The Chams, or
Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, Vietnamese: người
Chăm or người Chàm, Khmer: ជនជាតិចាម), are an
ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia. Their
contemporary population, a diaspora, is concentrated between the
Kampong Cham Province
Kampong Cham Province in
Cambodia and Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Phan
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City and
An Giang Province in Southern Vietnam.
An additional 4,000
Chams live in Bangkok, Thailand, who had migrated
during Rama I's reign. Recent immigrants are mainly students and
workers, who preferably seek work and education in the southern
Islamic Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, and Songkhla provinces. A large
Cham diaspora also established in
Malaysia following the turbulence
Pol Pot regime, where they were quickly assimilated with
the local Malay population.
Cham people represent the core of the
Muslim communities in both
Cambodia and Vietnam.
From the 2nd to the mid-15th century the
Chams populated Champa, a
contiguous territory of independent principalities in central and
southern Vietnam. They spoke the Cham language, a Malayo-Polynesian
language of the Austronesian language family.
Chams and Malays are the
only sizable Austronesian peoples, that had settled in Iron Age
Southeast Asia among the more ancient Austroasiatic
1.1 Vietnamese invasion
1.2 Encounter with Islam
1.3 Religious history and change
1.4 Advent of the Vietnamese period
1.5 21st century
4 Martial art
6 Notable Chams
7 Data tables
8 See also
10 External links
Historical extent of the Kingdom of
Champa (in green) around 1100 CE
Depiction of fighting Cham naval soldier against the Khmer, stone
relief at the Bayon
Austronesian origin, patterns and chronology of migration remain
debated and it is assumed, that the
Cham people arrived in peninsular
Southeast Asia via Borneo. As mainland
Southeast Asia had been
populated on land routes by members of the Austroasiatic language
family, such as the
Mon people and the
Khmer people around 5,000 years
Chams were accomplished seafarers belonging to the
Austronesian marine migrants, that from 4,000 years BP populated and
soon dominated maritime Southeast Asia. Earliest known records of
Cham presence in
Indochina date back to the second century CE.
Maritime trade was the essence of a prosperous economy as population
centers around the river outlets along the coast controlled the
import/export of continental Southeast Asia. Acquisition of territory
has not been the subject of concern. The size of
Champa was during its
heyday in the 9th and 10th century not substantially larger than
during the formative period.
Cham folklore includes the creation of a myth in which the founder of
the first Cham polity was a certain Lady Po Nagar. Coming from humble
peasant origin somewhere in the Dai An Mountains, Khánh Hòa
Province, spirits assisted her as she traveled to
China on a floating
log of sandalwood where she married a man of royalty with whom she had
two children. She eventually returned to
Champa "did many good deeds
in helping the sick and the poor" and "a temple was erected in her
honor" as people venerate her as their patroness.
Champa principalities underwent like countless other political
Southeast Asia the process of Indianisation, who since the
early common era as a result of centuries of socio-economic
interaction adopted and introduced cultural and institutional elements
of pre-Islamic India. From the 8th century onward trade and shipping
of India came to be increasingly controlled by Muslims from such
regions as Gujarat. Islamic ideas became a part of the vast tide of
exchange, treading the same path as
Cham people picked up these ideas by the 11th century. This
can be seen in the architecture of Cham temples, which shares
similarities with the one of the Angkor Temples. Ad-Dimashqi writes in
1325, "the country of Champa... is inhabited by Muslims and idolaters.
Muslim religion came there during the time of Caliph Uthman... and
Ali, many Muslims who were expelled by the Umayyads and by Hajjaj,
fled there".
Daoyi Zhilüe records that at Cham ports, Cham women were married
by Chinese merchants to whom they frequently came back to after
trading voyages. A Chinese merchant from Quanzhou, Wang
Yuanmao, traded extensively with
Champa and married a Cham
In the 12th century, the Cham fought a series of wars with the Khmer
Empire to the west. In 1177, the Cham and their allies launched an
attack from the lake
Tonlé Sap and managed to sack the Khmer capital.
In 1181, however, they were defeated by the Khmer King Jayavarman VII.
Between the rise of the
Khmer Empire around 800 and the Vietnamese
people's territorial push south from
Jiaozhi and, later, Đại
Champa began to shrink. At a disadvantage against Vietnam's
army of 300,000 troops, the
Chams 100,000 were no match. In the
Cham–Vietnamese War (1471),
Champa suffered serious defeats at the
hands of the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 people were either captured
or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha
Trang with many
Chams fleeing to Cambodia.
Champa was no
longer a threat to Vietnam, and some were even enslaved by their
Encounter with Islam
A number of Cham also fled across the sea to Malay Peninsula and as
early as the 15th century, a Cham colony was established in Malacca.
Sunni Islam there as the
Malacca Sultanate was
Muslim since 1414. The King of
Champa then became an ally
of the Johor Sultanate; in 1594,
Champa sent its military forces to
fight alongside Johor against the Portuguese occupation of
Malacca. Between 1607 and 1676, one of the
Champa kings converted
Islam and it became a dominant feature of Cham society. The Chams
also adopted the Jawi alphabet.
Historical records in
Indonesia showed the influence of Queen
Muslim Princess from the Kingdom of
toward her husband, Kertawijaya, the Seventh King of
so that the royal family of the
Majapahit Empire eventually converted
to Islam, which finally lead to the conversion to
Islam of the entire
Chams Princess tomb can be found in Trowulan, the
site of the capital of the
Majapahit Empire. In Babad Tanah Jawi,
it is said that the king of
Brawijaya V has a wife named Dewi
Anarawati (or Dewi Dwarawati), a
Muslim daughter of the King of Champa
Chams had trade and close cultural ties with the
maritime kingdom of Srivijaya, and
Majapahit then in the Malay
Another significant figure from
Champa in the history of
Indonesia is Raden Rakhmat (Prince Rahmat) who's also known as Sunan
Ampel, one of
Wali Sanga (Nine Saints), who spread
Islam in Java. He
is considered as a focal point of the Wali Sanga, because several of
them were actually his descendants and/or his students. His father is
Maulana Malik Ibrahim
Maulana Malik Ibrahim also known as Ibrahim as-Samarkandy ("Ibrahim
Asmarakandi" to Javanese ears), and his mother is Dewi Candrawulan, a
Champa (Chams) who's also the sister of Queen Dwarawati.
Sunan Ampel was born in
Champa in 1401 CE. He came to
Java in 1443 CE,
in order to visit his aunt Queen Dwarawati, a princess of
married to Kertawijaya (
Brawijaya V), the King of Majapahit
Empire. Local legend says that he built the Great Mosque
of Demak (Masjid Agung Demak) in 1479 CE, but other legends attribute
that work to Sunan Kalijaga.
Sunan Ampel died in Demak in 1481 CE, but
is buried in
Ampel Mosque at Surabaya, East Java.
The Cham were matrilineal and inheritance passed through the
mother. Because of this, in 1499 the Vietnamese enacted a law
banning marriage between Cham women and Vietnamese men, regardless of
class.(Tạ 1988, p. 137) The Vietnamese also
issued instructions in the capital to kill all
Chams within the
vicinity. More attacks by the Vietnamese continued and in 1693 the
Champa Kingdom's territory was integrated as part of Vietnamese
Ming dynasty in
China fell, several thousand Chinese refugees
fled south and extensively settled on Cham lands and in Cambodia.
Most of these Chinese were young males, and they took Cham women as
wives. Their children identified more with Chinese culture. This
migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Vietnam War, a sizeable number of
Chams migrated to
Peninsular Malaysia, where they were granted sanctuary by the
Malaysian government out of sympathy for fellow
Muslim brothers; most
of them have now assimilated with Malay cultures.
Religious history and change
Chams participated in defeating the Spanish invasion of Cambodia.
Cambodian king Cau Bana Cand Ramadhipati launched the
Cambodian–Dutch War to expel the Dutch. The Vietnamese Nguyen Lords
toppled Ibrahim from power to restore Buddhist rule.
Vietnam invaded and conquered Champa,
Cambodia granted refuge to
Cham Muslims escaping from Vietnamese conquest.
Cham who migrated to
Sulu were Orang Dampuan.
Champa and Sulu
engaged in commerce with each other which resulted in merchant Chams
Sulu where they were known as Orang Dampuan from the
10th-13th centuries. The Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious
Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan. The
Buranun were then subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang
Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between
Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was
later restored. The Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based
Orang Dampuan who came to
Sulu from Champa.
civilization in its Indic form from the Orang Dampuan.
The trade in
Vietnamese ceramics was damaged due to the plummet in
trade by Cham merchants after the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of
Champa. Vietnam's export of ceramics was also damaged by its
internal civil war, the Portuguese and Spanish entry into the region
and the Portuguese conquest of
Malacca which caused an upset in the
trading system, while the carracks ships in the
Malacca to Macao trade
run by the Portuguese docked at Brunei due to good relations between
the Portuguese and Brunei after the Chinese permitted Macao to be
leased to the Portuguese.
Advent of the Vietnamese period
In the 1700s and 1800s Cambodian based
Chams settled in Bangkok.
Further expansion by the Vietnamese in 1720 resulted in the total
annexation of the
Champa kingdom and dissolution by the 19th century
Vietnamese Emperor, Minh Mạng. In response, the last
king, Pô Chien, gathered his people in the hinterland and fled south
to Cambodia, while those along the coast migrated to Trengganu
(Malaysia). A small group fled northward to the Chinese island of
Hainan where they are known today as the Utsuls. Their refuge in
Cambodia where the king and his people settled and were scattered in
communities across the Mekong Basin. Those who remained in the Nha
Trang, Phan Rang, Phan Rí, and
Phan Thiết provinces of central
Vietnam were absorbed into the Vietnamese polity. Cham provinces were
seized by the Nguyen Lords.
In 1832 the Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mang annexed the last Champa
Kingdom. This resulted in the Cham
Muslim leader Katip Suma, who was
educated in Kelantan, declaring a
Jihad against the
Vietnamese. The Vietnamese coercively fed lizard and
pig meat to Cham Muslims and cow meat to Cham Hindus against their
will to punish them and assimilate them to Vietnamese culture.
Flag of the FLC – Front de Libération du Champa, which was active
In the 1960s various movements emerged calling for the creation of a
separate Cham state in Vietnam. The Liberation Front of
– Le Front pour la Libération de Cham) and the Front de Libération
des Hauts plateaux dominated. The latter group sought greater alliance
with other hilltribe minorities.
Initially known as "Front des Petits Peuples" from 1946 to 1960, the
group later took the designation "Front de Libération des Hauts
plateaux" and joined, with the FLC, the "Front unifié pour la
Libération des Races opprimées" (FULRO) at some point in the 1960s.
Since the late 1970s, there is no serious Cham secessionist movement
or political activity in
Vietnam or Cambodia.
The Cham community suffered a major blow during the
Khmer Rouge rule
of Cambodia. The
Khmer Rouge targeted ethnic minorities like Chinese,
Thai, Lao, Vietnamese and Cham people, with the Chinese suffering the
biggest death toll (over 200,000) among the ethnic minorities,
followed by the Cham, and then the Thai. The Cham suffered the biggest
death toll overall. Around 100,000 Cham out of a total Cham population
of 250,000 died in the genocide.
The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be
found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until
conditions to do so are met. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove
this template message)
Muslim Cham girl in Châu Đốc
Map of the distribution of the Cham in southeast Asia today
The majority of Cham in
Vietnam (also known as the Eastern Cham) are
Hindu while their Cambodian counterparts are largely Muslim. A
small number of the Eastern Cham also follow
Islam and to a lesser
Mahayana Buddhism. A number emigrated to
France in the late
1960s during the
The majority (88%) of
Chams who reside in
Cambodia are Muslim, as
Utsul of Hainan. The isolation of Cham Muslims in central
Vietnam resulted in an increased syncretism with
Buddhism until recent
restoration of contacts with other global
Muslim communities in
Vietnamese cities.
Malaysia has some Cham immigrants and the link between the
the Malaysian state of
Kelantan is an old one. The Malaysian
constitution recognises the Cham rights to Malaysian citizenship and
Bumiputra status, and the Cham communities in
Malaysia and along
the Mekong River in
Vietnam continue to have strong interactions.
Around 98,971 Cham are estimated to live in Vietnam.
Acehnese people of Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia, are the
descendants of Cham refugees who fled after defeat by the Vietnamese
polity in the 15th century.
According to a National Geographic article published by journalist
Adam Bray, Vietnamese government fears that evidence of Champa's
influence over the disputed area in the South
China Sea would bring
attention to human rights violations and killings of ethnic minorities
Vietnam such as in the 2001 and 2004 uprisings, and lead to the
issue of Cham autonomy being brought into the dispute, since the
Cham people in a war in 1832, and the Vietnamese
continue to destroy evidence of Cham culture and artefacts left
behind, plundering or building on top of Cham temples, building farms
over them, banning Cham religious practices, and omitting references
to the destroyed Cham capital of Song Luy in the 1832 invasion in
history books and tourist guides. The situation of Cham compared to
ethnic Vietnamese is substandard, lacking water and electricity and
living in houses made out of mud. The Cham activist organisation
"International Office of Champa" republished Bray's article on their
website Cham Today.
Cham Muslims in Cambodia
Chams villages in An Giang province (An Phú, Châu Phú, Châu Thành
district, Tân Châu town).
A mosque in Da Phuoc village, An Phu district, An Giang province.
The Cham in
Vietnam are officially recognised by the Vietnamese
government as one of 54 ethnic groups. However, according to the Cham
adovcacy group International Office of
Champa (IOC-Champa) and Cham
Muslim activist Khaleelah Porome, both Hindu and
experienced religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on their
faith under the current Vietnamese government, with the Vietnamese
state confisticating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing
their religious beliefs. Hindu temples were turned into tourist sites
against the wishes of the Cham Hindus. In 2010 and 2013 several
incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where
Cham were murdered by Vietnamese. In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau
Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric
generator. Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta have also been
economically marginalised, with ethnic Vietnamese settling on land
previously owned by
Cham people with state support.
A Cambodian Cham
Muslim dissident, Hassan A Kasem, a former military
helicopter pilot who was both persecuted and imprisoned by the Khmer
Rouge and fought against Vietnamese invasion, denounced
trying to position itself as the saviour of
Cambodia from Khmer Rouge
rule and wrote that
Vietnam has deceived the west into thinking of it
as a "magnanimous liberator" when it invaded
Cambodia and ousted the
Khmer Rouge when in fact
Vietnam used the war to benefit its own
interests such subjecting Cambodian financial assets and national
treasures to pillaging and theft, settling border disputes to its own
advantage, trying to destroy Cambodian nationalist feeling against
Vietnam, benefiting from the mostly Khmer on Khmer violence by the
Khmer Rouge and setting up its own Communist puppet government to rule
Cambodia People's Party (CPP) with Vietnamese soldiers
secretly remaining behind in
Vietnam to prop up the puppet government
and Vietnamese officials pretending to be Khmer continuing to direct
the government as their puppet. The Cham activist organisation
"International Office of Champa" republished Hassan's article on their
website Cham Today.
The Cham Suleiman Idres Bin called for independence of
Vietnam and advocated for international intervention similar as to how
East Timor independence was implemented by the United Nations.
Muslim human rights activist Musa Porome and his daughter
Khaleelah Porome live in America and advocate for Cham rights against
the Vietnamese government.
An attempt at
Salafist expansion among the Cham in
Vietnam has been
halted by Vietnamese government controls, however, the loss of the
Chams has been to be benefit of Tablighi Jamaat.
The Cham shielded and always observed their girls attentively, placing
great importance on their virginity. A Cham saying said "As well leave
a man alone with a girl, as an elephant in a field of sugarcane."
The Cham Muslims view the karoeh (also spelled Karoh) ceremony for
girls as very significant. This symbolic ceremony marks the passage of
a girl from infancy to puberty (the marriageable age), and usually
takes place when the girl is aged fifteen and has completed her
development. If it has not taken place, the girl cannot marry
since she is "tabung". After the ceremony is done the girl can marry.
Circumcision to the Cham was less significant than karoeh.. It is
not practiced, only symbolic and performed with a toy wooden knife.
The Cham culture is diverse and rich because of the combination of
indigenous cultural elements (plains culture, maritime culture, and
mountain culture) and foreign cultural features (Indian cultures and
religions such as Buddhism; early Han Chinese influences; Islam) (Phan
Xuan Bien et al. 1991:376). The blend of indigenous and foreign
elements in Cham culture is a result of ecological, social, and
historical conditions. The influences of various Indian cultures
produced similarities among many groups in
Southeast Asia such as the
Cham, who traded or communicated with polities on the Indian
subcontinent. However, the indigenous elements also allow for cultural
distinctions. As an example, Brahmanism became the Ahier religion,
while other aspects of influence were changed, to adapt to local Ahier
characteristics and environment. The blending of various cultures has
produced its own unique form through the prolific production of
sculptures and architecture only seen at the
Champa temple tower
sites. The
Champa temples provide a wealth of
information about Cham history, art, and construction techniques,
through analysis and interpretation of architecture, styles, and
"Relations between the Hanoi government and ethnic minorities are
sensitive. In 2001 and 2004 massive human rights protests by hill
tribes resulted in deaths and mass imprisonments. For some time after
that, the Central Highlands were sealed off to foreigners."
In the legend (tambo) of
Minangkabau people (West Sumatra), there is a
figure of a warrior who holds the title of Harimau Campo or "Tiger of
Champa", in addition to other names. Harimau Campo along with Datuak
Suri Dirajo (Padang Panjang), Kambiang Utan (Cambodia), Kuciang Siam
Siam or Thailand), and Anjiang Mualim (Gujarat) formulate the concept
of Minangkabau Martial Art called
Silat (Pencak Silat
Minangkabau). Kambiang Utan, Kuciang Siam, and Anjiang Mualim are
equally in status with Harimau Campo, they are immigrants from foreign
lands to the Minangkabau region in former times. Until the present
time, the name of Harimau Campo still touted in the sasaran silek
(padepokan silat / silat training grounds) at Minangkabau as one of
the bases of their martial arts movements, including In the
famous Indonesian Action Movie: Merantau, The Raid: Redemption, and
The Raid 2.
Southeast Asia and
Islam in Southeast Asia
The temples at
Mỹ Sơn are one of the holiest of Cham sites
The Cham decorated their temples with stone reliefs depicting the gods
such as garuda fighting the nāga (12th-13th century CE)
The first recorded religion of the
Champa was a form of Shaiva
Hinduism, brought by sea from India.
Hinduism was the predominant
religion among the
Cham people until sixteenth century. Numerous
temples dedicated to
Shiva were constructed in the central part of
what is now Vietnam. The jewel of such temple is Mỹ Sơn. It is
often compared with other historical temple complexes in Southeast
Asia, such as
Java in Indonesia,
Angkor Wat of Cambodia,
Bagan of Myanmar and Ayutthaya of Thailand. As of 1999,
Mỹ Sơn has
been recognised by UNESCO as a world heritage site.
Muslim merchants of Arab and of Persian origin stopped along the
Vietnam coast en route to China,
Islam began to influence the
civilisation. The exact date that
Islam came to
Champa is unknown;
however, grave markers have been found that date it to the 11th
century. It is generally assumed that
Islam came to mainland Southeast
Asia much later than its arrival in
China during the Tang dynasty
(618–907) and that Arab traders in the region came into direct
contact only with the Cham and not others.
A syncretic form of
Islam that blends indigenous practices of
matriarchy, ancestor veneration and
Hinduism is practised by the Cham
Bani, who predominantly live in Vietnam's Bình Thuận and Ninh
Thuận Provinces. The Cham Bani worship in thang magik, the main
communal setting for rituals. They also celebrate the month of
Ramuwan (Ramadan), during which ancestors are called to return home
for veneration, and the acar (priests) stay at the thang magik for one
month and adhere to a vegetarian diet.
However, a small band of Chams, who called themselves Kaum Jumaat,
follow a localised adaptation of Islamic theology, according to which
they pray only on Fridays and celebrate
Ramadan for only three days.
However, some members of this group have joined the larger
community in their practices of
Islam in recent years. One of the
factors for this change is the influence by members of their family
who have gone abroad to study Islam.
The approximately 60,000 Cham Hindus do not have a strict caste
system, although previously they may have been divided between the
Nagavamshi Kshatriya  and the
Brahmin castes, the latter of which
would have represented a small minority of the population. Hindu
temples are known as Bimong in Cham language, but are commonly
referred to as tháp "stupa", in Vietnamese. The priests are divided
into three levels, where the highest rank are known as Po Adhia or Po
Sá, followed by Po Tapáh and the junior priests Po Paséh. In Ninh
Thuận, where many of the Cham in
Vietnam reside, Cham Balamon (Hindu
Cham) number 44,000 while Cham Bani (
Muslim Cham) number close to
31,000. Out of the 34 Cham villages in Ninh Thuận, 23 are Balamon
Hindu, while 11 are Bani or Muslim. In Binh Thuan province,
Balamon number close to 25,000 and Bani Cham around 10,000. There are
four pure Cham villages and nine mixed villages in Bình Thuận
Les Kosem - Cham separatist leader in FULRO
Musa Porome - Cham rights activist
Amu Nhan expert on Cham music
Chế Bồng Nga, the last strong king of Champa
Chế Linh, Vietnamese singer
Dang Nang Tho, sculptor and director of Cham Cultural Center, Phan
Rang, Ninh Thuan Province
Inrasara (Mr Phu Tram), poet & author
Osman Hasan, Cambodian secretary of state at the Ministry of Labour
and Vocational Training
Admixture analysis of the two populations from southern Vietnam.
MSEA1 (n = 890)
WISEA2 (n = 983)
Cham (n = 59)
0.629437 ± 0.256634†
0.370563 ± 0.256634
Vietnamese (n = 70)
0.839953 ± 0.56035
0.160047 ± 0.56035
¶ admixture coefficient;
† bootstrap average and standard deviation of the admixture
coefficient were obtained by bootstrap with 1000 replications.
1 MSEA: Mainland Southeast Asia
2 WISEA: western island Southeast Asia
Source: Table 2, Page 7, He Jun-dong et al. (2012)
Art of Champa
Islam in Cambodia
Islam in Vietnam
Hinduism in Southeast Asia
^ Joshua Project. "Cham, Western in Cambodia". Joshua Project.
Retrieved 17 June 2014.
^ the 2009
Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results
2009 Census Archived 14 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Hà
Nội, 6-2010. Table 5, page 134
^ Joshua Project. "Cham, Western in Laos". Joshua Project. Retrieved
17 June 2014.
^ 《回辉话》郑贻青, Dec 1997, page 6
^ a b Andaya, Leonard Y. (2008). Leaves of the same tree: trade and
ethnicity in the Straits of Melaka. University of Hawaii Press.
p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8248-3189-9.
^ "Thailand's World : Cham People Thailand". Thailandsworld.com.
Retrieved January 26, 2017.
^ a b "MISSIONS ATLAS PROJECT SOUTHEAST ASIA CAMBODIA" (PDF).
Worldmap.org. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
^ "Cham students caught up in Thailand's troubled south, National,
Phnom Penh Post". Phnompenhpost.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
Islam in Modern Thailand: Faith, Philanthropy and Politics -
Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown - Google Books". Google Books. Retrieved
January 26, 2017.
^ "Origins and diversification: the case of Austroasiatic groups"
(PDF). Rogerblench.info. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
^ Anne-Valérie Schweyer Le Viêtnam ancien (Les Belles Lettres, 2005)
^ "Genetic ancestry highly correlated with ethnic and linguistic
groups in Asia". eurekalert. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
^ "The Cham People - Cambodian Village Scholars Fund".
cambodianscholars.org. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
^ "THE AUSTRONESIAN SETTLEMENT OF MANILAND SOUTHEAST ASIA" (PDF).
Sealang. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
^ "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast
Asia : Nature Communications". Nature. Retrieved January 25,
^ Chapuis 1995, p. 39.
^ "Vietnamese History & Legends". Vietspring.org. Retrieved
January 25, 2017.
^ Derek Heng (15 November 2009). Sino–Malay Trade and Diplomacy from
the Tenth through the Fourteenth Century. Ohio University Press.
pp. 133–. ISBN 978-0-89680-475-3.
^ Heng 2009, p. 133.
^ Wicks 1992, p. 215.
^ Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu
Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 0-313-29622-7.
Retrieved January 9, 2011.
^ Roof 2011, p. 1210.
^ a b Schliesinger 2015, p. 18.
Ben Kiernan (2009). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and
Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. p. 110.
ISBN 0-300-14425-3. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
^ Davidson 1991, p. 105.
^ a b c Philip Taylor (2007). Cham Muslims of the Mekong Delta: place
and mobility in the cosmopolitan periphery. NUS Press. p. 78.
ISBN 9971-69-361-5. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
^ a b c Agus Sunyoto (2014). Atlas Wali Songo (The Atlas of Nine
Saint). Mizan. ISBN 978-602-8648-09-7. Retrieved 14 January
^ a b c John Renard (2009). Tales of God's Friends: Islamic
Hagiography in Translation. University of California Press.
p. 343. ISBN 9780520258969. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
^ Slamet Muljana (2005). Runtuhnya kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan timbulnya
Islam di Nusantara. PT LKiS Pelangi Aksara. p. 68.
ISBN 979-8451-16-3. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
^ id:Sunan Ampel
^ Hooker 2002, p. 75.
^ Kiernan 2008, p. 111.
^ Watson Andaya 2006, p. 82.
^ Yale University,
Southeast Asia Studies (1985). The
Issues 5-7. Council on
Southeast Asia Studies at Yale University.
p. 28. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
^ Teresa A. Meade, Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (2006). A companion to
gender history. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 332. ISBN 1-4051-4960-4.
Retrieved 9 January 2011.
^ Victor B. Lieberman (2003). Strange parallels:
Southeast Asia in
global context, c 800-1830, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 381. ISBN 0-521-80496-5. Retrieved 15
^ a b Juergensmeyer & Roof 2011, p. 1210.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc (2003). The New Encyclopædia
Britannica, Volume 8. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 669.
ISBN 0-85229-961-3. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The flaming womb: repositioning women
in early modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press.
p. 146. ISBN 0-8248-2955-7. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
^ Dr. Mark Phoeun. "PO CEI BREI FLED TO CAMBODIA IN 1795-1796 TO FIND
SUPPORT". Cham Today. Translated by Musa Porome. IOC-Champa. Archived
from the original on 2006.
^ a b Maria Christine N. Halili (2004). Philippine History. Rex
Bookstore. pp. 46ff. ISBN 978-9712339349.
^ The Filipino Moving Onward 5' 2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc.
pp. 3–. ISBN 978-971-23-4154-0.
^ Philippine History Module-based Learning I' 2002 Ed. Rex Bookstore,
Inc. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-971-23-3449-8.
^ Study Skills in English for a Changing World' 2001 Ed. Rex
Bookstore, Inc. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-971-23-3225-8.
^ Angela Schottenhammer; Roderich Ptak (2006). The Perception of
Maritime Space in Traditional Chinese Sources. Otto Harrassowitz
Verlag. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-447-05340-2.
^ Minh Trí Bùi; Kerry Nguyễn Long (2001). Vietnamese Blue &
White Ceramics. Khoa học xã hội. p. 176.
^ Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown (1 October 2013).
Islam in Modern
Thailand: Faith, Philanthropy and Politics. Routledge. pp. 19–.
^ Elijah Coleman Bridgman; Samuel Wells Willaims (1847). The Chinese
Repository. proprietors. pp. 584–.
^ Jean-François Hubert (8 May 2012). The Art of Champa. Parkstone
International. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-78042-964-9.
^ "The Raja Praong Ritual: A Memory of the Sea in Cham- Malay
Relations". Cham Unesco. Archived from the original on 6 February
2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
^ (Extracted from Truong Van Mon, “The Raja Praong Ritual: a Memory
of the sea in Cham- Malay Relations”, in Memory And Knowledge Of The
Sea In South Asia, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University
of Malaya, Monograph Series 3, pp, 97-111. International Seminar on
Maritime Culture and Geopolitics & Workshop on Bajau Laut Music
and Dance”, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences and the Faculty of
Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya, 23-24/2008)
^ Dharma, Po. "The Uprisings of Katip Sumat and Ja Thak Wa
(1833-1835)". Cham Today. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015.
Retrieved 25 June 2015.
^ Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern
Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh
Mạng (1820-1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP
Publications. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-0-87727-138-3.
^ The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective -
Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
^ "Cham - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major
holidays, Rites of passage, Relationships, Living conditions".
Everyculture.com. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
^ The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music By Terry E. Miller,
Sean Williams. p. 326
^ Philip Taylor (2007). Cham Muslims of the Mekong Delta: place and
mobility in the cosmopolitan periphery. NUS Press. p. 59.
ISBN 9971-69-361-5. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
^ Reid, Anthony (2006). Verandah of violence: the background to the
Aceh problem. NUS Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-9971-69-331-2.
^ Bray, Adam (16 June 2014). "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers
China Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines". National
Geographic News. National Geographic. Retrieved 3 September
^ Bray, Adam. "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers of South China
Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines". IOC-Champa. Archived from
the original on 26 June 2015.
^ "Mission to
Vietnam Advocacy Day (Vietnamese-American Meet up 2013)
in the U.S. Capitol. A UPR report By IOC-Campa". Chamtoday.com.
2013-09-14. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved
^ Taylor, Philip (December 2006). "Economy in Motion: Cham Muslim
Traders in the Mekong Delta" (PDF). The Asia Pacific Journal of
Anthropology. The Australian National University. 7 (3): 238.
doi:10.1080/14442210600965174. ISSN 1444-2213. Retrieved 3
^ Kasem, Hassan A (9 October 2013). "Vietnam's hidden hand in
Cambodia's impasse". Asia Times.
^ Kasem, Hassan A. "Vietnam's hidden hand in Cambodia's impasse".
IOC-Champa. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015.
^ Suleiman Idres Bin (12 September 2011). "The case of the fallen
Champa". IOC-Champa. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012.
^ Féo, Agnès De. "Les musulmans de
Châu Đốc (Vietnam) à
l'épreuve du salafisme". Recherches en sciences sociales sur l'Asie
du Sud-Est. moussons: 359–372.
^ (the University of Michigan)Alan Houghton Brodrick (1942). Little
China: the Annamese lands. Oxford university press. p. 264.
Retrieved 28 November 2011. The Cham women have a high reputation for
chastity, and, at any rate, they are closely watched and guarded. 'As
well leave a man alone with a girl,' runs their proverb, 'as an
elephant in a field of sugarcane.' There are, indeed, traces of
matriarchate in the Cham customs, and women play an important part in
their religious life. At her first menstruation a Cham girl goes into
Special Operations Research Office. "Selected Groups in the Republic
Vietnam - The Cham". Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved
30 September 2016.
^ (the University of Michigan)Henri Parmentier; Paul Mus; Etienne
Aymonier (2001). Cham sculpture of the Tourane Museum, Da Nang,
Vietnam: religious ceremonies and superstitions of Champa. White Lotus
Press. p. 52. ISBN 974-7534-70-3. Retrieved 28 November
2011. A much more important ceremony than circumcision is celebrated
Muslim Cham when their daughters reach the age of about
fifteen. It is called karoeh ( closing, closure). Until her karoeh has
taken place, a girl is tabung, and cannot think of marriage or its
^ Thesis: Seni
Silat Melayu by Abd Rahman Ismail (USM 2005 matter 188)
^ Mid Jamal (1986). Filsafat dan Silsilah Aliran-Aliran Silat
Minangkabau (Philosophy and Genealogy of
Silat Minangkabau. CV. Tropic
- Bukittinggi. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
^ a b c Yoshimoto, Yasuko (December 2012). "A Study of the Hồi giáo
Religion in Vietnam: With a Reference to Islamic Religious Practices
of Cham Bani" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies. Kyoto: Center for
Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. 1 (3).
^ India's interaction with Southeast Asia, Volume 1, Part 3 By Govind
Chandra Pande, Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and
Culture, Centre for Studies in Civilizations (Delhi, India) p.231,252
^ "Vietnam". State.gov. 22 October 2002. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
^ Interview with High Priest or Po Adhia of Ninh Thuan province and
his assistant, 23 December 2011
^ Interview with priest or Po Guru near Ma Lam town, and the director
of Binh Thuan Cham Cultural Center, Bac Binh district, 22 December
^ He, Jun-dong et al. (2012). Patrilineal Perspective on the
Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia. PLoS 7(5), Page 7.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036437 Retrieved December 14, 2017, from
link to article.
Aymonier, Étienne (1891). Les Tchames et leurs religions. E.
Cabaton, Antoine (1901). Nouvelles recherches sur les Chams. E.
Hourani, George; Carswell, John (1995). Arab Seafaring in the Indian
Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. Princeton University Press.
Chapuis, Oscar (1995). A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tu Duc.
Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-29622-2.
Davidson, Jeremy H. C. S. (1991). Austroasiatic Languages: Essays in
Honour of H.L. Shorto. Psychology Press.
Heng, Derek (2009). Sino–Malay Trade and Diplomacy from the Tenth
through the Fourteenth Century. Ohio University Press.
Hooker, M. B. (1 January 2002). Law and the Chinese in Southeast Asia.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (2011). Encyclopedia of Global
Religion. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4522-6656-5.
Kiernan, Ben (1 October 2008). Blood and Soil. Yale University Press.
Schliesinger, Joachim (11 January 2015). Ethnic Groups of
3: Profile of Austro-Thai and Sinitic-Speaking Peoples. Booksmango.
Tạ, Văn Tài (1988). The Vietnamese Tradition of Human Rights.
Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California.
Tarling, Nicholas (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66370-0.
Taylor, Philip (2007). Cham Muslims of the Mekong Delta: Place and
Mobility in the Cosmopolitan Periphery. NUS Press.
Watson Andaya, Barbara (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women
in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press.
Wicks, Robert S. (1992). Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast
Asia: The Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400. SEAP
Publications. ISBN 978-0-87727-710-1.
Dổ Hải Minh (1965) "Dân Tộc Chàm Lược sử" Saigon.
Salim, Maryam. (2005) "The Laws of Kedah, 220 Hijrah" A text
translation from jawi script to rumi script Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cham people.
Britannica Cham people
Mitsraym, Islam. Cham Muslims: Liberate Not Expatriate. OnIslam.net.
15 September 2012. Retrieved: 26 February 2013.
Cham Muslims of the Mekong Delta Book by Philip Taylor about the
settlement history, religion, economic life and political relations of
the Cham Muslims in the Mekong delta of Vietnam
Proceedings of the Seminar on Champa
Champa Relations and the Malay-
Islam Regional Network in the
The Survivors of a Lost Civilisation
Cham Muslims: A look at Cambodia's
The Cham Muslims of Indo-China[permanent dead link]
Article about the
Cham people living in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia
by Antonio Graceffo
Article about Cham fishermen living near Mekong Island,
Stone carvings at
Cambodia showing a battle between the Khmer
and the Cham
The face of
Islam in a Buddhist land, by Murat Karaali, Phnom Penh
Post, January 1995
Chamstudies, a new site on Chams
Muslim cham girls[permanent dead link]
Ethnic groups in Cambodia
Ethnic groups in
Malaysia by region
Negeri Sembilanese Malay
Ethnic groups in
Vietnam by language family
Thái Hàng Tổng
BNF: cb12200163z (d