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Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (Sinhalese: චන්ද්‍රිකා බණ්ඩාරනායක කුමාරතුංග,Tamil: சந்திரிகா பண்டாரநாயக்க குமாரதுங்க; born 29 June 1945) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the fifth President of Sri Lanka, from 12 November 1994 to 19 November 2005. The country's only female president to date, she is the daughter of two former prime ministers and was the leader of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom Party (SLFP) until the end of 2005.[1][2][3] In 2015 she was appointed as the chairperson of office for national unity and reconciliation.[4]

Contents

1 Early life, family, and education 2 Political career

2.1 Premiership and presidency 2.2 Post-presidency 2.3 Return to politics 2.4 Chairperson of Office for National Unity and Reconciliation 2.5 International Recognition

3 Personal life 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Early life, family, and education[edit] Main article: Bandaranaike family

Chandrika with Sri Lankan diplomat Tissa Wijeyeratne
Tissa Wijeyeratne
in Paris, early 1970s

Born Chandrika Bandaranaike comes from a political family with a long history of socio-political involvement in the country. Her father, Solomon Bandaranaike
Solomon Bandaranaike
was a government minister at the time of her birth and later became Prime Minister. He was assassinated in 1959, when Chandrika was fourteen. Chandrika's mother, Sirimavo Bandaranaike, then became the world's first female prime minister, in 1960. Chandrika's brother, Anura Bandaranaike
Anura Bandaranaike
is a former Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and a former minister who died in March 2008. Her sister Sunethra Bandaranaike
Sunethra Bandaranaike
is a well-known philanthropist and runs the Sunera Trust. Their paternal grandfather, Sir Solomon Dias Bandaranike, was the Maha Mudaliyar, the chief Ceylonese representative and advisor to the Governor of Ceylon and maternal grandfather was Barnes Ratwatte, Dissawa
Dissawa
of Sabaragamuwa
Sabaragamuwa
during British colonial rule who was a who were descended from Ratwatte Dissawa, Dissawa
Dissawa
of Matale, a signatory on behalf of the Sinhalese to the Kandyan Convention
Kandyan Convention
of 1815.[5] Chandrika was educated at the St Bridget's Convent, Colombo, and at the Aquinas University College Colombo
Colombo
where she studied for the bachelor of laws. She gained a scholarship to the University of Paris where she spent five years, graduating from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) in political science and international relations in 1970.[citation needed] While in Paris she obtained a diploma in Group Leadership from the same university and was trained as a political journalist at the Le Monde newspaper.[citation needed] Her PhD
PhD
studies in Development Economics at the University of Paris
University of Paris
1970–73[citation needed] were interrupted when she returned to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to enter politics, when her mother’s government had launched a wide-ranging programme of socialist reform and development.[6] During her days in France, it is reported that Chandrika was active in the Student Revolution of 1968.[7] She is fluent in Sinhala, English and French.[8] Political career[edit] Upon returning to Sri Lanka, she enrolled in and became active in the Sri Lanka Freedom Party
Sri Lanka Freedom Party
(SLFP) and, in 1974, became an executive committee member of its Women's League. Following the land reforms in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1972–1976, she was the principal director of the Land Reform Commission. From 1976 to 1977, she was chairman of the Janawasa Commission, which established collective farms. From 1976 to 1979, she acted as a consultant to the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations. She stayed active in politics leaving the SLFP and supporting her husband's party, the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Mahajana Party. After Kumaratunga was assassinated, she left the country for the UK, working for World Institute for Development Economics Research at the United Nations University in the interim, and not returning until 1991. Premiership and presidency[edit] On return to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
she rejoined SLFP and led her party to a historic and decisive victory at the southern provincial council elections. Kumaratunga was elected as the chief minister of the Western Province of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1993 in a landslide election victory. Kumaratunga herself was elected prime minister of a People's Alliance (PA) government from 19 August 1994 and won the presidential election held shortly thereafter in November. This ended 17 years of United National Party rule. She appointed her mother to succeed her as prime minister. Early in her term she made conciliatory moves towards the separatist Tamil Tigers (LTTE) in an attempt to end the ongoing civil war. After these overtures failed, she later pursued a more military-based strategy against them. In October 1999, Kumaratunga called an early presidential election.[9] She lost vision in her right eye (permanent optic nerve damage) in an assassination attempt, by the Tamil Tigers, at her final election rally at Colombo
Colombo
Town Hall
Town Hall
premises on 18 December 1999. She managed to defeat Ranil Wickremasinghe
Ranil Wickremasinghe
in the election held on 21 December and was sworn in for another term the next day.[10]

Kumaratunga (center) meeting with former US Secretary of State Colin Powell (right)

In December 2001 she suffered a setback in the parliamentary election: Her People's Alliance lost to the UNP, and her political opponent, Ranil Wickremasinghe, became Sri Lanka's new prime minister. She continued as president of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
although her relationship with the Wickremasinghe government was a strained one. In February 2002 Wickremasinghe's government and the LTTE signed a permanent ceasefire agreement, paving the way for talks to end the long-running conflict. In December, the government and the rebels agreed to share power during peace talks in Norway. President Kumaratunga believed Wickremasinghe was being too lenient towards the LTTE, and in May 2003 she indicated her willingness to sack the prime minister and government if she felt they were making too many concessions to the rebels. On 4 November 2003, while Prime Minister Wickremasinghe was on an official visit to the US, Kumaratunga prorogued Parliament and took over Defense, Interior and Media ministries herself. Her opponents criticised her, calling her behaviour dictatorial.[11] Kumaratunga's PA and the leftist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
or JVP (People's Liberation Front) formed the United People's Freedom Alliance (UPFA) in January 2004 and dissolved Parliament. Having won the election held on 2 April 2004 the UPFA formed a government with Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
as prime minister. This marked the first time in history that the JVP became a partner in a Sri Lankan government.[12] However, in June 2005, the JVP left Kumaratunga's government over a disagreement regarding a joint mechanism with LTTE rebels sharing foreign aid to rebuild the tsunami-devastated Northern and Eastern areas of Sri Lanka.[13] Kumaratunga's six-year term ended that year. She argued that since the 1999 election had been held one year early, she should be allowed to serve that leftover year. Mahinda Rajapaksa succeeded her as president, leading all 25 parties in the UPFA. Post-presidency[edit] Kumaratunga is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of current and former female presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilise the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development. In November 2009, Kumaratunga was appointed to the 12-member board of directors of the Club de Madrid. She is a frequent panelist and member of the Clinton Global Initiative and advisor to its annual meeting held every September. Kumaratunga noted in 2007: ″I sincerely tried to reach a political consensus to solve the ethnic question, and tried to introduce a pluralistic constitution that would cater to the political aspirations of the Tamil people without dividing the country.″[14] On September 2009, Kumaratunga, on a personal visit to Kerala, India told reporters "I too care for my life. Even though the current government is a government of my party ( Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom Party) I don't feel safe." She continued, "There is an overall lack of freedom and an atmosphere of fear prevails in the country. The basic rights of the people and media freedom are restricted in Sri Lanka." [15] Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
is a member of the Global Leadership Foundation, a nonprofit organisation that offers, discreetly and confidentially, a range of experienced advisors to political leaders facing difficult situations. It works to support democratic leadership, prevent and resolve conflict through mediation and promote good governance in the form of democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law. It does so by making available, discreetly and in confidence, the experience of former leaders to today’s national leaders. It is a nonprofit organization composed of former heads of government, senior governmental and international organization officials who work closely with heads of government on governance-related issues of their concern. In February 2017, Kumaratunga accepted an invitation to join the eminent international Council of Patrons of the Asian University for Women (AUW) in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The University, which is the product of east-west foundational partnerships (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Open Society Foundation, IKEA Foundation etc.) and regional cooperation, serves extraordinarily talented women from 15 countries across Asia and the Middle East, including Sri Lanka.[16][17] Return to politics[edit] On 21 November 2014 Kumaratunga formally announced her return to active politics at a press conference held by the country's opposition coalition, following weeks of speculation regarding her involvement in the coalition's decision-making.[18][19] She successfully endorsed Maithripala Sirisena
Maithripala Sirisena
common candidate in the 2015 Presidential election, who defeated Mahinda Rajapaksa. In the same the year, Kumaratunga supported the United National Party
United National Party
in the General elections to avoid Rajapaksa becoming the Prime Minister.[20] Chairperson of Office for National Unity and Reconciliation[edit] In 2015 she was appointed as the chairperson of office for national unity and reconciliation to overlook national unity in Sri Lanka.[21] International Recognition[edit] Her legacy of being a daughter of two former Sri Lankan prime ministers drove much global attention even in her childhood.She also earned immense international recognition by being Sri Lanka's first-ever female president.Chandrika was also considered as one of the world's most powerful women and in 2005 Forbes
Forbes
magazine named her as 25th in its "100 most powerful women" list in which Hillary Clinton former first lady of the United States
United States
was ranked just below her as 26th.[22] Personal life[edit] Chandrika married movie star and politician Vijaya Kumaratunga in 1978. He was assassinated on 16 February 1988, outside his residence in the presence of Chandrika and their two children, then aged five and seven. The extremist Marxist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
(JVP) claimed responsibility. Kumaratunga's funeral remains to date, the largest-attended funeral of any politician or film idol in Sri Lanka (and potentially in the whole of Asia).[citation needed] Their two children are Yasodhara Kumaratunga Walker (born 1980), a medical doctor (Corpus Christi College, University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and St George's Medical School, University of London[citation needed]), and Vimukthi Kumaratunga (born 1982), a veterinary surgeon (University of Bristol), both in the UK. See also[edit]

List of political families in Sri Lanka President of Sri Lanka

References[edit]

^ " BBC
BBC
Profile: Chandrika Kumaratunga". BBC
BBC
News. 26 August 2005.  ^ "Chandrika".  ^ Skard, Torild "Chandrika Kumaratunga" in Women of Power - half a century of female presidents and prime ministers worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, 2014, 978-1-44731-578-0 ^ https://www.un.int/srilanka/news/former-president-chandrika-kumaratunga-chairperson-office-national-unity-and-reconciliation ^ Skard, Torild "Sirimavo Bandaranaike" and "Chandrika Kumaratunga", 2014 ^ President Kumaratunga, www.priu.gov.lk/execpres/bbk.html; Chandrika Kumaratunga, www.clubmadrid.org/en/miembro/chandrika_kumaratunga, both retrieved 7 Sept 2014 ^ BBC
BBC
News, Profile: Chandrika Kumaratunga, 26 August 2005 ^ "Chandrika Kumaratunga: Politics in the blood". BBC
BBC
News. 9 October 2000.  ^ "Presidential poll in Sri Lanka". BBC
BBC
News. 20 October 1999. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/574780.stm ^ "'Dictatorship' cries after parliament suspended". ABC Radio Australia. 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2016.  ^ "Kumaratunga Interview". Time Asia. 22 March 2004.  ^ "General of the United Nations-15 September 2005" (PDF).  ^ "The Queen ponders a return". HIMAL South Asian. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008.  ^ Talked to reporters in Sep 2009 Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "CBK joins AUW International Council of Patrons". dailynews.lk. 2017-03-01.  ^ "CBK Takes On Advisory Role Empowering Women At Asian University for Women". dailynews.lk. 2017-02-28.  ^ "Fresh moves by CBK". DailyMirror Sri Lanka. 7 November 2014.  ^ "Chandrika Announces Her Return To Active Politics After Nine Years". Asian Mirror. 21 November 2014.  ^ http://www.onlanka.com/news/i-will-contest-as-the-common-candidate-maithripala-sirisena.html ^ https://www.un.int/srilanka/news/former-president-chandrika-kumaratunga-chairperson-office-national-unity-and-reconciliation ^ url= https://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/E6JK.html title=CBK among worlds most powerful women

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chandrika Kumaratunga.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Chandrika Kumaratunga

The Bandaranaike Ancestry The Ratwatte Ancestry Economic and political agenda of a people's President Chandrika Kumaratunga's official website Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom Party's official Website Profile by BBC Search BBC
BBC
for news about Chandrika Kumaratunga Ministry of Defence : Sri Lanka Profile of Mrs. Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
on Sri Lankan government website Personal reminiscence of meeting with the Sri Lankan President by S. Abbas Raza of 3 Quarks Daily.

Political offices

Preceded by Ranil Wickremesinghe Prime Minister of Sri Lanka 1994 Succeeded by Sirimavo Bandaranaike

Preceded by Dingiri Banda Wijetunga President of Sri Lanka 1994–2005 Succeeded by Mahinda Rajapaksa

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Maumoon Abdul Gayoom Chairperson of SAARC 1998 Succeeded by Sher Bahadur Deuba

v t e

Presidents of Sri Lanka

William Gopallawa Junius Richard Jayewardene Ranasinghe Premadasa Dingiri Banda Wijetunga Chandrika Kumaratunga Mahinda Rajapaksa Maithripala Sirisena

v t e

Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka

Don Stephen Senanayake Dudley Senanayake John Kotelawala S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike Wijeyananda Dahanayake Dudley Senanayake Sirimavo Bandaranaike Dudley Senanayake Sirimavo Bandaranaike Junius Richard Jayewardene Ranasinghe Premadasa Dingiri Banda Wijetunga Ranil Wickremesinghe Chandrika Kumaratunga Sirimavo Bandaranaike Ratnasiri Wickremanayake Ranil Wickremesinghe Mahinda Rajapaksa Ratnasiri Wickremanayake Disanayaka Jayaratne Ranil Wickremesinghe

v t e

Finance Ministers of Sri Lanka

Jayewardene Goonetilleke Jayawardena de Zoysa Musthapa Goonetilleke Jayewardene Bandaranaike Silva Kalugalle Ilangaratne Perera Wanninayake Perera Bandaranaike de Mel Marikkar Wijetunga Kumaratunga Choksy Amunugama Rajapaksa Karunanayake

v t e

Chief Ministers of Western Province

Western Province

Susil Moonesinghe Chandrika Kumaratunga Morris Rajapaksa Susil Premajayantha Vacant Susil Premajayantha Reginald Cooray Nandana Mendis Reginald Cooray Prasanna Ranatunga Isura Devapriya

Acting

v t e

← Members of the 10th Parliament of Sri Lanka (1994 (1994)–2000 (2000)) →

Speaker: K. B. Ratnayake Prime Minister: Chandrika Kumaratunga/ Sirimavo Bandaranaike
Sirimavo Bandaranaike
/ Ratnasiri Wickremanayake Leader of the Opposition: Ranil Wickremesinghe

Central Province

Kandy

Sarath Amunugama Tissa Attanayake A. R. M. Abdul Cader Gamini Dissanayake Abdul Cader Shahul Hameed D. M. Jayaratne Lucky Jayawardena Lakshman Kiriella Wilson Kuruppuarachchi Anuruddha Ratwatte Irajarathnan Sivasamy Ediriweera Weerawardena

Matale

Alick Aluwihare Nandimithra Ekanayake Monty Gopallawa Janaka Bandara Tennakoon Jinadasa Vidanagamage

Nuwara Eliya

Tissa Abhayagunasekara P. Chandrasekaran S. B. Dissanayake Renuka Herath C. B. Ratnayake Suppaiah Sathasivam Muthu Sivalingam Arumugam Thondaman

Eastern Province

Ampara

M. H. M. Ashraff Nihal Bakmeewewa P. Dayaratna Chandradasa Galappaththi U. L. M. Mohideen H.M. Weerasinghe

Batticaloa

M. L. A. M. Hizbullah Seyed Ali Zahir Moulana Joseph Pararajasingham P. Selvarasa K. Thurairajasingam

Trincomalee

M. E. H. Maharoof M. N. Abdul Majeed Sunil Ranaweera A. Thangathurai

Northern Province

Jaffna

Unfinished

Vanni

S. S. M. Abu Bakar V. Balachandran Rasamanohari Pulendran S. Shanmuganathan D. Siddarthan Premaratnage Sumathipala

North Central Province

Anuradhapura

Somapala Adikari Chandrasoma Bandara Berty Premalal Dissanayake Punchi Banda Dissanayake P. Harrison Tissa Karalliyadde Shantha Premarathna A. H. B. Semasinghe

Polonnaruwa

Nandasena Herath T. B. Mahalekam H. G. P. Nelson Rukman Senanayake Maithripala Sirisena

North Western Province

Kurunegala

A.H.M Alavi D. M. Bandaranayake Bandula Basnayake Jayadeva Chandrawansha Salinda Dissanayake T. B. Ekanayake H.M.A. Loku Bandara S. B. Nawinne Gamini Jayawickrama Perera Munidasa Premachandra Amara Piyaseeli Ratnayake Jayasena Rajakaruna Piyasoma Upali D.P. Wickramasinghe Anura Priyadharshana Yapa

Puttalam

D. M. Dassanayake Joseph Fernando Milroy Fernando Harold Herath Festus Perera D.R. J. Silva Asoka Wadigamangawa

Sabaragamuwa
Sabaragamuwa
Province

Kegalle

Jagath Balasooriya Y. L. M. Farook Maheepala Herath P. B. G. Kalugalla K. Vincent Perera H. R. J. Podinilame Athauda Seneviratne R.A.D. Sirisena Mano Wijeyeratne

Ratnapura

Gamini Atukorale Nalanda Ellawala U. L. Heenmahaththaya K. D. Nanda Mathew Vasudeva Nanayakkara Susantha Punchinilame Jayatissa Ranaweera John Seneviratne H. M. U. Silva Pavithra Wanniarachchi

Southern Province

Galle

Vajira Abeywardena M. U. S. D. Amarasiri Asoka Weerasinghe de Silva Amarasiri Dodangoda Piyasena Gamage Sarath Gunawardena Nandadasa Gunasinghe H. G. N. P. Kariyawasam Rupa Karunathilake Richard Pathirana

Hambantota

Mahinda Amaraweera Ananda Kularatne Chamal Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa Nirupama Rajapaksa Mervyn Silva J. P. V. Vipulaguna

Nihal Galappaththi

Matara

Lakshman Yapa Abeywardena Dullas Alahapperuma Ronnie de Mel Chandrasiri Gajadeera E. A. Samarasinghe Mangala Samaraweera Mahinda Wijesekara H. R. Wimalasiri

Uva Province

Badulla

W. J. M. Lokubandara Dilan Perera Hema Ratnayake R.M. Ratnayake Ravindra Samaraweera Lakshman Senewiratne Sennan Veera Samaraweera Weerawanni

Monaragala

Dharmadasa Banda Ranjith Madduma Bandara Sumedha Jayasena A. M. Jayawardana Jagath Pushpakumara

Western Province

Colombo

Ossie Abeygunasekera

P. P. Devaraj

Srimani Athulathmudali Nawalaage Benet Cooray Nimal Siripala de Silva Tyronne Fernando A. H. M. Fowzie C. V. Gunaratne Indika Gunawardena Karunasena Kodituwakku Jeewan Kumaranatunga Gamini Lokuge Weerasinghe Mallimarachchi

R. Yogarajan

M. H. Mohamed Susil Moonesinghe Bharatha Lakshman Premachandra Gunasekara Premaratne Amal Senalankadikara Bernard Soysa Kingsley Wickramaratne Ranil Wickremesinghe

Gampaha

John Amaratunga Chandrika Kumaratunga Jeyaraj Fernandopulle Upali Gunaratne Lionel Gunawardena Anura Hapangama Lakshman Jayakody Wijayapala Mendis Jinadasa Nandasena Athula Nimalasiri Felix Perera Joseph Michael Perera Reginold Perera Sarathchandra Rajakaruna Suranimala Rajapaksha Reggie Ranatunga Neil Rupasinghe A. V. Suraweera

Kalutara

Sumithra Priyanganie Abeyweera Imthiaz Bakeer Markar Reginald Cooray Thilak Karunarathna Anil Moonesinghe Ediriweera Premarathna Jayasiri Sarath Kumara Ranawaka Mahinda Samarasinghe Kumara Welgama Ratnasiri Wickremanayake

National List (29)

Unfinished

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 68067050 LCCN: n89269312 ISNI: 0000 0000 7860 8041 GND: 11932894

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