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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Chamonix-Mont-Blanc,[note 1] more commonly known as Chamonix[note 2] (formerly spelled Chamounix), is a commune in the Haute-Savoie département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
region in south-eastern France. It was the site of the first Winter Olympics in 1924. The commune's population of around 8,900 ranks 1,089th within the country of France.[1] Situated near the massive peaks of the Aiguilles Rouges
Aiguilles Rouges
and most notably the Aiguille du Midi, Chamonix
Chamonix
is one of the oldest ski resorts in France. The north side of the summit of Mont Blanc, and therefore the summit itself is part of the village of Chamonix. To the south side, the situation is different depending on the country. Italy considers that the border passes through the top. France
France
considers that the boundary runs along the rocky Tournette under the summit cap, placing it entirely in French territory. The south side was in France, assigned to the commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains
Saint-Gervais-les-Bains
sharing the summit with its neighbor Chamonix. It is this situation "for France," which is found on the French IGN maps. The Chamonix
Chamonix
commune is popular with skiers and mountain enthusiasts, and via the cable car lift to the Aiguille du Midi
Aiguille du Midi
it is possible to access the off-piste (backcountry) ski run of the Vallée Blanche. With an area of 245 km2 (95 sq mi), Chamonix
Chamonix
is the fourth largest commune, in area, in mainland France.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Settlements 2.2 Climate

3 Demography 4 Mountain
Mountain
and winter sports 5 Transportation

5.1 Roads 5.2 Rail 5.3 Cable cars

6 International relations

6.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

7 See also 8 References 9 Notes 10 External links

History[edit]

Horace-Benedict de Saussure, with Jacques Balmat
Jacques Balmat
(left) who points towards the summit of Mont Blanc, Monument at Chamonix.

The valley was first mentioned in 1091, when it was granted by the Count of the Genevois to the great Benedictine
Benedictine
house of St. Michel de la Cluse, near Turin, which by the early 13th century had established a priory there.[2] However, in 1786 the inhabitants bought their freedom from the canons of Sallanches, to whom the priory had been transferred in 1519. In 1530, the inhabitants obtained from the Count of the Genevois the privilege of holding two fairs a year, while the valley was often visited by the civil officials and by the bishops of Geneva
Geneva
(first recorded visit in 1411, while St. Francis de Sales
Francis de Sales
came there in 1606). But travellers for pleasure were very rare. Chamonix
Chamonix
was part of the historical land of Savoy emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries. The historical territory is shared between the modern countries of France, Italy, and Switzerland. The House of Savoy became the longest surviving royal house in Europe. It ruled the County of Savoy to 1416 and then the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 to 1860. The first party to publish (1744) an account of their visit was that of Richard Pococke, William Windham and others, such as the Englishmen who visited the Mer de Glace
Mer de Glace
in 1741. In 1742 came P. Martel and several other Genevese, in 1760 H.B. de Saussure,[2] and rather later Marc Th. Bourrit. The growth of tourism in the early 19th century led to the formation of the Compagnie des Guides de Chamonix in 1821, to regulate access to the mountain slopes (which were communally or co-operatively owned), and this association held a monopoly of guiding from the town until it was broken by French government action in 1892; thereafter guides were required to hold a diploma issued by a commission dominated by civil servants and members of the French Alpine Club
French Alpine Club
rather than local residents. From the late 19th century on, tourist development was dominated by national and international initiatives rather than local entrepreneurs, though the local community was increasingly dependent upon and active in the tourist industry. The commune successfully lobbied to change its name from Chamonix
Chamonix
to Chamonix-Mont-Blanc in 1916. However, following the loss of its monopoly, the Compagnie reformed as an association of local guides, and retained an important role in local society; it provided the services of a friendly society to its members, and in the 20th century many of them were noted mountaineers and popularisers of mountain tourism, for example the novelist Roger Frison-Roche, the first member of the Compagnie not to be born in Chamonix.

Chamonix
Chamonix
Valley: crossing the glacier on foot (between 1902 and 1904)

The holding of the first Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
in Chamonix
Chamonix
in 1924 further raised Chamonix's profile as an international tourist destination. During the Second World War, a Children's Home operated in Chamonix, in which several dozens of Jewish children were hidden from the Nazis. Some of those who hid them were recognised as "Righteous Among the Nations".[3] By the 1960s, agriculture had been reduced to a marginal activity, while the number of tourist beds available rose to around 60,000 by the end of the 20th century, with about 5 million visitors a year. Geography[edit] Settlements[edit] The commune of Chamonix-Mont-Blanc includes 16 villages and hamlets. From north to south: Le Tour 1,462 m (4,797 ft),[4] Montroc, Le Planet, Argentière
Argentière
1,252 m (4,108 ft),[4] Les Chosalets, Le Lavancher, Les Tines, Les Bois, Les-Praz-de-Chamonix
Les-Praz-de-Chamonix
1,060 m (3,478 ft),[4] Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Les Pècles, Les Mouilles, Les Barrats, Les Pélerins, Les Gaillands, and Les Bossons 1,012 m (3,320 ft).[4] Climate[edit] Due to its elevation, Chamonix
Chamonix
has a humid continental climate (Dfb, according to the Köppen climate classification), with an average annual precipitation of 1,275 mm (50 in). Summers are mild and winters are cold and snowy.

Climate data for Chamonix
Chamonix
(1981-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 4.8 (40.6) 9.0 (48.2) 12.7 (54.9) 17.6 (63.7) 21.2 (70.2) 23.9 (75) 23.1 (73.6) 19.1 (66.4) 14.7 (58.5) 7.4 (45.3) 2.6 (36.7) 13.23 (55.82)

Daily mean °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −0.8 (30.6) 3.0 (37.4) 6.6 (43.9) 11.2 (52.2) 14.4 (57.9) 16.5 (61.7) 15.9 (60.6) 12.5 (54.5) 8.6 (47.5) 2.7 (36.9) −1.6 (29.1) 7.23 (45.02)

Average low °C (°F) −7.2 (19) −6.4 (20.5) −3.0 (26.6) 0.4 (32.7) 4.8 (40.6) 7.5 (45.5) 9.1 (48.4) 8.6 (47.5) 6.0 (42.8) 2.5 (36.5) −2.1 (28.2) −5.7 (21.7) 1.21 (34.17)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 93.8 (3.693) 85.7 (3.374) 85.7 (3.374) 89.5 (3.524) 120.5 (4.744) 130.4 (5.134) 115.5 (4.547) 125.0 (4.921) 102.3 (4.028) 116.8 (4.598) 100.6 (3.961) 109.1 (4.295) 1,274.9 (50.193)

Source: meteo-climat-bzh [5]

Demography[edit] Population change (See database)

1793 1800 1806 1821 1836 1846 1856 1861 1866

1,830 1,925 1,949 2,232 2,528 2,304 2,308 2,304 2,415

1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896 1901 1906 1911

2,455 2,406 2,420 2,450 2,447 2,435 2,729 3,482 3,109

1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954 1962 1968 1975

3,040 3,811 4,446 4,633 5,883 5,699 7,213 7,745 8,393

1982 1990 1999 2006 2008 - - - -

8,746 9,701 9,829 9,195 9,042 - - - -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006) · [6]

Population Over Time

   

 

 

 

0

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1800

 

1820

 

1840

 

1860

 

1880

 

1900

 

1920

 

1940

 

1960

 

1980

 

2000

 

Sources - database Cassini of EHESS and Insee See database

Mountain
Mountain
and winter sports[edit] Chamonix
Chamonix
is a winter sports resort town. As the highest European mountain west of Russia,[citation needed] Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
attracts mountain climbers. There is a cable car up to the 3,842 m (12,605 ft) Aiguille du Midi. Constructed in 1955, it was then the highest cable car in the world[7] and remains the highest vertical ascent cable car in the world.[8] Transportation[edit] Roads[edit] The town of Chamonix
Chamonix
is served by French Route Nationale 205 (RN 205), nicknamed the Route blanche,[9] or "white route", due to its snowiness. This is an extension of French autoroute 40 (A40), similarly nicknamed the autoroute blanche, which ends at Le Fayet, a village in the commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains.[10] The 11.6-km Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Tunnel originates here, linking Chamonix
Chamonix
to Courmayeur
Courmayeur
in Italy.[11] Chamonix
Chamonix
is linked to Switzerland
Switzerland
by what used to be RN 506a. In 2006, it was converted to a Route Départementale 1506, with a part of it integrated into RN 205. The nearest airport to Chamonix is Geneva
Geneva
Cointrin International and it is 88 kilometres (55 miles) in distance. Rail[edit]

Front and façade of the Chamonix
Chamonix
- Mont-Blanc railway station.

Chamonix
Chamonix
is served by the metre-gauge St Gervais- Vallorcine
Vallorcine
Line, operated by SNCF. The line from Saint Gervais (on the standard-gauge rail network) to Chamonix
Chamonix
opened in 1901; it was extended to Vallorcine
Vallorcine
in 1908. The line holds the record for the steepest gradient on any standard (i.e. adhesion) railway. From Vallorcine, the rail route continues over the border into Switzerland, meeting the SBB network at Martigny. This latter section, a metre-gauge cog railway, is operated by Transports de Martigny
Martigny
et Régions SA. The train service from Vallorcine
Vallorcine
to Martigny
Martigny
is known as the Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Express. Timetables on the St Gervais- Vallorcine
Vallorcine
and Vallorcine- Martigny
Martigny
sections are synchronized.[12] The 5.1-km Montenvers Railway is a cog railway that provides access to the tourist site of Montenvers. Opened in 1909, its rail station was built next to SNCF's Chamonix
Chamonix
station on the St Gervais-Vallorcine Line. In fact the two stations are directly linked.[13] Montenvers provides further tourist access to middle and high mountain areas.[14] Cable cars[edit] Chamonix
Chamonix
has one of the highest cable cars in the world, which links the town to the summit of the Aiguille du Midi
Aiguille du Midi
at 3842 m.[15] It is based on an older system built in 1920, rebuilt in the first half of the 1950s over five summer seasons,[16] fully modernized in 1979, and upgraded again in 2008. On the other side of the valley, another cable car links Chamonix
Chamonix
to the viewpoint of Planpraz. A second line links Planpraz to the summit of Le Brévent at 2525 m.[17][18] Many other cable cars exist in the valley, and are heavily used by skiers and residents. The Plan Joran chairlift at the base of Les Grands Montets is due to be replaced by a 10-person gondola for the Winter 2014/15 season.[19] International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

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Chamonix
Chamonix
is twinned with:

Aosta, Italy[20] Aspen (Colorado) Cilaos
Cilaos
(La Reunion) Courmayeur
Courmayeur
(Italy)

Fujiyoshida, Japan[21] (at the foot of Mount Fuji) Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
(Germany)

See also[edit]

Communes of the Haute-Savoie
Haute-Savoie
department Mer de Glace Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Massif Montroc The Haute Route
The Haute Route
from Chamonix
Chamonix
to Zermatt

Panorama of the Chamonix
Chamonix
valley

References[edit]

^ Sources des données : INSEE – Chamonix: Données générales ^ a b The Development of the Appreciation of Mountain
Mountain
Scenery in Modern Times, Walter Woodburn Hyde, Geographical Review, Vol. 3, No. 2 (February 1917), pp. 107–118 ^ the Children's Home in Chamonix, at Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website ^ a b c d " Chamonix
Chamonix
Valley Website". Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ "Climate: moyennes 1981/2010". Retrieved 2 April 2015.  ^ Census of population on 1 January 2006 on the site of Insee. ^ "Chamonix, Capitale Mondiale De L'alpinisme". Summit Post. 6 April 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  ^ Berne, Laurent (2012). L'aventure du premier téléphérique de France: Chronique du premier téléphérique de l'Aiguille du Midi, dit "des Glaciers", à Chamonix-Mont-Blanc. Éditions des Rochers. ISBN 9782746641556. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ Le Comité de préservation du village des Houches – Dossier publié le 12/05/2004[permanent dead link] (PDF) ^ Site de l'association de défense des usagers de l'A40 et de l'A41 – Revue de presse ^ " Chamonix
Chamonix
Valley Website". Archived from the original on 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ " Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Express timetables for 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-10.  [in French] ^ Site de Christophe Jacquet spécialisé sur les trains du Mont-Blanc ^ "Montenvers Mer De Glace". Compagnie du Montblanc. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.  ^ Site de l' Aiguille du Midi
Aiguille du Midi
– Histoire du téléphérique Archived July 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cable Way to the Top of the Alps. Popular Mechanics, April 1956, pp. 81-84. ^ "Map of the Brévent-Flégère area". Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ "Summer timetables for Chamonix
Chamonix
gondolas and funicular railways". Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ New for Winter 2014/15 - http://www.skicollection.co.uk/Ski/Chamonix.htm ^ Annuaire-Mairie.fr. "Ville d'Aoste" (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 

Notes[edit]

^ French pronunciation: ​[ʃamɔni mɔ̃ blɑ̃]. ^ French pronunciation: ​[ʃamɔni].

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chamonix.

Chamonix
Chamonix
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Chamonix". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911.  Official site of the city of Chamonix
Chamonix
Mont-Blanc Impeding Hitler’s endeavour to capture Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
– The battle of the Vallée Blanche

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (April 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

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v t e

Communes of the Haute-Savoie
Haute-Savoie
department

Abondance Alby-sur-Chéran Alex Allèves Allinges Allonzier-la-Caille Amancy Ambilly Andilly Annecy Annemasse Anthy-sur-Léman Arâches-la-Frasse Arbusigny Archamps Arenthon Argonay Armoy Arthaz-Pont-Notre-Dame Ayse Ballaison La Balme-de-Sillingy La Balme-de-Thuy Bassy La Baume Beaumont Bellevaux Bernex Le Biot Bloye Bluffy Boëge Bogève Bonne Bonnevaux Bonneville Bons-en-Chablais Bossey Le Bouchet-Mont-Charvin Boussy Brenthonne Brizon Burdignin Cercier Cernex Cervens Chainaz-les-Frasses Challonges Chamonix-Mont-Blanc Champanges La Chapelle-d'Abondance La Chapelle-Rambaud La Chapelle-Saint-Maurice Chapeiry Charvonnex Châtel Châtillon-sur-Cluses Chaumont Chavannaz Chavanod Chêne-en-Semine Chênex Chens-sur-Léman Chessenaz Chevaline Chevenoz Chevrier Chilly Choisy Clarafond-Arcine Les Clefs Clermont La Clusaz Cluses Collonges-sous-Salève Combloux Contamine-Sarzin Les Contamines-Montjoie Contamine-sur-Arve Copponex Cordon Cornier La Côte-d'Arbroz Cranves-Sales Crempigny-Bonneguête Cruseilles Cusy Cuvat Demi-Quartier Desingy Dingy-en-Vuache Dingy-Saint-Clair Domancy Doussard Douvaine Draillant Droisy Duingt Éloise Entremont Entrevernes Épagny-Metz-Tessy Essert-Romand Etaux Étercy Étrembières Évian-les-Bains Excenevex Faucigny Faverges-Seythenex Feigères Fessy Féternes Fillière Fillinges La Forclaz Franclens Frangy Gaillard Les Gets Giez Le Grand-Bornand Groisy Gruffy Habère-Lullin Habère-Poche Hauteville-sur-Fier Héry-sur-Alby Les Houches Jonzier-Épagny Juvigny Larringes Lathuile Leschaux Loisin Lornay Lovagny Lucinges Lugrin Lullin Lully Lyaud Machilly Magland Manigod Marcellaz Marcellaz-Albanais Margencel Marignier Marigny-Saint-Marcel Marin Marlioz Marnaz Massingy Massongy Maxilly-sur-Léman Megève Mégevette Meillerie Menthonnex-en-Bornes Menthonnex-sous-Clermont Menthon-Saint-Bernard Mésigny Messery Mieussy Minzier Monnetier-Mornex Montagny-les-Lanches Montriond Mont-Saxonnex Morillon Morzine Moye La Muraz Mûres Musièges Nancy-sur-Cluses Nangy Nâves-Parmelan Nernier Neuvecelle Neydens Nonglard Novel Onnion Orcier Passy Peillonnex Perrignier Pers-Jussy Le Petit-Bornand-les-Glières Poisy Praz-sur-Arly Présilly Publier Quintal Reignier-Esery Le Reposoir Reyvroz La Rivière-Enverse La Roche-sur-Foron Rumilly Saint-André-de-Boëge Saint-Blaise Saint-Cergues Saint-Eusèbe Saint-Eustache Saint-Félix Saint-Ferréol Saint-Germain-sur-Rhône Saint-Gervais-les-Bains Saint-Gingolph Saint-Jean-d'Aulps Saint-Jean-de-Sixt Saint-Jean-de-Tholome Saint-Jeoire Saint-Jorioz Saint-Julien-en-Genevois Saint-Laurent Saint-Paul-en-Chablais Saint-Pierre-en-Faucigny Saint-Sigismond Saint-Sixt Saint-Sylvestre Sales Sallanches Sallenôves Samoëns Le Sappey Savigny Saxel Scientrier Sciez Scionzier Serraval Servoz Sevrier Seyssel Seytroux Sillingy Sixt-Fer-à-Cheval Talloires-Montmin Taninges Thollon-les-Mémises Thônes Thonon-les-Bains Thusy Thyez La Tour Usinens Vacheresse Vailly Val-de-Chaise Val-de-Fier Valleiry Vallières Vallorcine Vanzy Vaulx Veigy-Foncenex Verchaix La Vernaz Vers Versonnex Vétraz-Monthoux Veyrier-du-Lac Villard Les Villards-sur-Thônes Villaz Ville-en-Sallaz Ville-la-Grand Villy-le-Bouveret Villy-le-Pelloux Vinzier Viry Viuz-en-Sallaz Viuz-la-Chiésaz Vougy Vovray-en-Bornes Vulbens Yvoire

v t e

Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
massif

Settlements

Argentière Chamonix Champex Courmayeur La Fouly Les Houches Montroc Les Praz Saint-Gervais-les-Bains Trient

Mountains

Aiguille d'Argentière Aiguille de Bionnassay Aiguille de Blaitière Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey Aiguille du Chardonnet Aiguilles du Diable Aiguilles Dorées Aiguille du Dru Aiguille des Glaciers Aiguille du Goûter Aiguille des Grands Charmoz Aiguille des Grands Montets Aiguille du Grépon Aiguille du Jardin Aiguille du Midi Aiguille de l'A Neuve Aiguille Noire de Peuterey Aiguille du Pissoir Aiguille du Plan Aiguille de Rochefort Aiguille du Tour Aiguille de Tré la Tête Aiguille de Triolet Aiguille Verte La Breya Le Catogne Le Châtelet (Mont Blanc) Dent du Géant Dôme du Goûter Dôme de Rochefort Les Droites Le Génépi Grand Capucin Grand Darray Grand Pilier d'Angle Grande Lui Grande Pointe des Planereuses Grande Rocheuse Grandes Jorasses Mont Blanc Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
de Courmayeur Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
du Tacul Mont Brouillard Mont Dolent Mont Mallet Mont Maudit Pic Eccles Picco Luigi Amedeo Pointe Allobrogia Pointe Helbronner Pointe d'Orny Pointe des Plines Pointe Ronde Pointe Walker Le Portalet Punta Baretti Tita Neire Tour Noir Tour Ronde

Cols

Col Ferret Col des Montets

Glaciers

Argentière Bossons Mer de Glace Miage Saleina Tête Rousse Trient

Refuges

Albert Premier A Neuve Argentière Cosmiques Couvercle Durier Elisabetta Francesco Gonella Grands Mulets Leschaux Mont-Blanc Plan de l'Aiguille Quintino Sella Tête Rousse Torino Tré la Tête Trient Saleina Vallot

Mountaineers (first or major ascents)

Allain Almer Anderegg (J.) Anderegg (M.) Balmat Blanchard Blodig Boivin Bonatti Bonington Boulaz Bristow Brown Burgener Cassin Charlet Clough Cordier (H.) Cordier (P.) Couzy Croz Dent Desmaison Destivelle Długosz Eccles Eckenstein Gabarrou Ghirardini Graham Brown Güssfeldt Harlin Heckmair Hemming Hudson Kennedy King Klucker Kuffner Kukuczka Kurtyka Lachenal Lafaille Lambert MacIntyre Maund Mazeaud Messner Middlemore Moore Mummery Paccard Paradis Patey Ratti Rébuffat Rey Robbins Roch Rouse de Saussure Smythe Stephen Terray Twight Vallençant Walker Whillans Whymper Winthrop Young

Other

Arve
Arve
(river) Chemin de fer du Montenvers Giardino Botanico Alpino Saussurea Haute Route Marathon du Mont Blanc Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
glacier flood Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Tramway Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Tunnel Saint-Gervais– Vallorcine
Vallorcine
railway Skyway Monte Bianco Top of the Mont Blanc Tour du Mont Blanc Val d'Aosta Val Ferret Val Veny Vallée Blanche Aerial Tramway

v t e

Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
host cities

1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315153102 GND: 4085208-8 BNF:

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