CHAMPA is a collection of independent Cham polities that extended
across the coast of what is today central and southern
approximately the 2nd century through 1832 before being absorbed and
annexed by the Vietnamese state. The kingdom was known variously as
NAGARA CAMPA (
Sanskrit : नगरः कम्पः; Khmer :
ចាម្ប៉ា) in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, CHăM
PA in Vietnamese (CHIêM THàNH in
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary ) and
占城 (Zhànchéng) in Chinese records.
Chams of modern
Cambodia are the remnants of this
former kingdom. They speak
Chamic languages , a subfamily of
Malayo-Polynesian closely related to the Malayic and Bali–Sasak
Champa was preceded in the region by a kingdom called Linyi (林邑,
Lim Ip in
Middle Chinese ), or
Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese), that was in
existence from AD 192; the historical relationship between Linyi and
Champa is not clear.
Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th
centuries. Thereafter, it began a gradual decline under pressure from
Đại Việt , the Vietnamese polity centered in the region of modern
Hanoi . In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor
Minh Mạng annexed the
remaining Cham territories.
Hinduism , adopted from
India since early in its history, has shaped
the art and culture of
Champa kingdom for centuries, as testified by
the many Cham
Hindu statues and red brick temples that dotted the
landscapes in Cham lands.
Mỹ Sơn , a former religious center, and
Hội An , one of Champa's main port cities, are now World Heritage
Sites . Today, some
Cham people adhere to Islamic faith, a conversion
which was started in 15th century; they are called Bani Cham. There
are, however, Balamon Cham (from Sanskrit: Brahman) who still retain
and preserve their
Hindu faith, rituals, and festivals. The Balamon
Cham are one of only two surviving non-Indic indigenous
in the world, with a culture dating back thousands of years. The other
Hindu Balinese of
* 1 Overview
* 1.1 Geography of historical
* 1.2.1 Sources
* 1.2.2 Overarching theories
* 1.3 Sources of foreign cultural influence
* 2 History
* 2.1 Formation and growth
* 2.2 Decline
* 3 Religion
* 4 Economy
* 5 Archaeological remains
* 5.1 Religious
* 5.2 Defended centers
* 5.3 Museums
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 7.1 Citations
* 7.2 Sources
* 8 External links
GEOGRAPHY OF HISTORICAL CHAMPA
Between the 2nd and the 15th centuries,
Champa at times included the
modern provinces of Quảng Nam , Quảng Ngãi , Bình Định , Phú
Yên , Khánh Hòa , Ninh Thuận , and Bình Thuận . Though Cham
territory included the mountainous zones west of the coastal plain and
(at times) extended into present-day
Laos , for the most part, the
Cham remained a seafaring people dedicated to trade, and maintained
few settlements of any size away from the coast.
Champa consisted of up to five principalities:
* INDRAPURA ("City of
Indra ") was the capital of
Champa from about
875 to about 1000. It was located at the site of the modern village of
Dong Duong, near the modern city of
Da Nang . Also in the region of Da
Nang are the ancient Cham city of Singhapura ("City of the Lion"), the
location of which has been identified with an archaeological site in
the modern village of
Trà Kiệu , and the valley of
Mỹ Sơn ,
where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be viewed. The
associated port was at modern
Hội An . The territory once controlled
by this principality included present-day Quảng Bình , Quảng
Trị , and Thừa Thiên–Huế provinces.
* AMARAVATI was located in present-day
Quảng Nam Province . The
earliest mention of Amaravati is from an 1160 inscription at Po Nagar.
Depiction of fighting Cham naval soldier against the Khmer,
stone relief at the
Bayon Closeup of the inscription in Cham
script on the
Po Nagar stele, 965. The stele describes feats by the
* VIJAYA was located in present-day
Bình Định Province . Early
mention is made of Vijaya in an 1160 inscription at Po Nagar. :318 The
capital has been identified with the archaeological site at Cha Ban.
The associated port was at present-day
Qui Nhơn . Important
excavations have also been conducted at nearby Thap Mam, which may
have been a religious and cultural centre. Vijaya became the political
and cultural centre of
Champa around 1000, when the northern capital
of Indrapura was abandoned due to pressure from the Viet. It remained
the centre of
Champa until 1471, when it was sacked by the Viet and
the centre of
Champa was again displaced toward the south. In its
time, the principality of Vijaya controlled much of present-day
Quang-Nam, Quang-Ngai, Bình Định, and Phú Yên Provinces.
* KAUTHARA was located in the area of modern
Nha Trang in Khánh
Hòa Province . Its religious and cultural centre was the temple of Po
Nagar , several towers of which still stand at Nha Trang.
first mentioned in an AD 784 inscription at Po Nagar. :318
* PANDURANGA was located in the area of present-day
Phan Rang in
Ninh Thuận Province . Panduranga was the last of the Cham
territories to be annexed by the Vietnamese. Panduranga is first
mentioned in an 817 inscription at Po Nagar. :318
Within the four principalities were two main clans: the "Dua" and the
"Cau". The Dua lived in Amravati and Vijaya, while the Cau lived in
Kauthara and Panduranga. The two clans differed in their customs and
habits and conflicting interests led to many clashes and even war. But
they usually managed to settle disagreements through intermarriage.
The historiography of
Champa relies upon three types of sources:
* Physical remains, including brick structures and ruins, as well as
* Inscriptions in Cham and
Sanskrit on steles and other stone
* Chinese and Vietnamese histories, diplomatic reports, and other
texts such as those provided by
Jia Dan . :319
This Cham head of
Shiva was made of electrum around 800. It
decorated a kosa, or metal sleeve fitted to a liṅgam . One can
Shiva by the tall chignon hairstyle and by the third eye in
the middle of his forehead. Crown of
Champa in 7th and 8th
Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the
historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that historically
divided into several regions or principalities spread out from south
to north along the coast of modern
Vietnam and united by a common
language, culture, and heritage. It is acknowledged that the
historical record is not equally rich for each of the regions in every
historical period. For example, in the 10th century, the record is
richest for Indrapura; in the 12th century, it is richest for Vijaya ;
following the 15th century, it is richest for Panduranga. Some
scholars have taken these shifts in the historical record to reflect
the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another.
According to such scholars, if the 10th-century record is richest for
Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of
Champa. Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that
Champa was never a united country, and arguing that the presence of a
particularly rich historical record for a given region in a given
period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the
capital of a united
Champa during that period.
SOURCES OF FOREIGN CULTURAL INFLUENCE
Cham alphalbet script in stone
Through the centuries, Cham culture and society were influenced by
forces emanating from
Cambodia , China,
India amongst others.
Lin Yi , a predecessor state in the region, began its existence in AD
192 as a breakaway Chinese colony. An official successfully revolted
against Chinese rule in central Vietnam, and
Lin Yi was founded in
192. In the 4th century, wars with the neighbouring Kingdom of Funan
Cambodia and the acquisition of Funanese territory led to the
infusion of Indian culture into Cham society.
Sanskrit was adopted as
a scholarly language, and Hinduism, especially
Shaivism , became the
state religion. From the 10th century onwards,
Arab maritime trade in
the region brought increasing Islamic cultural and religious
Champa came to serve as an important link in the spice
trade , which stretched from the
Persian Gulf to
South China , and
later in the
Arab maritime routes in
Mainland Southeast Asia as a
supplier of aloe . Despite the frequent wars between
Cambodia, the two countries also traded and cultural influences moved
in both directions. Royal families of the two countries intermarried
Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with
the powerful maritime empire of
Srivijaya and later with the Majapahit
Malay Archipelago .
Evidence gathered from linguistic studies around
Aceh confirms that a
very strong Champan cultural influence existed in Indonesia; this is
indicated by the use of the Chamic language Acehnese as the main
language in the coastal regions of Aceh. Linguist believed the
Acehnese language as a descendent of Proto-Chamic language, separated
from Chamic tongue sometime in the 1st millennium CE. However,
scholarly views on the precise nature of the Aceh-Chamic relations
History of Champa
THIS SECTION SHOULD INCLUDE A SUMMARY OF HISTORY OF CHAMPA . See
Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into
this article's main text. (April 2017)
FORMATION AND GROWTH
The people of
Champa were descended from seafaring settlers who
reached the Southeast Asian mainland from
Borneo about the time of the
Sa Huỳnh culture
Sa Huỳnh culture , the predecessor of Cham kingdom. :317 The Cham
language is part of the Austronesian family. According to one study,
Cham is related most closely to modern Acehnese in northern Sumatra.
To the Han Chinese, the country of
Champa was known as 林邑 Linyi
in Mandarin and Lam Yap in Cantonese and to the Vietnamese, Lâm Ấp
(which is the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation of 林邑). It had been
founded in 192 AD
Around 4th century CE, Champan polities began to absorb much of Indic
influences , probably through its neighbour, Funan intermediary.
Hinduism was established as
Champa began to created sanskrit stone
inscriptions and erected red brick
Hindu temples. The first king
acknowledged in the inscriptions is Bhadravarman , who reigned from
380 to 413. At
Mỹ Sơn , King Bhadravarman established a linga
called Bhadresvara, :324 whose name was a combination of the king's
own name and that of the
Hindu god of gods
Shiva . The worship of the
original god-king under the name Bhadresvara and other names continued
through the centuries that followed.
Between 7th to the 10th centuries, the Cham polities rose to become a
naval power; as Champan ports attracted local and foreign traders,
Champan fleets also controlled the trade in spices and silk in South
China Sea , between China, the Indonesian archipelago and India. They
supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting
ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding. However,
the rising influence of
Champa has caught the attention of
neighbouring thallasocracy that considered
Champa as a rival, the
Javaka , probably refer to
Srivijaya ruler of
Java). In 767, Tonkin coast was raided by Javanese fleet (Daba) and
Champa was subsequently assaulted by Javanese or
Kunlun vessels in 774 and 787. In 774 an assault was launched on
Po-Nagar in Nha-trang where the pirates demolished temples, while in
787 an assault was launched on Phang-rang.
Cham–Vietnamese War (1471) ,
Champa suffered serious defeats
at the hands of the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 people were either
captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave
Nha Trang with many
Chams fleeing to
HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM
Po Nagar Ninh Thuận Apsara with
Dancing Siva , c. 10th century
Hindu temples and
statues have been found in many parts of Vietnam.
While today the Balamon Cham are the only surviving Hindus in
Vietnam, the region once hosted some of the most exquisite and vibrant
Hindu cultures in the world. The entire region of Southeast Asia, in
fact, was home to numerous sophisticated
Hindu kingdoms. From Angkor
in neighboring Cambodia, to
Java and Bali in Indonesia. 13th
century sculpture in the Thap Mam style, depicting
Garuda devouring a
Before the conquest of
Champa by the
Đại Việt emperor Tran
Thánh Tông in 1471, the dominant religion of the
Cham people was
Hinduism, and the culture was heavily influenced by that of India. The
Champa was overwhelmingly Shaiva and it was liberally
combined with elements of local religious cults such as the worship of
the Earth goddess Lady
Po Nagar . The main symbols of Cham Shaivism
were the lingam , the mukhalinga , the jaṭāliṅgam, the segmented
liṅgam, and the kośa.
* A LIṅGA (or LIṅGAM) is black stone pillar that serves as a
representation of Shiva. Cham kings frequently erected and dedicated
stone lingas as the central religious images in royal temples. The
name a Cham king would give to such a linga would be a composite of
the king's own name and suffix "-iśvara", which stands for Shiva.
* A MUKHALIṅGA is a linga upon which has been painted or carved an
Shiva as a human being or a human face.
* A JAṭāLIṅGA is a linga upon which has been engraved a
stylised representation of Shiva's chignon hairstyle.
* A SEGMENTED LIṅGA is a linga post divided into three sections to
represent the three aspects of the
Hindu godhead or trimurti : the
lowest section, square in shape, represents
Brahma ; the middle
section, octagonal in shape, represents
Vishnu , and the top section,
circular in shape, represents Shiva.
* A KOśA is a cylindrical basket of precious metal used to cover a
linga. The donation of a kośa to the decoration of a liṅga was a
distinguishing characteristic of Cham Shaivism. Cham kings gave names
to special kośas in much the way that they gave names to the liṅgas
The predominance of
Hinduism in Cham religion was interrupted for a
time in the 9th and 10th centuries, when a dynasty at Indrapura
(modern Dong Duong,
Quảng Nam Province , Vietnam) adopted Mahayana
Buddhism as its faith. The Buddhist art of Dong Duong has received
special acclaim for its originality.
Beginning in the 10th century,
Hinduism again became the predominant
religion of Champa. Some of the sites that have yielded important
works of religious art and architecture from this period are, aside
Mỹ Sơn , Khuong My, Trà Kiệu, Chanh Lo, and Thap Mam.
Islam started making headway among the Cham after the 10th century.
By the 17th century, the royal families of the Cham had converted to
Islam. Most Cham are now evenly split between being followers of Islam
and Hinduism, with the majority of Vietnamese Cham being
the majority of Cambodian Cham are Muslim, though significant
Mahayana Buddhists continue to exist.
Indonesian 15th century records indicate the influence of Princess
Daravati, a Cham, converted to Islam, and influenced her husband,
Kertawijaya, Majapahit's seventh ruler to convert the
family to Islam. The Islamic tomb of Putri
Champa (Princess of Champa)
can be found in
Trowulan , East
Java , the site of the Majapahit
imperial capital. In the 15th to 17th century, Muslim Cham maintained
a cordial relationship with the
Aceh Sultanate through dynastic
marriage. This sultanate was located on the northern tip of Sumatra
and was an active promoter of the Islamic faith in the Indonesian
In contrast to Đại Việt, Champa's economy was not based on
agriculture. As seafaring people, the Cham were highly mobile and
established a network of trade including not only the major ports at
Hội An ,
Thi Nai but also extending into the mountainous hinterland
. Maritime trade was facilitated by a network of wells that provided
fresh water to Cham and foreign ships along the coast of
the islands of Cu Lao Cham and Ly Son . While Kenneth R. Hall
Champa was not able to rely on taxes on trade for
continuous revenue, but instead financed their rule by raiding
neighbouring countries, Hardy argues that the country's prosperity was
above all based on commerce.
The vast majority of Champa's export products came from the
mountainous hinterland, sourced from as far as Attapeu in southern
Laos . They included gold and silver, slaves, animal and animal
products, and precious woods. By far the most important export
product was eaglewood . It was the only product mentioned in Marco
Polo 's brief account and similarly impressed the
Arab trader Sulayman
several centuries earlier. Most of it was probably taken from the
Aquilaria crassna tree, just as most of the eaglewood in Vietnam
Mỹ Sơn is the site of the largest collection of Cham ruins.
Mỹ Sơn near the town of
Hội An on the
Thu Bồn River .
Bhadravarman I in the 5th century, Vikrantavarman
initiated a major building program in the 7th century. Construction
continued until 1157 under Harivarman. :320
Po Nagar in Kauthara, on a harbour, comprising six temples and a
pillared hall. Established before the 7th century, a wooden structure
was burned in 774. Satyavarman initiated major construction in 757.
One tower dates from 813 and construction continued until 1256. :320
* Dong Duong was founded by Jaya Indravarman in 875. Most of the
complex was destroyed during the
Vietnam War. The site consists of
three large courts, a large assembly hall, and a main temple
sanctuary. Two bronze statues, one of Buddha and one of
Avalokiteśvara were found at the site. :320–321
* Po Klaung Garai
* Qusu, located above the
Kiến Giang River , was in place by the
4th century and includes a revetted wall and moat as do the other
centers. Qusu was sacked by the Chinese in 446, "all inhabitants over
the age of 15 were put to the sword" and as much as 48,000 of gold
* Song Luy is located on the coast south of Cape Dinh. :321
* Thanh Ho is located on the northern bank of the Đà Rằng River
* Caban was probably the capital of Vijaya. :322
* Chau Xa :322
* Tra Kieu is located near the Hue River. :322
* Canh Tien is located north of
Quy Nhon and contains a possible
royal palace. :322
Trà Kiệu or Simhapura, dating from two to three centuries BC
until the 6th or 7th centuries. :322
Some of the network of wells that was used to provide fresh water to
Cham and foreign ships still remains. Cham wells are recognisable by
their square shape. They are still in use and provide fresh water even
during times of drought.
Champa ladies dance at Poklong Garai stupa in
Phan Rang .
The largest collection of Cham sculpture may be found in the Da Nang
Museum of Cham Sculpture (formerly known as "Musée Henri Parmentier")
in the coastal city of
Da Nang . The museum was established in 1915 by
French scholars, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful in
Southeast Asia. Other museums with collections of Cham art include the
* Museum of Fine Arts, Hanoi
* Museum of History, Hanoi
* Museum of Fine Arts, Saigon
* Museum of History, Saigon
Musée Guimet , Paris
Art of Champa
* History of
Kampong Cham Province
Kampong Cham Province in east Cambodia
Kingdom of Champasak
Kingdom of Champasak in the south of Laos
* List of Vietnamese monarchs#
* ^ A B C Parker, Vrndavan Brannon. "Vietnam’s
Hinduism Today. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
* ^ "KINGDOM OF CHAMPA".
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Higham, C., 2014, Early
Mainland Southeast Asia, Bangkok: River Books Co., Ltd., ISBN
* ^ Rutherford, Insight Guide — Vietnam, pg. 256.
* ^ Vickery, "
Champa Revised", p.4 ff.
* ^ Maspero, Le royaume de Champa, represented the thesis that
Champa was politically unified. Vickery, "
Champa Revised", challenges
* ^ Stacy Taus-Bolstad (2003).
Vietnam in Pictures. Twenty-First
Century Books. p. 20. ISBN 0-8225-4678-7 . Retrieved 9 January 2011.
* ^ Paul Sidwell. "Acehnese and the Aceh-Chamic Language Family".
* ^ From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Retrieved 28 December
* ^ Stacy Taus-Bolstad (1 January 2003).
Vietnam in Pictures.
Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-8225-4678-8 .
* ^ Haywood, John; Jotischky, Andrew; McGlynn, Sean (1998).
Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600-1492. Barnes & Noble.
p. 3.31. ISBN 978-0-7607-1976-3 .
* ^ http://m.eb.com/topic/105118
* ^ http://eb.com/topic/105118
* ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.31.
* ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.38-39; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn
* ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.109.
* ^ SEAMEO Project in Archaeology and Fine Arts (1984). Final
report: Consultative Workshop on Research on Maritime Shipping and
Trade Networks in Southeast Asia, I-W7, Cisarua, West Java, Indonesia,
November 20-27, 1984. SPAFA Co-ordinating Unit. p. 66.
* ^ David L. Snellgrove (2001). Khmer Civilization and Angkor.
Orchid Press. ISBN 978-974-8304-95-3 .
* ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan) (1972). Memoirs of the Research
Department. p. 6. Tōyō Bunko (Japan) (1972). Memoirs of the Research
Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library). Toyo Bunko. p. 6.
* ^ Proceedings of the Symposium on 100 Years Development of
Krakatau and Its Surroundings, Jakarta, 23-27 August 1983. Indonesian
Institute of Sciences. 1985. p. 8.
* ^ Greater
India Society (1934). Journal. p. 69.
* ^ Ralph Bernard Smith (1979). Early South East Asia: essays in
archaeology, history, and historical geography. Oxford University
Press. p. 447.
* ^ Charles Alfred Fisher (1964). South-east Asia: a social,
economic, and political geography. Methuen. p. 108.
* ^ Ronald Duane Renard; Mahāwitthayālai Phāyap. Walter F. Vella
Fund; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Center for Asian and Pacific
Studies (1986). Anuson Walter Vella. Walter F. Vella Fund, Payap
University. p. 121.
* ^ Roof 2011 , p. 1210.
* ^ Schliesinger 2015 , p. 18.
* ^ Hubert 2012 , p. 31.
* ^ Ngô 2005 , p. 68ff.
* ^ Ngô 2005 , p. 69.
* ^ Maspéro 2002 , p. 114.
* ^ Taylor 2007 , p. 72.
* ^ Hardy 2009, 110–11
* ^ A B Hardy 2009, 111
* ^ Hardy 2009, 113
* ^ Hardy 2009, 114
* ^ Hardy 2009, 111–12
* ^ A B Hardy 2009, 116
* Hardy, Andrew David; Cucarzi, Mauro; Zolese, Patrizia (2009).