46] The statistics in 2011 estimated the total population to be 7.59 million. The birth rate was 6.08 per thousand and the death rate was 5.51 per thousand. The urban area had a population of 3.53 million people. In 2010 the sex ratio of the city population was 102.10 males to 100 females.[46] Ethnic groups[edit] As in most of Northeastern China
China
the ethnic makeup of Changchun
Changchun
is predominantly Han nationality
Han nationality
(96.57 percent), with several other minority nationalities.[citation needed] Economy[edit] Changchun
Changchun
achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of RMB332.9 billion in 2010, representing a rise of 15.3 percent year on year. Primary industry output increased by 3.3 percent to RMB25.27 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 19.0 percent, reaching RMB171.99 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 12.6 percent to RMB135.64 billion. The GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of Changchun
Changchun
was ¥58,691 in 2012, which equates to $9338. The GDP of Changchun
Changchun
in 2012 was RMB445.66 billion and increased 12.0 percent compared with 2011. The primary industry grew 4.3 percent to RMB31.71 billion. Secondary industry increased by RMB229.19 billion, which is a rise of 13.1 percent year on year. Tertiary industry of Changchun
Changchun
in 2012 grew 11.8 percent and increased by RMB184.76 billion.[3] [47]

A FAW-built Audi
Audi
100

The city's leading industries are production of automobiles, agricultural product processing, biopharmaceuticals, photo electronics, construction materials, and the energy industry.[6] Changchun
Changchun
is the largest automobile manufacturing, research and development center in China, producing 9 percent of the country's automobiles in 2009.[48] Changchun
Changchun
is home to China's biggest vehicle producer FAW (First Automotive Works) Group, which manufactured the first Chinese truck and car in 1956. The automaker's factories and associated housing and services occupies a substantial portion of the city's southwest end. Specific brands produced in Changchun
Changchun
includes the Red Flag luxury brand, as well as joint ventures with Audi, Volkswagen, and Toyota. In 2012, FAW sold 2.65 million units of auto. The sales revenue of FAW amounted to RMB 408.46 billion, reprensenting a rise of 10.8% on year.[6] As cradle of the auto industry, one of Changchun’s better known nicknames is "China's Detroit".[8] Manufacturing of transportation facilities and machinery is also among Changchun's main industries. 50 percent of China's passenger trains, and 10 percent of tractors are produced in Changchun. Changchun Railway Vehicles, one of the main branches of China
China
CNR Corporation, has a joint venture established with Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation
to build Movia
Movia
metro cars for the Guangzhou Metro
Guangzhou Metro
and Shanghai
Shanghai
Metro,[49] and Rapid Transit Vehicle cars for the Tianjin
Tianjin
Metro. Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment
in the city was US$3.68 billion in 2012, up 19.6% year on year.[6] In 2004 Coca-Cola set up a bottling plant in the city’s ETDZ with an investment of US$20 million.[50] Changchun
Changchun
hosts the yearly Changchun
Changchun
International Automobile Fair, Changchun
Changchun
Film Festival, Changchun
Changchun
Agricultural Fair, Education Exhibition and the Sculpture Exhibition. CRRC manufactures most of its bullet train carriages at its factory in Changchun. In November 2016, CRCC Changchun
Changchun
unveiled the first bullet train carriages in the world with sleeper berths, thus extending their use for overnight passages across China. They would be capable of running in ultra low temperature environments. Nicknamed Panda, the new bullet trains are capable of running at 250 kmph, operate at -40 degrees Celsius, have wifi hubs and contain sleeper berths that fold into seats during the day.[51] Other large companies in Changchun
Changchun
include:

Yatai Group, established in 1993 and listed on the Shanghai
Shanghai
Stock Exchange in 1995. It has developed into a major conglomerate involved in a wide range of industries including property development, cement manufacturing, securities, coal mining, pharmaceuticals and trading.[52] Jilin
Jilin
Grain Group, a major processor of grains.[53]

Development zones[edit] Changchun
Changchun
Automotive Economic Trade
Trade
and Development Zone[edit]

A Hongqi H7 manufactured in Changchun's FAW Company on display at the 2012 Hannover-Messe

Founded in 1993, the Changchun
Changchun
Automotive Trade
Trade
Center was re-established as the Changchun
Changchun
Automotive Economic Trade
Trade
and Development Zone in 1996. The development zone is situated in the southwest of the city and is adjacent to the China
China
First Automobile Works Group Corporation and the Changchun
Changchun
Film ThemeCity. It covers a total area of approximately 300,000 square metres (3,229,173 square feet). Within the development zone lies an exhibition center and five specially demarcated industrial centers. The Changchun
Changchun
Automobile Wholesale Center began operations in 1994 and is the largest auto-vehicle and spare parts wholesale center in China. The other centers include a resale center for used auto-vehicles, a specialized center for industrial/commercial vehicles, and a tire wholesale center.[50] Changchun
Changchun
High Technology Development Zone[edit] The zone is one of the first 27 state-level advanced technology development zones and is situated in the southern part of the city, covering a total area of 49 km2 (19 sq mi). There are 18 full-time universities and colleges, 39 state and provincial-level scientific research institutions, and 11 key national laboratories. The zone is mainly focusing on developing five main industries, namely bio-engineering, automobile engineering, new material fabrication, photo-electricity, and information technology. Changchun
Changchun
Economic and Technological Development Zone[edit] Established in April 1993, the zone enjoys all the preferential policies stipulated for economic and technological development zones of coastal open cities.[50] The total area of CETDZ is 112.72 square kilometres (43.52 square miles), of which 30 square kilometres (12 square miles) has been set aside for development and utilization.[54] It is located 5 kilometres (3 miles) from downtown Changchun, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the freight railway station and 15 km (9 mi) from the Changchun
Changchun
international airport. The zone is devoted to developing five leading industries: namely automotive parts and components, photoelectric information, bio-pharmaceutical, fine processing of foods, and new building materials. In particular, high-tech and high value added projects account for over 80 percent of total output. In 2006 the zone's total fixed assets investment rose to RMB38.4 billion. Among the total of 1656 enterprises registered are 179 that are foreign-funded. The zone also witnessed a total industrial output of RMB 277 billion in 2007.[50]

Infrastructure[edit] Changchun
Changchun
is a very compact city, planned by the Japanese with a layout of open avenues and public squares. The city is developing its city layout in a long-term bid to alleviate pressure on limited land, aid economic development and absorb a rising population. According to a draft plan up until 2020, the downtown area will expand southwards to form a new city center around Changchun
Changchun
World Sculpture Park, Weixing Square and their outskirts, and the new development zone.[50] Railways[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
Railway Station

See also: Changchun
Changchun
Railway Vehicles Changchun
Changchun
has three passenger rail stations, most trains only stop at the central Changchun Railway Station
Changchun Railway Station
(simplified Chinese: 长春站; traditional Chinese: 長春站), where there are multiple daily departures to other northeast cities such as Jilin
Jilin
City, Harbin, Shenyang, and Dalian, as well as other major cities throughout the country such as Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Guangzhou. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway which runs through three provinces in northeastern China, has a stop in Changchun.[55] The new Changchun
Changchun
West Railway Station, situated in the western end of urbanized area, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Harbin– Dalian
Dalian
High-Speed Railway.[56] Despite once having the most complex tram system in Northern China, there is now only one remaining route open, route 54 (see Changchun Tram). However, Changchun
Changchun
is notable for having China's first urban light rail system, opened in 2002, which was developed from the existing tramway system. There is currently one line encompassing 14.6 km (9.1 mi) of track with plans to expand the system to an eventual 179 km (111 mi) of track.[50] Road network[edit] Changchun
Changchun
is linked to the national highway network through the Changchun– Harbin
Harbin
Expressway, the Changchun–Jilin–Hunchun Expressway and the busiest section in the province, the Changchun– Jilin
Jilin
North Highway. This section connects the two biggest cities in Jilin
Jilin
and is the trunk line for the social and economic communication of the two cities.[50] Changchun
Changchun
is served by a comprehensive bus system—most buses (and the tram) charge 1 Yuan (元) per ride. Private automobiles are becoming very common on the city's congested streets. Bicycles are relatively rare compared to other northeastern Chinese cities, but mopeds, as well as pedal are relatively common. Air[edit] Main article: Changchun
Changchun
Longjia International Airport Changchun Longjia International Airport
Changchun Longjia International Airport
located 31.2 kilometres (19.4 miles) north-east of Changchun
Changchun
urban area. The airport's construction began in 1998, and was intended to replace the operations of the older Changchun
Changchun
Dafangshen Airport, which was built in 1941. The airport opened for passenger service on August 27, 2005.[57] The operation of the airport is shared by both Changchun
Changchun
and nearby Jilin
Jilin
City.[58] The airport has scheduled flights to major cities including Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Guangzhou. There are also scheduled international flights between Changchun
Changchun
and overseas cities such as Bangkok,[59] Osaka[60] and Khabarovsk.[61] Military[edit] Changchun
Changchun
is headquarters of the 16th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the four group armies that comprise the Northern Theater Command
Northern Theater Command
responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia, Mongolia
Mongolia
and North Korea. Education[edit] Universities and colleges[edit]

PRC State key laboratory in Jilin
Jilin
University

Changchun
Changchun
has 27 regular institutions of full-time tertiary education with a total enrollment of approximate 160,000 students. Jilin University and Northeast Normal University
Northeast Normal University
are two key universities in China.[39] Jilin
Jilin
University is also one of the largest universities in China, with more than 60,000 students.

Changchun
Changchun
Normal University Changchun
Changchun
Taxation College Changchun
Changchun
University Changchun University of Science and Technology Changchun University of Chinese Medicine[62] Jilin
Jilin
College of the Arts Jilin
Jilin
Huaqiao Foreign Languages Institute, a private college offering bachelor study programs in foreign languages, international trade management and didactics[63] Jilin
Jilin
University Northeast Normal University Jilin
Jilin
Engineering Normal University

Middle schools[edit]

High School Attached to Northeast Normal University Affiliated Middle School to Jilin
Jilin
University No.72 Middle School of Changchun

Primary and secondary schools[edit] International schools include:

Changchun
Changchun
American International School Deutsche Internationale Schule Changchun

Sports and stadiums[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
Sports Centre

As a major Chinese city, Changchun
Changchun
is home to many professional sports teams:

Jilin
Jilin
Northeast Tigers (Basketball), is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting in China
China
top level league, CBA. Changchun
Changchun
Yatai Football Club, who have played home soccer matches at the Development Area Stadium since 2009.[64] In 2007 they won the Chinese Super League.[65]

There are two major multi-purpose stadiums in Changchun, including Changchun City Stadium and Development Area Stadium.

Changchun
Changchun
Wuhuan Gymnasium, the main venue of the 2007 Asian Winter Games. It has an indoor speed skating arena, Jilin
Jilin
Provincial Speed Skating Rink,[66] as one of five in China.[67]

Jinlin Tseng Tou are a professional ice hockey team based in the city, and compete in the Russian-based Supreme Hockey League.[68] They are one of two Chinese-based teams to enter the league during the 2017-18 season, the other being based in Harbin, China. Film[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
Film Group Corporation Changchun
Changchun
Film Festival

People[edit]

Ei-ichi Negishi
Ei-ichi Negishi
(根岸 英), 2010 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, was born in Japan Imperial-era Hsinking Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
(劉曉波/刘晓波), 2010 Nobel Peace Prize winner, was born in Changchun

See also[edit]

China
China
portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in China Tonghua Category:People from Changchun

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Changchun
Municipal Government. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2008.  ^ a b http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-jilin-admin.php ^ a b "2010年长春市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 Statistics Communique on National Economy and Social Development of Changchun, 2010" (in Chinese). 5 June 2011.  ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Jilin". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  ^ 中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号 (in Chinese). 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ a b c d e " Changchun
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Changchun
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Changchun
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Changchun
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China
and the Sanitary and Antiepidemic Condition of Yanbian in the Early 20th Century" (in Chinese). Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ Gamsa, M. (1 February 2006). "The Epidemic of Pneumonic Plague in Manchuria
Manchuria
1910–1911". Past & Present. 190: 147–183. doi:10.1093/pastj/gtj001.  ^ Akira Koshizawa, Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Capital Planning (Jiangsu: Social Sciences Academic Press,2011), 26–97. ^ Yishi Liu, "A Pictorial History of Changchun, 1898–1962," Cross Current 5, (2012): 191–217. ^ a b c Akira Koshizawa, Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Capital Planning (Jiangsu: Social Sciences Academic Press,2011), 26–97 ^ "YESTERDAY AND TO-DAY". Victoria University of Wellington. 1 April 1932. p. 30. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ 大同元年4月1日国務院佈告第1号「満洲国国都ヲ長春ニ奠ム」(大同元年3月10日) ^ 大同元年4月1日国務院佈告第2号「国都長春ヲ新京ト命名ス」(大同元年3月14日) ^ 「特別市指定ニ関スル件廃止ニ関スル件」(康徳4年6月27日勅令第142号) ^ a b 国務院国都建設局『國都大新京』(日譯)16頁 ^ 長春浄月潭. j.people.com.cn (in Japanese). 人民網日本株式会社事業案内. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ 新京特別市公署『新京市政概要』6頁 ^ 首都警察廳正式成立ノ件(大同元年10月18日民政部訓令第286号) ^ 後に「首都警察廳官制中改正ノ件」(康徳4年9月30日勅令第282号)により、新京特別市のみを管轄とした。 ^ 新京特別市公署『新京市政概要』7頁 ^ 『満洲年鑑』昭和20年(康徳12年)版、1944年、389頁 ^ 『満洲年鑑』等では「新京市政公署」の記述も見られる。 ^ 侵华日军使用细菌武器述略 (in Chinese). 人民日报社. 2005-06-16. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932–45 , and the American Cover-Up. London: Routledge, 1994. ^ LTC David M. Glantz, "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria". Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth
Fort Leavenworth
Kansas. ^ China
China
Is Wordless on Traumas of Communists’ Rise, Andrew Jacobs, New York Times, 1 October 2009 ^ Pomfret, John (2 October 2009). Red Army Starved 150,000 Chinese Civilians. The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon. 2006. Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Vintage Books. p383. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (2009-10-02). " China
China
Is Wordless on Traumas of Communists' Rise". New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^ a b "Society". Changchun
Changchun
Municipal Government. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.  ^ a b FAW Group Steps up Global Expansion FAW Official Site, Mar 27, 2007 Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b About FAW > Key Events FAW Official Site Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Mao's Red Flag Returning To Drive China
China
Leaders From Audi: Cars". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg LP. Feb 27, 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  ^ " Asian Winter Games
Asian Winter Games
open in northeastern city Changchun". CCTV.com. 29 January 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ 长春城市介绍. www.weather.com.cn (in Chinese). 中国天气网. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ 长春气候背景分析 (in Chinese). Weather China.  ^ a b "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census" (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of China. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=iOzKYKOy_nNmlYY9GwgyyHOWBCo-_ex32UrLDkOQILCs99GJsw86FYU5xdKxFcRGP-54YXNMad652-MDDep84K ^ Changchun: Economic News and Statistics for Changchun's Economy ^ "Bombardier to supply 246 Movia
Movia
cars for Shanghai
Shanghai
Line 12". Railway Gazette International. 2009-12-18. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g " China
China
Briefing Business Reports" (PDF). Asia Briefing. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.  ^ " China
China
develops bullet train with fold-up beds". China
China
Daily. Xinhua. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ Jilin
Jilin
Yatai Group Company Limited Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Changchun". China
China
Economy @ China
China
Perspective. 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ " Changchun
Changchun
Economic and Technology Development Zone". Rightsite.asia. RightSite Website Technology. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ "World's fastest railway in frigid regions starts operation". English.news.cn. 2012-12-01. Retrieved 1 December 2012.  ^ "Harbin- Dalian
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high-speed rail went into operation on December 1". Website of Jilin
Jilin
Province Government. 2012-11-27. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ 长春龙嘉国际机场本月27日零时将正式启用 (in Chinese). 25 August 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ Information about Changchun
Changchun
Airports Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Spring Airlines Adds New Thailand Service in W15". airlineroute.net. 7 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ "Spring Airlines Expands Osaka
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Khabarovsk
Changchun
Changchun
/ Bangkok
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Service from mid-Oct 2015". airlineroute.net. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ Changchun University of Chinese Medicine Homepage ^ Jilin
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Huaqiao Foreign Languages Institute Archived 27 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ 亚泰主场迁至经开体育场 ^ " China
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Jilin
Provincial Speed Skating Rink Changchun ^ image Archived 17 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.vhlru.ru/teams/

Sources[edit]

Changchun
Changchun
(China)—Britannica Online Encyclopedia

External links[edit]

Ethnicity Population[citation needed] Percentage[citation needed]

Han 6,883,310 96.47%

Manchu 142,998 2.0%

Korean 49,588 0.69%

Hui 43,692 0.61%

Mongol 11,106 0.16%

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Changchun.

Changchun
Changchun
travel guide from Wikivoyage Changchun
Changchun
Government website Changchun
Changchun
Foreign Affairs Information Portal

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Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Jilin
Jilin
Province

Changchun
Changchun
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Changchun

Chaoyang District Kuancheng District Erdao District Nanguan District Luyuan District Shuangyang
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District Jiutai
Jiutai
District Yushu City Dehui
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City Nong'an County

Prefecture-level cities

Jilin

Chuanying District Changyi District Longtan District Fengman District Shulan
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City Huadian City Jiaohe City Panshi
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City Yongji County

Siping

Tiexi District Tiedong District Gongzhuling
Gongzhuling
City Shuangliao
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City Lishu County Yitong Manchu Autonomous County

Liaoyuan

Longshan District Xi'an
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District Dongliao County Dongfeng County

Tonghua

Dongchang District Erdaojiang District Meihekou
Meihekou
City Ji'an City Tonghua
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County Huinan County Liuhe County

Baishan

Hunjiang District Jiangyuan District Linjiang
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City Jingyu County Fusong County Changbai Korean Autonomous County

Songyuan

Ningjiang District Fuyu City Qian'an County Changling County Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County

Baicheng

Taobei District Da'an City Taonan
Taonan
City Zhenlai County Tongyu County

Autonomous prefecture

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Yanji
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City Tumen City Dunhua
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City Antu County Wangqing County

v t e

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Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
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Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

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Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

Authority control

GND: 42641

.