Championship (professional wrestling)
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A championship or title in
professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a form of entertainment and , which combines athletics with performance. It comprises of exhibitions, called 'matches', held by touring companies called , in a style and structure mimicking competitive . The progres ...
is a recognition promoted by professional wrestling organizations. Championship reigns are determined by
professional wrestling matches Many types of wrestling matches, sometimes called "concept" or " gimmick matches" in the jargon of the business, are performed in professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a type of athletic exhibition and entertainment involving wrestlin ...
, in which competitors are involved in
predetermined Determinism is the Philosophy, philosophical view that all events are determined completely by previously existing causes. Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives a ...
rivalries. These narratives create
feud A feud , referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially family, families or clans. Feuds begin because o ...
s between the various competitors, which cast them as
villains A villain (also known as a "wikt:black hat, black hat" or "bad guy"; the feminine form is villainess) is a Character (arts), fictional character, whether based on a historical narrative or one of literary fiction. ''Random House Webster's Unab ...
and
heroes Heroes or Héroes may refer to: * Hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face ...
. The bookers in a company will place the title on the most accomplished performer, or whom they believe will generate fan interest in terms of event attendance and television viewership.


History

Professional wrestling portrays the structure of title match
combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Combat sports share a long p ...
s. Participants compete for a championship, and must defend it after winning it. These titles are represented physically by a
championship belt A championship belt is a large, extravagantly designed belt used primarily in combat sports such as boxing Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing boxing glove, protective gloves and other protective equipment such as ha ...
that is worn or carried by the champion(s). In the case of team wrestling, there is a belt for each member of the team. Almost all professional wrestling promotions have one major title, and some have more. Championships are designated by divisions of weight, height, gender, wrestling style, and other qualifications. Typically, each promotion only recognizes the "legitimacy" of their own titles, although
cross-promotion Cross-promotion is a form of marketing Promotion (marketing), promotion where customers of one product or service are targeted with promotion of a related product. A typical example is cross-media marketing of a brand; for example, Oprah Winfrey's ...
does happen. When one promotion absorbs or purchases another, the titles from the defunct promotion may continue to be defended in the new promotion or be decommissioned, usually through
championship unification Championship unification is the act of combining two or more separate professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a form of entertainment and performing art, which combines athletics with performance. It comprises of exhibitions, called ...
.
Behind the scenes In cinema, a making-of, also known as behind-the-scenes, the set or on the set is a documentary film A documentary film is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, educati ...
, the
bookers
bookers
in a company will place the title on the most accomplished performer, or those the bookers believe will generate
fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, especially with regard to enterta ...

fan
interest in terms of event attendance and
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3D television, three dimensions and sound. The ...

television
viewership. Lower ranked titles may also be used on the performers who show potential, thus allowing them greater exposure to the audience. However, other circumstances may also determine the use of a championship. A combination of a championship's lineage, the caliber of performers as champion, and the frequency and manner of title changes, dictates the audience's perception of the title's quality, significance, and reputation. A wrestler's championship accomplishments can be central to their career, becoming a measure of their performance ability and
drawing Drawing is a form of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is commonly a ...

drawing
power. The most accomplished or decorated wrestlers tend to be revered as legends. American wrestler
Ric Flair Richard Morgan Fliehr (born February 25, 1949), better known as Ric Flair, is an American professional wrestling manager In professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a type of athletic exhibition and entertainment involving wrestli ...

Ric Flair
has had multiple
world heavyweight championshipWorld heavyweight championship may refer to: * List of heavyweight boxing champions, World heavyweight boxing championship (professional) ** World Colored Heavyweight Championship (early twentieth-century) * World heavyweight championship (profession ...
reigns spanning over three decades. Japanese wrestler
Último Dragón (born December 12, 1966) is a Japanese professional wrestler Professional wrestling is a type of athletic exhibition and entertainment involving wrestling matches whose progress and outcome are planned in advance, typically between performers ...
once J-Crown, held and defended a record 10 titles simultaneously.


Championship belt styles

Professional wrestling's championship belts are modeled similarly to the championship belts in boxing, and other
combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Combat sports share a long p ...
s such as mixed martial arts. They are made of elaborately designed plates of gold or other precious metals, usually bearing the name of the title and the wrestling promotion, and is on a leather strap. The color and designs vary with each title and promotion. A wrestler may win a sanctioned championship and redesign the belt itself. Some (such as John Cena's Spinner Belt) later became the official belt design. Others (such as Stone Cold Steve Austin's Smoking Skull Belt, Edge (wrestler), Edge's Rated-R Spinner, Bryan Danielson, Daniel Bryan's eco-friendly belt, and Bray Wyatt, The Fiend Bray Wyatt's Universal title with his face on it) were not used after their respective title reign. While rare, there are cases of championships being represented with items other than belts, such as championship trophies, medals, crowns, etc. An example of this is WWE's NXT UK Heritage Cup Championship, which is represented with a trophy.


Injured champions

The fate of a title depends on the champion's condition and the importance of the title to the promotion (e.g. Gregory Helms held the WWE Cruiserweight Championship (1991–2007), WWE Cruiserweight Championship, despite being sidelined with an injury, because the Cruiserweight Championship was not a major championship). The champion may be forced to vacate his or her title if the injury becomes too severe and the championship is too important. In May 2015, Bryan Danielson, Daniel Bryan vacated the WWE Intercontinental Championship due to a major concussion and a year before, he had to vacate the world title due to neck surgery. In November 2015, Seth Rollins vacated the WWE World Heavyweight Championship due to a knee injury that required surgery. However, a champion may keep their title despite a severe injury and despite the championship being quite important. In 1998, Shane Douglas kept the ECW World Heavyweight Championship while sidelined. In 2005, Trish Stratus kept the WWE Women's Championship (1956–2010), WWE Women's Championship while sidelined with a herniated disk for four months. In 2012, CM Punk kept the WWE Championship while undergoing and recovering from knee surgery. In 2015, Ryback kept the WWE Intercontinental Championship while recovering from a knee infection. Before the 1980s when title matches were rare, some champions could keep their titles even when injured; Bruno Sammartino kept his WWE Championship, WWWF World Heavyweight Championship from April to June 1976 despite being injured by a botched body slam from Stan Hansen. In Mexico, this situation still occurs, but in Japan, it is becoming increasingly rare as champions are needed to be present in regular tours even when titles are not defended.


Classifications

Professional wrestling championships are often split up into various different classifications, each of which designate varying levels of importance to the belts.


World championships

The World heavyweight championship (also just world championship) is the name given to the championship that is presented as being the most wiktionary:prestigious, prestigious of those contested within a promotion. The wrestler holding a championship with this name is most commonly referred to as the "world heavyweight champion" or "world champion" (though some promotions may use synonymous/alternate terms, such as the AAA Mega Championship of Lucha Libre AAA World Wide, AAA or the WWE Universal Championship, the world title of WWE's SmackDown brand). Since pro-wrestling is scripted, there is no promotion or group of people that recognize one official world title of the industry (the closest was the NWA Worlds Heavyweight Championship during the List of National Wrestling Alliance territories, territory days during the mid to late 20th century). Instead, each promotion can promote their top title as a World Title, with some of them promoting title matches around the world to claim the designation. Some promotions may even recognize multiple world championships, such as is the case with WWE, as due to the large size of its roster, the promotion splits its roster into what they call brands where talent exclusively perform and their three main brands (Raw (WWE brand), Raw, SmackDown, and NXT (WWE brand), NXT) each have their own world championship. The first recognized world heavyweight championship was the World Heavyweight Wrestling Championship (original version), World Heavyweight Wrestling Championship, created in 1905, and the inaugural champion was George Hackenschmidt. The lineage of many prominent contemporary world championships can be traced back to the World Heavyweight Wrestling Championship, with the NWA Worlds Heavyweight Championship considered its direct successor, with many world championships having been spun of from the NWA's title.


Location-specific championships

A very common championship variation. The championship usually specifies the location on where the promotion is based, an example being WWE's WWE United States Championship, United States Championship. Sometimes it may specify a specific state or territory, such as the NWA Georgia Heavyweight Championship. It is also common to be a smaller division of the world, an example being the WWE Intercontinental Championship, or the IWGP United States Heavyweight Championship. It is very common for these variations to be the second most prestigious championship in a promotion, but exceptions have existed, like the now defunct WWE European Championship, which served as the company's tertiary singles championship, and the NWA United States Heavyweight Championship, which many NWA territories created versions of and promoted as their most prestigious championship whenever the NWA World Heavyweight Champion was not around.


Weight class championships

Another common classification of championships are by Professional wrestling weight classes, weight classes. Given the scripted nature of professional wrestling matches, weight classes are not always strictly adhered to. Typically, promotions prefer to have a heavyweight title as their top prize, with other designations, such as Cruiserweight (professional wrestling), cruiserweight, middleweight, or Cruiserweight (professional wrestling), light-heavyweight titles. Promotions often have one sub-heavyweight classification, while others sometimes may have more. Mountevans' committee (a governing body that instilled rules for professional wrestling in the UK) created seven formal weight divisions: * Lightweight () * Welterweight () * Middleweight () * Heavy middleweight () * Light heavyweight () * Mid-heavyweight () * Heavyweight (above ) Classifying championships into weight classes is also common practice in the lucha libre promotions of Mexico. Lucha libre has a detailed weight class system patterned after boxing. Each weight class has an official upper limit, but examples of wrestlers who are technically too heavy to hold their title can be found. The following weight classes exist in lucha libre, as defined by the "Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D.F." (the Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission), the main regulatory body in Mexico: * Flyweight () * Bantamweight () * Featherweight () * Lightweight () * Super Lightweight () * Welterweight () * Super Welterweight () * Middleweight () * Super Middleweight/Junior Light Heavyweight () * Light Heavyweight () * Junior Heavyweight/Cruiserweight () * Heavyweight () (Minimum)


Gender championships

Gender occasionally plays a role in the classifications of championship belts. Due to professional wrestling being a male dominated sport, only women's titles are given official gender classifications. Generally, only men are allowed to win the championships without a gender specification, though Chyna defeating Jeff Jarrett to win the WWE Intercontinental Championship, WWF Intercontinental Championship in 1999 and Tessa Blanchard defeating Sami Callihan to win the Impact World Championship in 2020 are notable exceptions. In promotions featuring only a single gender (such as Women of Wrestling or Shimmer Women Athletes), gender classifications are often unnecessary as well. Titles specifically designated for women may fall into any of the other categories listed here (e.g. women's world titles or women's tag team titles). Andy Kaufman once used gender classifications to his advantage, turning inter-gender competitions into a unique wrestling side-show. Kaufman declared himself the "Inter-Gender Champion of the World", and offered $1,000 to any woman who could pin him. None were successful during the run of the gimmick; though in other promotions such as World Championship Wrestling, WCW and WWE, women have successfully pinned men, most notably in a few isolated championship matches. On rare occasions, a male wrestler will compete in championship matches for championships generally contested exclusively in the women's division. Such examples include Harvey Wippleman becoming the only male to capture the WWE Women's Championship (1956–2010), WWF Women's Championship in 2000, and Eric Young (wrestler), Eric Young winning one half of the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Championship in 2012.


Gimmick/style championships

Gimmick (professional wrestling), Gimmick match classifications sometimes factor into the creation of title belts. In these classifications, special skills in a certain type of match or a certain style of wrestling is the signature of the division, and the champion is considered to be the most skilled wrestler at that specific style. Gimmick championships often take very differing forms. A common variation is the "hardcore championship", a title often defended in weapons-filled and bloody competitions with fewer rules (count outs and disqualifications are not usually allowed). An example of a hardcore championship is the WWE Hardcore Championship, which was active from 1998 to 2002. In 2019, the WWE introduced the WWE 24/7 Championship, which can be defended anytime, anywhere, as long as a WWE referee is present (it is also open to anyone, regardless of gender or WWE employment status). This championship is used more in comedy segments than normal matches. The hardcore championship was defended under nearly identical rules for most of its existence. In recent years, style-based championships have centered around what is known as "scientific" or technical wrestling. Examples of this include the NXT UK Heritage Cup (which is specifically contested under "British Round Rules") in WWE's NXT UK (WWE brand), NXT UK brand, and the ROH Pure Championship in Ring of Honor (which is contested under "Pure Wrestling Rules"). A variation that was prominent in the 1980s and 1990s and is somewhat making a return in the 2020s is a "television championship" or "iron man championship", which involves more frequent title defenses as well as the stipulations that the belt can only change hands on television (as opposed to non-televised house shows) with title matches having a short, TV-friendly time limit, usually 10 or 15 minutes. These titles were originally introduced during a time when weekly TV shows were seen as a vehicle to promote the money-making live shows, where major title defenses took place. Television titles provided a championship that would be defended on the weekly television shows. Examples of a television championship include the AEW TNT Championship (named after the Turner Network Television, home network of AEW's flagship broadcast ''AEW Dynamite, Dynamite'') and the ROH World Television Championship. Past TV titles include the WCW World Television Championship, the ECW World Television Championship, and the TNA Television Championship. A modern take on the traditional TV title is the Impact Digital Media Championship, which was created in 2021 and will be defended exclusively on Impact Wrestling's online platforms. In 2021, AEW introduced the first TV title specifically for female wrestlers, the AEW TBS Championship, named for TBS (American TV channel), the network that will be the new home of ''Dynamite'' beginning on January 6, 2022 (which is when the finals of the tournament to crown the inaugural champion will take place).


Tag team championships

Tag team championships are yet another different form of wrestling title. Some consider it to be a style championship, but tag team championships are unique in their ability to include multiple wrestlers on teams competing for multiple belts. The most common form of tag team championships are in 2-on-2 format, which is often implicitly understood. Other tag team championships include 3-on-3 and 4-on-4 formats, which are often explicitly stated within the championship name to distinguish them from the 2-on-2 championships. Some teams may invoke what is called the Freebird Rule, in which a stable of three or more wrestlers are all officially recognized as champion, allowing any pairing of the stable's members to defend the championship. This rule is most commonly applied to the standard 2-on-2 tag team championship, though it has also been applied to the other variants. Tag team championships are also often combined with regional modifiers, gimmick modifiers, gender modifiers, and weight class modifiers to further distinguish them. In such cases, the primary title is usually called the world tag team championship, with the other championships seen as secondary titles. Examples of 2-on-2 tag team championships: *WWE Raw Tag Team Championship *WWE Women's Tag Team Championship *AEW World Tag Team Championship *Impact World Tag Team Championship Examples of 3-on-3 tag team championships: *ROH World Six-Man Tag Team Championship *CMLL World Trios Championship *NEVER Openweight 6-Man Tag Team Championship Examples of 4-on-4 tag team championships: *KO-D 8-Man Tag Team Championship *FMW World Street Fight 8-Man Tag Team Championship


Unsanctioned championships

The concept of championships, and their central role in wrestling, allows for the potential for Glossary of professional wrestling terms#Angle, angles. One such angle is an unsanctioned championship title. These are claimed by a wrestler and defended in sanctioned matches, but are not recognized as legitimate titles by the promotion. Examples of unsanctioned championships include: * Taz (wrestler), Taz's FTW Championship, FTW World Championship in Extreme Championship Wrestling, ECW and All Elite Wrestling, AEW * James Storm's TNA World Beer Drinking Championship in Impact Wrestling, TNA * Zack Ryder's WWE Internet Championship in WWE


See also

* Championship unification * Undisputed championship (professional wrestling), Undisputed championship * World tag team championship


References


External links


Pro-Wrestling Title Histories
{{Professional wrestling terms Professional wrestling championships, Professional wrestling slang