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The Federal Chancellor
Chancellor
(German: Bundeskanzler, sometimes shortened to Kanzler) is the head of government of Austria. In his capacity as chairman of the Austrian Federal Government, the chancellor represents the supreme federal authority of the executive branch. Though formally an equal member of the cabinet, the Chancellor
Chancellor
is considered to be the most powerful position in Austrian politics, and as such is the nation's de facto chief executive. His official seat is in the Federal Chancellery. The current Chancellor
Chancellor
is Sebastian Kurz, who was sworn-in on 18 December 2017.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Habsburg Monarchy 1.2 Austrian Empire

2 Appointment 3 Role and powers 4 List of Chancellors of Austria 5 Living former Chancellors 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External links

History[edit] The use of the term Chancellor
Chancellor
(Kanzler, derived from Latin: cancellarius) as head of the chancery writing office can be traced back as far as the ninth century, when under King Louis the German
Louis the German
the office of the Archchancellor
Archchancellor
(Erzkanzler), later Imperial Chancellor (Reichserzkanzler), was created as a high office on the service of the Holy Roman Emperor.[2] The task was usually fulfilled by the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz as Archchancellors of the German lands. In the course of the Imperial reform, the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I in 1498 attempted to counter the spiritual power of the Reichserzkanzler with a more secular position of an Imperial Court Chancellor
Chancellor
(Hofkanzler), but the two became merged. These were also the times when attempts were made to balance Imperial absolutism by the creation of Imperial Governments (Reichsregiment), ultimately a failure. Habsburg Monarchy[edit] Nevertheless, when Maximilian's grandson Ferdinand I succeeded him as Archduke of Austria
Austria
in 1521, his elder brother Emperor Emperor Charles V (1519–1556) appointed Mercurino Gattinara
Mercurino Gattinara
as "Grand Chancellor
Chancellor
of all the realms and kingdoms of the king" (Großkanzler aller Länder und Königreiche). The separate position of an Austrian Court Chancellor
Chancellor
appeared as a Österreichische Hofkanzlei around 1526, when the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
arose with the Bohemian and Hungarian inheritance; it was however once again merged with the equivalent Reichshofkanzlei office of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1559. Upon the 1620 Battle of White Mountain
Battle of White Mountain
and the suppression of the Bohemian revolt, Emperor Ferdinand II had separate Court Chancelleries established in order to strengthen the unity of the Habsburg hereditary lands. Beside a Bohemian and Hungarian chancellery, he created the office of an Austrian chancellor in Vienna, responsible for the Archduchy of Austria
Austria
proper (i.e. Upper and Lower Austria) with the Inner Austrian territories and Tyrol. Under Emperor Leopold I (1658–1705) the term again became Hofkanzler with Johann Paul Freiherr von Hocher (1667–1683), and Theodor von Strattman (1683–1693).[3]

Federal Chancellery on Ballhausplatz, former Geheime Hofkanzlei

The eighteenth century was dominated by Prince Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg (1753–1792), who was Chancellor
Chancellor
to four Habsburg emperors from Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
to Francis II, with the titles of both Hofkanzler and Staatskanzler. He was succeeded by Johann Philipp von Cobenzl (1792–1793), who was dismissed by Emperor Francis II over the Partition of Poland
Partition of Poland
and was succeeded by Johann Amadeus Francis de Paula (Baron Thugot) (1793–1800). Thugot's chancellorship did not survive the Austrian defeats by the French at the battles of Marengo and Hohenlinden in 1800 and he was replaced by Johan Ludwig Joseph Cobenzl (1800–1805), his predecessor's cousin, but who in turn was dismissed following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz in 1805. Austrian Empire[edit] With the consequent dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and founding of the Austrian Empire, Francis II abdicated the former Imperial Throne, but remained Emperor Francis I of Austria
Austria
in 1806. He had replaced Cobenzl with Johan Philip Charles Stadion (1805–1809) the previous year, but his career was in turn cut short in 1809 following yet another Austrian defeat by Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Wagram
Battle of Wagram
and subsequent humiliation at the Treaty of Schönbrunn. Prince Klemens von Metternich was appointed by Francis I to the positions of Hofkanzler and Staatskanzler
Staatskanzler
(1821–1848). However, there is some opinion that the Chancellor
Chancellor
title was not used between Prince Kaunitz-Rietberg's resignation in 1792 and 1821.[4] As the Metternich system had become a synonym for his reactionary politics, the title of a State Chancellor
Chancellor
was abolished upon the 1848 revolutions. The position became that of a Minister-President of Austria, equivalent to Prime Minister, with the exception of Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust (1867–1871)[3][5] the title only re-emerging at the birth of German Austria
Austria
after World War I
World War I
in 1918, when Karl Renner
Karl Renner
was appointed Staatskanzler. With the enactment of the Constitution of Austria
Austria
on 10 November 1920, the actual term Bundeskanzler was implemented as head of the executive branch of the First Austrian Republic. Appointment[edit] The Chancellor
Chancellor
is appointed and sworn in by the President.[6] In theory, the President can appoint anyone eligible to be elected to the National Council, essentially meaning any Austrian national over the age of 18.[7] In practice, a Chancellor
Chancellor
is unable to govern unless he or she commands the confidence of the National Council. For this reason, the Chancellor
Chancellor
is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Council, or the senior partner in the governing coalition. A notable exception to this occurred after the 1999 election. The Freedom Party won the most seats and went into coalition with the People's Party. While this would have normally made Freedom Party leader Jorg Haider
Jorg Haider
Chancellor, he was deemed too controversial to be a member of the Cabinet, let alone Chancellor. He thus stepped aside in favour of People's Party leader Wolfgang Schüssel. The Chancellor
Chancellor
has no term limits. As a matter of constitutional convention, the Chancellor
Chancellor
usually offers his or her resignation to the President upon dissolution of the National Council. The President usually declines and directs the Chancellor
Chancellor
and his or her cabinet to operate as a caretaker government until a new National Council is in session and a new majority leader has emerged. In fact, the constitution expressly encourages the President to use a Chancellor
Chancellor
as his or her own interim successor.[8] A Chancellor
Chancellor
is typically appointed or dismissed together with his or her ministers. Technically, the President can only appoint ministers as nominated by the Chancellor, so the Chancellor
Chancellor
is appointed first. Having been sworn in, the Chancellor
Chancellor
presents the President with his or her list of ministers; they will usually have been installed just minutes later. Neither Chancellors nor ministers need to be confirmed by either house of parliament; the appointees are fully capable of discharging the functions of their respective offices immediately after having been sworn in.[9] The National Council can force the President to dismiss a Chancellor or a minister through a motion of no confidence. The President is constitutionally required to dismiss a cabinet member the National Council declares it wants gone.[10] Opposition parties will sometimes table motions of no confidence against ministers, and occasionally whole cabinets, in order to demonstrate criticism; these motions are not expected to pass and never do. Role and powers[edit]

Cabinet room in the Austrian Chancellery.

The Chancellor
Chancellor
chairs the meetings of the cabinet. The constitution does not vest the Chancellor
Chancellor
with the authority to issue directions to ministers; it characterizes his or her role in the cabinet as that of a primus inter pares.[11] The power of the office to set policy derives partly from its inherent prestige, partly from the fact that the President is required to dismiss ministers the Chancellors requests removed,[9] and partly from the Chancellor's position of leadership in the party or coalition controlling the National Council. Most articles of the constitution that mention the office of Chancellor
Chancellor
are tasking the incumbent with notarizing decisions by the President or by various constitutional bodies, with ensuring that these decisions are duly announced to the general public, or with acting as an intermediary between various branches of government. In particular, the Chancellor

submits bills passed by the National Council to the President for certification, countersigns certifications of bills made by the President,[12] announces the bills that have thus become laws, announces treaties the Republic of Austria
Austria
is party to upon ratification,[13] announces Constitutional Court decision overturning laws or executive orders,[14] announces the results of Presidential elections,[15] announces changes to the Rules of Procedure adopted by the Federal Council,[16] countersigns decisions reached by the Federal Assembly,[17] announces declarations of war,[17] and notifies provincial governments of bills passed by the National Council that require their assent to become law.[18]

The Chancellor
Chancellor
also convenes the Federal Assembly if the National Council moves to have the President removed from office,[15] or if the National Council moves to lift the immunity of the President from criminal prosecution.[19] In the former case, the Federal Assembly votes on whether to allow a referendum on the matter. In the latter case, the assent of the Federal Assembly is required for the President's immunity to be rescinded. Finally, the Chancellor
Chancellor
becomes Acting President if the President is incapacitated. However, if the President remains incapacitated after twenty days, the role of Acting President is passed to the three Presidents of the National Council.[20]

List of Chancellors of Austria[edit]

Karl Renner, Austrian State Chancellor
Chancellor
1918–1920

Main article: List of Chancellors of Austria Living former Chancellors[edit] There are six living former Austrian Chancellors:

Living former Chancellors of Austria

Franz Vranitzky (1986–1997) (1937-10-04) October 4, 1937 (age 80)

Viktor Klima (1997–2000) (1947-06-04) June 4, 1947 (age 70)

Wolfgang Schüssel (2000–2007) (1945-06-07) June 7, 1945 (age 72)

Alfred Gusenbauer (2007–2008) (1960-02-08) February 8, 1960 (age 58)

Werner Faymann (2008–2016) (1960-05-04) May 4, 1960 (age 57)

Christian Kern (2016–2017) (1966-01-04) January 4, 1966 (age 52)

See also[edit]

Politics of Austria Constitution of Austria Austrian Federal Government List of Chancellors of Austria Vice- Chancellor
Chancellor
of Austria Federal Chancellery of Austria President of Austria

Notes and references[edit]

^ Politico (17 December 2017). " Sebastian Kurz
Sebastian Kurz
gets approval for coalition with Austrian far right".  ^ "Interdisziplinärer Arbeitskreis Kurmainz und der Erzkanzler des Reiches: Reichserzkanzler".  ^ a b Cambridge Modern History vol xiii 1911. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Kaisergruft: Metternich Archived 15 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Austria
Austria
Forum Web Books Viewer".  ^ Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz article 70 ^ B-VG art. 26 ^ B-VG art. 71 ^ a b B-VG art. 70 ^ B-VG art. 74 ^ B-VG art. 69 ^ B-VG art. 47 ^ B-VG art. 49 ^ B-VG art. 140 ^ a b B-VG art. 60 ^ B-VG art. 37 ^ a b B-VG art. 40 ^ B-VG art. 42a ^ B-VG art. 63 ^ B-VG art. 64

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Federal Chancellor
Chancellor
of Austria.

Official website (in German)

v t e

Chancellors of Austria

First Republic

Karl Renner Michael Mayr Johann Schober Walter Breisky
Walter Breisky
(acting) Johann Schober Ignaz Seipel Rudolf Ramek Ignaz Seipel Ernst Streeruwitz Johann Schober Carl Vaugoin Otto Ender Karl Buresch Engelbert Dollfuss Kurt Schuschnigg Arthur Seyss-Inquart

Second Republic

Karl Renner Leopold Figl Julius Raab Alfons Gorbach Josef Klaus Bruno Kreisky Fred Sinowatz Franz Vranitzky Viktor Klima Wolfgang Schüssel Alfred Gusenbauer Werner Faymann Reinhold Mitterlehner
Reinhold Mitterlehner
(acting) Christian Kern Sebastian Kurz

v t e

Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members   and observers

Albania Andorra Armenia1 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus1 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Sovereign Military Order of Malta Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

Partially recognised2

Abkhazia1 Kosovo Northern Cyprus1 South Ossetia1

Unrecognised states3

Artsakh1 Transnistria

Former countries

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Soviet Union1 Yugoslavia

1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

v t e

European Council

List of meetings

'98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 (Jan–Apr) '04 (May–Dec) '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 (Jan–Jun) '13 (Jul–Dec) '14 '15

Tusk (President of the European Council) Juncker (President of the European Commission)

Kurz Michel Borisov Plenković Anastasiades Babiš Løkke Rasmussen Ratas Sipilä Macron Merkel Tsipras Orbán Varadkar Gentiloni Kučinskis Grybauskaitė Bettel Muscat Rutte Morawiecki Costa Iohannis Pellegrini Cerar Rajoy Löfven May

Eur

.