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The Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty ([tʃaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India
India
between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the " Badami
Badami
Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi
Banavasi
and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami
Badami
before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th century. The rule of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
marks an important milestone in the history of South India
India
and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India
India
shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami
Badami
Chalukyas. A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri
Kaveri
and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada
Kannada
literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
in the Jain
Jain
and Veerashaiva traditions. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu literature
Telugu literature
under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas.

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Natives of Karnataka 1.2 Historical sources 1.3 Legends

2 Periods in Chalukya
Chalukya
history

2.1 Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami 2.2 Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani 2.3 Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vengi

3 Architecture 4 Literature 5 Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
country

5.1 Army 5.2 Land governance 5.3 Coinage 5.4 Religion 5.5 Society

6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Origins[edit] Natives of Karnataka[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription on victory pillar, Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, 733–745 CE

While opinions vary regarding the early origins of the Chalukyas, the consensus among noted historians such as John Keay, D.C. Sircar, Hans Raj, S. Sen, Kamath, K. V. Ramesh and Karmarkar is the founders of the empire at Badami
Badami
were native to the modern Karnataka region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] A theory that they were descendants of a 2nd-century chieftain called Kandachaliki Remmanaka, a feudatory of the Andhra Ikshvaku
Andhra Ikshvaku
(from an Ikshvaku inscription of the 2nd century) was put forward. This according to Kamath has failed to explain the difference in lineage. The Kandachaliki feudatory call themselves Vashisthiputras of the Hiranyakagotra. The Chalukyas, however, address themselves as Harithiputras of Manavyasagotra in their inscriptions, which is the same lineage as their early overlords, the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Banavasi. This makes them descendants of the Kadambas. The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
took control of the territory formerly ruled by the Kadambas.[13] A later record of Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
mentions the northern origin theory and claims one ruler of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
came south, defeated the Pallavas
Pallavas
and married a Pallava
Pallava
princess. She had a child called Vijayaditya who is claimed to be the Pulakeshin I's father. However, according to the historians K. V. Ramesh, Chopra and Sastri, there are Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions that confirm Jayasimha was Pulakeshin I's grandfather and Ranaranga, his father.[14][15][16][17] Kamath and Moraes claim it was a popular practice in the 11th century to link South Indian royal family lineage to a Northern kingdom. The Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
records themselves are silent with regards to the Ayodhya
Ayodhya
origin.[18][19] While the northern origin theory has been dismissed by many historians, the epigraphist K. V. Ramesh has suggested that an earlier southern migration is a distinct possibility which needs examination.[20] According to him, the complete absence of any inscriptional reference of their family connections to Ayodhya, and their subsequent Kannadiga identity may have been due to their earlier migration into present day Karnataka
Karnataka
region where they achieved success as chieftains and kings. Hence, the place of origin of their ancestors may have been of no significance to the kings of the empire who may have considered themselves natives of the Kannada
Kannada
speaking region.[12] The writing of 12th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana suggests the Chalukya
Chalukya
family belonged to the Shudra
Shudra
caste while other sources claim they were Kshatriyas.[21] The historians Jan Houben and Kamath, and the epigraphist D.C. Sircar note the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions are in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit.[22][23][24] According to the historian N. L. Rao, their inscriptions call them Karnatas and their names use indigenous Kannada titles such as Priyagallam and Noduttagelvom. The names of some Chalukya
Chalukya
princes end with the pure Kannada
Kannada
term arasa (meaning "king" or "chief").[25][26] The Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
inscriptions call the Chalukyas of Badami
Badami
Karnatabala ("Power of Karnata"). It has been proposed by the historian S. C. Nandinath that the word "Chalukya" originated from Salki or Chalki which is a Kannada
Kannada
word for an agricultural implement.[27][28] Historical sources[edit] Inscriptions in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kannada
Kannada
are the main source of information about Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
history. Among them, the Badami
Badami
cave inscriptions of Mangalesha (578), Kappe Arabhatta
Kappe Arabhatta
record of c. 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakeshin II, the Kanchi
Kanchi
Kailasanatha Temple inscription and Pattadakal
Pattadakal
Virupaksha Temple inscription of Vikramaditya II (all in Kannada
Kannada
language) provide more evidence of the Chalukya
Chalukya
language.[29][30] The Badami cliff inscription of Pulakeshin I (543), the Mahakuta
Mahakuta
Pillar inscription of Mangalesha (595) and the Aihole
Aihole
inscription of Pulakeshin II (634) are examples of important Sanskrit inscriptions written in old Kannada
Kannada
script.[31][32][33] The reign of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
saw the arrival of Kannada
Kannada
as the predominant language of inscriptions along with Sanskrit, in areas of the Indian peninsula outside what is known as Tamilaham (Tamil country).[34] Several coins of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
with Kannada
Kannada
legends have been found. All this indicates that Kannada language
Kannada language
flourished during this period.[35] Travelogues of contemporary foreign travellers have provided useful information about the Chalukyan empire. The Chinese traveller Xuanzang had visited the court of Pulakeshin II. At the time of this visit, as mentioned in the Aihole
Aihole
record, Pulakeshin II had divided his empire into three Maharashtrakas or great provinces comprising 99,000 villages each. This empire possibly covered present day Karnataka, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and coastal Konkan.[36][37] Xuanzang, impressed with the governance of the empire observed that the benefits of the king's efficient administration was felt far and wide. Later, Persian emperor Khosrau II exchanged ambassadors with Pulakeshin II.[38][39][40] Legends[edit] Court poets of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty of Kalyani narrate:

"Once when Brahma, the creator, was engaged in the performance of the sandhya (twilight) rituals, Indra approached and beseeched him to create a hero who could put to an end the increasing evil on earth. On being thus requested, Brahma
Brahma
looked steadily into the Chuluka-jala (the water of oblation in his palm) and out sprang thence a great warrior, the progenitor of the Chalukyas".[41] The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
claimed to have been nursed by the Sapta Matrikas
Matrikas
("seven divine mothers") and were worshippers of many gods including Siva, Vishnu, Chamundi, Surya, Kubera, Parvati, Vinayaka and Kartikeya.

Some scholars connect the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
with the Chaulukyas (Solankis) of Gujarat.[42] According to a myth mentioned in latter manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso, Chaulukyas were born out of fire-pit (Agnikund) at Mount Abu. However it has been reported that the story of Agnikula is not mentioned at all in the original version of the Prithviraj Raso preserved in the Fort Library at Bikaner.[43] According to the Nilagunda inscription of King Vikramaditya VI (11th century or later), the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
originally hailed from Ayodhya where fifty-nine kings ruled, and later, sixteen more of this family ruled from South India
India
where they had migrated. This is repeated by his court poet Bilhana, who claims that the first member of the family, "Chalukya", was so named as he was born in the "hollow of the hands" of God Brahma.[44][45] According to a theory put forward by Lewis, the Chalukya
Chalukya
were descendants of the "Seleukia" tribe of Iraq
Iraq
and that their conflict with the Pallava
Pallava
of Kanchi
Kanchi
was, but a continuation of the conflict between ancient Seleukia and "Parthians", the proposed ancestors of Pallavas. However, this theory has been rejected by Kamath as it seeks to build lineages based simply on similar-sounding clan names.[46] Periods in Chalukya
Chalukya
history[edit]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu
Vishnu
Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
ruled over the Deccan plateau in India
India
for over 600 years. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties. These are the " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami" (also called "Early Chalukyas"), who ruled between the 6th and the 8th century, and the two sibling dynasties, the " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani" (also called Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
or "Later Chalukyas") and the " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vengi" (also called Eastern Chalukyas). Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami[edit]

Bhutanatha temple complex, at Badami

In the 6th century, with the decline of the Gupta dynasty and their immediate successors in northern India, major changes began to happen in the area south of the Vindhyas – the Deccan and Tamilaham. The age of small kingdoms had given way to large empires in this region.[47] The Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty was established by Pulakeshin I in 543.[48][49][50] Pulakeshin I took Vatapi (modern Badami
Badami
in Bagalkot
Bagalkot
district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. Pulakeshin I and his descendants are referred to as " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami". They ruled over an empire that comprised the entire state of Karnataka
Karnataka
and most of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in the Deccan. Pulakeshin II, whose pre-coronation name was Ereya,[51] commanded control over the entire Deccan and is perhaps the most well-known emperor of the Badami
Badami
dynasty.[52][53] He is considered one of the notable kings in Indian history.[54][55][56] His queens were princess from the Alupa Dynasty of South Canara
South Canara
and the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad, clans with whom the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
maintained close family and marital relationships.[57][58] Pulakeshin II extended the Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire up to the northern extents of the Pallava
Pallava
kingdom and halted the southward march of Harsha
Harsha
by defeating him on the banks of the river Narmada. He then defeated the Vishnukundins
Vishnukundins
in the south-eastern Deccan.[59][60][61][62] Pallava
Pallava
Narasimhavarman
Narasimhavarman
however reversed this victory in 642 by attacking and occupying Badami temporarily. It is presumed Pulakeshin II, "the great hero", died fighting.[39][63] The Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty went into a brief decline following the death of Pulakeshin II due to internal feuds when Badami
Badami
was occupied by the Pallavas
Pallavas
for a period of thirteen years.[64][65] It recovered during the reign of Vikramaditya I, who succeeded in pushing the Pallavas
Pallavas
out of Badami
Badami
and restoring order to the empire. Vikramaditya I took the title "Rajamalla" (lit "Sovereign of the Mallas" or Pallavas).[66] The thirty-seven year rule of Vijayaditya (696–733) was a prosperous one and is known for prolific temple building activity.[67][68] The empire was its peak again during the rule of the illustrious Vikramaditya II (733–744) who is known not only for his repeated invasions of the territory of Tondaimandalam and his subsequent victories over Pallava
Pallava
Nandivarman II, but also for his benevolence towards the people and the monuments of Kanchipuram, the Pallava
Pallava
capital.[67][69][70] He thus avenged the earlier humiliation of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
by the Pallavas
Pallavas
and engraved a Kannada inscription on the victory pillar at the Kailasanatha Temple.[69][71][72] During his reign Arab intruders of the Umayyad Caliphate invaded southern Gujarat
Gujarat
which was under Chalukya
Chalukya
rule but the Arabs were defeated and driven out by Pulakesi, a Chalukya governor of Navsari.[73] He later overran the other traditional kingdoms of Tamil country, the Pandyas, the Cholas
Cholas
and the Cheras in addition to subduing a Kalabhra
Kalabhra
ruler.[74] The last Chalukya
Chalukya
king, Kirtivarman II, was overthrown by the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
King Dantidurga in 753.[75] At their peak, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
ruled a vast empire stretching from the Kaveri
Kaveri
in the south to the Narmada in the north. Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
revived their fortunes in 973 after over 200 years of dormancy when much of the Deccan was under the rule of the Rashtrakutas. The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
employed titles and names commonly used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty of the 6th century[76][77] while other Western Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the Early Chalukyas.[78] Tailapa II, a Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
feudatory ruling from Tardavadi – 1000 (Bijapur district) overthrew Karka II, re-established the Chalukya
Chalukya
rule in the western Deccan and recovered most of the Chalukya empire.[79][80] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
ruled for over 200 years and were in constant conflict with the Cholas, and with their cousins, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi. Vikramaditya VI is widely considered the most notable ruler of the dynasty.[81][82] Starting from the very beginning of his reign, which lasted fifty years, he abolished the original Saka era and established the Vikrama Era. Most subsequent Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions are dated in this new era.[83][84] Vikramaditya VI was an ambitious and skilled military leader. Under his leadership the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
were able to end the Chola influence over Vengi (coastal Andhra) and become the dominant power in the Deccan.[85][86] The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
period was an important age in the development of Kannada literature
Kannada literature
and Sanskrit literature.[87][88] They went into their final dissolution towards the end of the 12th century with the rise of the Hoysala Empire, the Pandyas, the Kakatiya and the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri.[89] Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vengi[edit] Main article: Eastern Chalukyas Pulakeshin II conquered the eastern Deccan, corresponding to the coastal districts of modern Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in 616, defeating the remnants of the Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
kingdom. He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy in 621.[90][91] Thus the Eastern Chalukyas were originally of Kannada
Kannada
stock.[92] After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Vengi Viceroyalty developed into an independent kingdom and included the region between Nellore
Nellore
and Visakhapatnam.[91][93] After the decline of the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
empire in the mid-8th century, territorial disputes flared up between the Rashtrakutas, the new rulers of the western deccan, and the Eastern Chalukyas. For much of the next two centuries, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
had to accept subordination towards the Rashtrakutas.[94] Apart from a rare military success, such as the one by Vijayaditya II(c.808–847), it was only during the rule of Bhima I (c.892–921) that these Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were able to celebrate a measure of independence. After the death of Bhima I, the Andhra region once again saw succession disputes and interference in Vengi affairs by the Rashtrakutas.[94] The fortunes of the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
took a turn around 1000. Danarnava, their king, was killed in battle in 973 by the Telugu Choda King Bhima who then imposed his rule over the region for twenty-seven years. During this time, Danarnava's two sons took refuge in the Chola kingdom. Choda Bhima's invasion of Tondaimandalam, a Chola
Chola
territory, and his subsequent death on the battlefield opened up a new era in Chola– Chalukya
Chalukya
relations. Saktivarman I, the elder son of Danarnava was crowned as the ruler of Vengi in 1000, though under the control of king Rajaraja Chola I.[95] This new relationship between the Cholas
Cholas
and the coastal Andhra kingdom was unacceptable to the Western Chalukyas, who had by then replaced the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
as the main power in the western Deccan. The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
sought to brook the growing Chola
Chola
influence in the Vengi region but were unsuccessful.[94][96] Initially, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
had encouraged Kannada language
Kannada language
and literature, though, after a period of time, local factors took over and they gave importance to Telugu language.[97][98] Telugu literature owes its growth to the Eastern Chalukyas.[99] Architecture[edit] See also: Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Architecture, Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture, Pattadakal, Badami
Badami
Cave Temples, and Aihole

Virupaksha temple in Dravidian style at Pattadakal, built 740 CE

The Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
era was an important period in the development of South Indian architecture. The kings of this dynasty were called Umapati Varlabdh and built many temples for the Hindu god Shiva.[100] Their style of architecture is called "Chalukyan architecture" or "Karnata Dravida architecture".[101][102] Nearly a hundred monuments built by them, rock cut (cave) and structural, are found in the Malaprabha
Malaprabha
river basin in modern Bagalkot
Bagalkot
district of northern Karnataka.[103] The building material they used was a reddish-golden Sandstone
Sandstone
found locally. These cave temples are basically excavations, cut out of the living rock sites they occupy. They were not build as their structural counterparts were, rather created by a special technique known as "subtraction" and are basically sculptural.[104] Though they ruled a vast empire, the Chalukyan workshops concentrated most of their temple building activity in a relatively small area within the Chalukyan heartland – Aihole, Badami, Pattadakal
Pattadakal
and Mahakuta
Mahakuta
in modern Karnataka
Karnataka
state.[105] Their temple building activity can be categorised into three phases. The early phase began in the last quarter of the 6th century and resulted in many cave temples, prominent among which are three elementary cave temples at Aihole
Aihole
(one Vedic, one Jain
Jain
and one Buddhist which is incomplete), followed by four developed cave temples at Badami
Badami
(of which cave 3, a Vaishnava temple, is dated accurately to 578 CE).[106] These cave temples at Badami
Badami
are similar, in that, each has a plain exterior but an exceptionally well finished interior consisting of a pillared verandah, a columned hall (mantapa) and a cella (shrine, cut deep into rock) which contains the deity of worship.[107] In Badami, three caves temples are Vedic and one in Jain. The Vedic temples contain large well sculpted images of Harihara, Mahishasuramardhini, Varaha, Narasimha, Trivikrama, Vishnu seated on Anantha (the snake) and Nataraja
Nataraja
(dancing Shiva).[108] The second phase of temple building was at Aihole
Aihole
(where some seventy structures exist and has been called "one of the cradles of Indian temple architecture"[109]) and Badami. Though the exact dating of these temples has been debated, there is consensus that the beginnings of these constructions are from c. 600.[110][111][112] These are the Lad Khan Temple
Lad Khan Temple
(dated by some to c. 450 but more accurately to 620) with its interesting perforated stone windows and sculptures of river goddesses; the Meguti Jain
Jain
Temple (634) which shows progress in structural design; the Durga
Durga
Temple with its northern Indian style tower (8th century) and experiments to adapt a Buddhist Chaitya design to a brahminical one (its stylistic framework is overall a hybrid of north and south Indian styles.[100]); the Huccimalli Gudi Temple with a new inclusion, a vestibule, connecting the sanctum to the hall.[113] Other dravida style temples from this period are the Naganatha Temple at Nagaral; the Banantigudi Temple, the Mahakutesvara Temple and the Mallikarjuna Temple at Mahakuta; and the Lower Sivalaya Temple, the Malegitti Sivalaya Temple (upper) and the Jambulingesvara Temple at Badami.[111] Located outside the Chalukyan architectural heartland, 140 km south-east of Badami, with a structure related to the Early Chalukya
Chalukya
style is the unusual Parvati Temple at Sanduru
Sanduru
which dates to the late 7th century. It is medium-sized, 48 ft long and 37 ft wide. It has a nagara (north Indian) style vimana (tower) and dravida (south Indian) style parts, has no mantapa (hall) and consists of an antarala (vestibule) crowned with a barrel vaulted tower (sukhanasi). The "staggered" base plan of the temple became popular much later, in the 11th century.[114][115] The structural temples at Pattadakal, built in the 8th century and now a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, marks the culmination and mature phase of Badami
Badami
Chalukyan architecture. The Bhutanatha group of temples at Badami
Badami
are also from this period. There are ten temples at Pattadakal, six in southern dravida style and four in the northern nagara style. Well known among these are the Sangamesvara Temple (725), the Virupaksha Temple (740–745) and the Mallikarjuna Temple (740–745) in the southern style. The Papanatha temple (680) and Galaganatha Temple (740) are early attempts in the nagara – dravida fusion style.[116] Inscriptional evidence suggests that the Virupaksha and the Mallikarjuna Temples were commissioned by the two queens of King Vikramaditya II after his military success over the Pallavas
Pallavas
of Kanchipuram.[111] Some well known names of Chalukyan architects are Revadi Ovajja, Narasobba and Anivarita Gunda.[117] The reign of Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
was an important period in the development of Deccan architecture. Their architecture served as a conceptual link between the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture
Hoysala architecture
popularised in the 13th century.[118][119] The centre of their cultural and temple-building activity lay in the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
region of modern Karnataka
Karnataka
state, encompassing the present-day Dharwad district; it included areas of present-day Haveri
Haveri
and Gadag districts.[120][121] Here, large medieval workshops built numerous monuments.[122] These monuments, regional variants of pre-existing dravida temples, defined the Karnata dravida tradition.[123] The most notable of the many buildings dating from this period are the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district,[124][125] the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
in the Gadag district,[126][127] the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti,[127] and the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali,[128] both in the Davangere district.[129] Other notable constructions are the Dodda Basappa Temple
Dodda Basappa Temple
at Dambal
Dambal
(Gadag district),[130][131] the Siddhesvara Temple
Siddhesvara Temple
at Haveri
Haveri
(Haveri district),[132][133] and the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri
Annigeri
(Dharwad district).[134][135] The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
built some fine temples at Alampur, in modern eastern Andhra Pradesh.[106][136]

Bahubali
Bahubali
at Jain
Jain
Cave temple No. 4 at Badami, 6th century

Vishnu
Vishnu
image in Cave temple No. 3

Bhutanatha group of temples facing the Badami
Badami
tank

The Parvati Temple, located about 140 km southeast to the Badami

Aihole
Aihole
Durga
Durga
Temple Front View

Aihole
Aihole
– Meguti Jain
Jain
Temple

Mallikarjuna temple in dravidian style and Kashi Vishwanatha temple in nagara style at Pattadakal, built 740 CE

Dancing Shiva
Shiva
in cave no. 1 in Badami

Papanatha temple at Pattadakal – fusion of southern and northern Indian styles, 680 CE

Literature[edit] See also: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
literature

Poetry on stone at the Meguti temple ( Aihole
Aihole
inscription) dated 634 CE, in Sanskrit language
Sanskrit language
and old Kannada
Kannada
script, with a Kannada language
Kannada language
endorsement of about the same date at the bottom.[22]

The Aihole
Aihole
inscription of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
(634) written by his court poet Ravikirti in Sanskrit language
Sanskrit language
and Kannada
Kannada
script is considered as an classical piece of poetry.[31][137] A few verses of a poet named Vijayanaka who describes herself as the "dark Sarasvati" have been preserved. It is possible that she may have been a queen of prince Chandraditya (a son of Pulakeshin II).[138] Famous writers in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
from the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
period are Vijnaneshwara who achieved fame by writing Mitakshara, a book on Hindu law, and King Someshvara III, a noted scholar, who compiled an encyclopedia of all arts and sciences called Manasollasa.[139] From the period of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, references are made to the existence of Kannada
Kannada
literature, though not much has survived.[140] Inscriptions however refer to Kannada
Kannada
as the "natural language".[141] The Kappe Arabhatta
Kappe Arabhatta
record of c. 700 in tripadi (three line) metre is the earliest available work in Kannada
Kannada
poetics.[142][143] Karnateshwara Katha, which was quoted later by Jayakirti, is believed to be a eulogy of Pulakeshin II and to have belonged to this period.[143] Other probable Kannada
Kannada
writers, whose works are not extant now but titles of which are known from independent references[144] are Syamakundacharya (650), who is said to have authored the Prabhrita, and Srivaradhadeva (also called Tumubuluracharya, 650 or earlier), the possible author of the Chudamani ("Crest Jewel"), a lengthy commentary on logic.[140][145][146][147] The rule of the Western and Eastern Chalukyas, however, is a major event in the history of Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu literatures respectively. By the 9th–10th centuries, Kannada language
Kannada language
had already seen some of its most notable writers. The "three gems" of Kannada
Kannada
literature, Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna
Ranna
belonged to this period.[148][149] In the 11th century, Telugu literature
Telugu literature
was born under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
with Nannaya Bhatta as its first writer.[149][150] Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
country[edit] Army[edit] The army was well organised and this was the reason for Pulakeshin II's success beyond the Vindyas.[151] It consisted of an infantry, a cavalry, an elephant corps and a powerful navy. The Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsiang
Hiuen-Tsiang
wrote that the Chalukyan army had hundreds of elephants which were intoxicated with liquor prior to battle.[39][152] It was with their navy that they conquered Revatidvipa (Goa), and Puri
Puri
on east coast of India. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use the term Karnatabala when referring to the powerful Chalukya
Chalukya
armies.[153] Land governance[edit] The government, at higher levels, was closely modelled after the Magadhan and Satavahana
Satavahana
administrative machinery.[39] The empire was divided into Maharashtrakas (provinces), then into smaller Rashtrakas (Mandala), Vishaya (district), Bhoga (group of 10 villages) which is similar to the Dasagrama unit used by the Kadambas. At the lower levels of administration, the Kadamba style prevailed fully. The Sanjan plates of Vikramaditya I even mentions a land unit called Dasagrama.[154] In addition to imperial provinces, there were autonomous regions ruled by feudatories such as the Alupas, the Gangas, the Banas and the Sendrakas.[155] Local assemblies and guilds looked after local issues. Groups of mahajanas (learned brahmins) looked after agraharas (called ghatika or "place of higher learning") such as at Badami
Badami
which was served by 2000 mahajans and Aihole
Aihole
which was served by 500 mahajanas. Taxes were levied and were called the herjunka – tax on loads, the kirukula – tax on retail goods in transit, the bilkode – sales tax, the pannaya – betel tax, siddaya – land tax and the vaddaravula – tax levied to support royalty.[155] Coinage[edit] The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
minted coins that were of a different standard compared to the coins of the northern kingdoms.[156] The coins had Nagari and Kannada
Kannada
legends.[23] The coins of Mangalesha had the symbol of a temple on the obverse and a 'sceptre between lamps' or a temple on the reverse. Pulakeshin II's coins had a caparisoned lion facing right on the obverse and a temple on the reverse. The coins weighed 4 grams and were called, in old-Kannada, hun (or honnu) and had fractions such as fana (or fanam) and the quarter fana (the modern day Kannada
Kannada
equivalent being hana – which literally means "money").[157] A gold coin called gadyana is mentioned in a record at the Vijayeshwara Temple at Pattadakal, which later came to be known as varaha (their royal emblem).[156] Religion[edit]

Vaishnava Cave temple No. 3 at Badami, 578 CE

Part of a series on the

History of Karnataka

Political history of medieval Karnataka Origin of Karnataka's name Kadambas
Kadambas
and Gangas Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire Southern Kalachuri Hoysala Empire Vijayanagara Empire Bahmani Sultanate Bijapur Sultanate Kingdom of Mysore Nayakas of Keladi Nayakas of Chitradurga Haleri Kingdom Unification of Karnataka

Categories

Architecture Forts

Economies Societies

v t e

Both Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
flourished during the Badami
Badami
Chalukya period, though it seems the former was more popular.[158] Famous temples were built in places such as Pattadakal, Aihole
Aihole
and Mahakuta, and priests (archakas) were invited from northern India. Vedic sacrifices, religious vows (vrata) and the giving of gifts (dana) was important.[159] The Badami
Badami
kings were followers of Vedic Hinduism
Hinduism
and dedicated temples to popular Hindu deities in Aihole. Sculptures of deities testify to the popularity of Hindu Gods such as Vishnu, Shiva, Kartikeya, Ganapathi, Shakti, Surya
Surya
and Sapta Matrikas
Matrikas
("seven mothers"). The Badami
Badami
kings also performed the Ashwamedha
Ashwamedha
("horse sacrifice").[160] The worship of Lajja Gauri, a fertility goddess is known. Jainism
Jainism
too was a prominent religion during this period. The kings of the dynasty were however secular and actively encouraged Jainism. One of the Badami
Badami
Cave temples is dedicated to the Jain faith. Jain
Jain
temples were also erected in the Aihole
Aihole
complex, the temple at Maguti being one such example.[161] Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakeshin II was a Jain. Queen Vinayavati consecrated a temple for the Trimurti
Trimurti
("Hindu trinity") at Badami. Sculptures of the Trimurti, Harihara
Harihara
(half Vishnu, half Shiva) and Ardhanarishwara (half Shiva, half woman) provide ample evidence of their tolerance.[160] Buddhism
Buddhism
was on a decline, having made its ingress into Southeast Asia. This is confirmed by the writings of Hiuen-Tsiang. Badami, Aihole, Kurtukoti and Puligere (modern Lakshmeshwar
Lakshmeshwar
in the Gadag district) were primary places of learning. Society[edit] The Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
was present and devadasis were recognised by the government. Some kings had concubines (ganikas) who were given much respect,[162] and Sati was perhaps absent since widows like Vinayavathi and Vijayanka are mentioned in records. Devadasis were however present in temples. Sage Bharata's Natyashastra, the precursor to Bharatanatyam, the classical dance of South India, was popular and is seen in many sculptures and is mentioned in inscriptions.[163] Some women from the royal family enjoyed political power in administration. Queen Vijayanka was a noted Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet,[138] Kumkumadevi, the younger sister of Vijayaditya (and queen of Alupa King Chitravahana) made several grants and had a Jain
Jain
basadi called Anesajjebasadi constructed at Puligere,[164] and the queens of Vikramaditya II, Lokamahadevi and Trailokyamahadevi made grants and possibly consecrated the Lokesvara Temple (now called Virupaksha temple) but also and the Mallikarjuna temple respectively at Pattadakal.[165] In popular culture[edit] The Chalukya
Chalukya
era may be seen as the beginning in the fusion of cultures of northern and southern India, making way for the transmission of ideas between the two regions. This is seen clearly in the field of architecture. The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
spawned the Vesara style of architecture which includes elements of the northern nagara and southern dravida styles. During this period, the expanding Sanskritic culture mingled with local Dravidian vernaculars which were already popular.[47] Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
maintain these influences even today. This influence helped to enrich literature in these languages.[166] The Hindu legal system owes much to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Mitakshara by Vijnaneshwara in the court of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
King Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the greatest work in legal literature, Mitakshara is a commentary on Yajnavalkya and is a treatise on law based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of India. Englishman Henry Thomas Colebrooke
Henry Thomas Colebrooke
later translated into English the section on inheritance, giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[167] It was during the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
rule that the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement gained momentum in South India, in the form of Ramanujacharya
Ramanujacharya
and Basavanna, later spreading into northern India. A celebration called Chalukya
Chalukya
utsava, a three-day festival of music and dance, organised by the Government of Karnataka, is held every year at Pattadakal, Badami
Badami
and Aihole.[168] The event is a celebration of the achievements of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
in the realm of art, craft, music and dance. The program, which starts at Pattadakal
Pattadakal
and ends in Aihole, is inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Karnataka. Singers, dancers, poets and other artists from all over the country take part in this event. In the 26 February 2006 celebration, 400 art troupes took part in the festivities. Colorful cut outs of the Varaha
Varaha
the Chalukya emblem, Satyashraya Pulakeshin (Pulakeshin II), famous sculptural masterpieces such as Durga, Mahishasuramardhini ( Durga
Durga
killing demon Mahishasura) were present everywhere. The program at Pattadakal
Pattadakal
is named Anivaritacharigund vedike after the famous architect of the Virupaksha temple, Gundan Anivaritachari. At Badami
Badami
it is called Chalukya
Chalukya
Vijayambika Vedike and at Aihole, Ravikirti Vedike after the famous poet and minister (Ravikirti) in the court of Pulakeshin II. Immadi Pulakeshi, a Kannada
Kannada
movie of the 1960s starring Dr. Rajkumar celebrates the life and times of the great king.[168] See also[edit]

Eastern Chalukyas Western Chalukyas Chalukya
Chalukya
Cholas Hoysala Empire Chola
Chola
dynasty Kamboi Kamboja

v t e

Historical places of Chalukyas

Karnataka

Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Sudi Banashankari Lakkundi Dambal Gadag Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Lakshmeshwara Annigeri Kundgol Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha Hangal Hooli Jalasangvi Basavakalyan Manyakheta Chandramouleshwara Temple
Chandramouleshwara Temple
Unkal Hubli-Dharwad Haveri Kuruvatti

Maharashtra

Elephanta Caves Ajanta cave #1 paintings Sangli Sangli
Sangli
State Hottal near Deglur Kolhapur Latur Dhule Solapur Manapura Mumbai Akola Nanded Hottal in Nanded
Nanded
District Naldurg Aurad Omerga Daitya Sudan temple Shiva
Shiva
temples at Pen Naldurg

Telangana

Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal Someshwara temple in Warangal Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
in Hanamakonda Ramappa Temple
Ramappa Temple
near Warangal Alampur, Mahbubnagar Panagal Bhuvanagiri Fort Kulpakji
Kulpakji
and Jangaon, Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

Chebrolu, Guntur district Eluru Kolletikota Nidumolu Rajahmundry Vengi Terela village in Durgi mandal in Guntur district

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture " Golden Age
Golden Age
of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra
Kalabhra
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 

Notes[edit]

^ An inscription dated 1095 CE of Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
mentions grants to a Vihara of Buddha and Arya-Taradevi (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath have claimed the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were Kannadigas
Kannadigas
( Kannada
Kannada
speakers) and very much the natives of Karnataka
Karnataka
(Kamath 2001, p. 57) ^ The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were Kannadigas
Kannadigas
(D.C. Sircar in Mahajan V.D., 1960, Reprint 2007, Ancient India, Chand and Company, New Delhi, p. 690, ISBN 81-219-0887-6) ^ Natives of Karnataka
Karnataka
(Hans Raj, 2007, Advanced history of India: From earliest times to present times, Part-1, Surgeet publications, New Delhi, p. 339 ^ The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
hailed from Karnataka
Karnataka
(John Keay, 2000, p. 168) ^ Quote:"They belonged to Karnataka
Karnataka
country and their mother tongue was Kannada" (Sen 1999, 360) ^ The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami
Badami
seem to be of indigenous origin (Kamath 2001, p. 58) ^ Jayasimha and Ranaraga, the first members of the Chalukya
Chalukya
family were possibly employees of the Kadambas
Kadambas
in the northern part of the Kadamba Kingdom (Fleet [in Kanarese Dynasties, p. 343] in Moraes, 1931, pp. 51–52) ^ Pulakesi I must have been an administrative official of the northern Kadamba territory centered in Badami
Badami
(Moraes 1931, pp. 51–52) ^ The Chalukya
Chalukya
base was Badami
Badami
and Aihole
Aihole
(Thapar 2003, p. 328) ^ Inscriptional evidence proves the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were native Kannadigas (Karmarkar, 1947, p. 26) ^ a b Ramesh (1984), p. 20 ^ Pulakesi I of Badami
Badami
who was a feudatory of the Kadamba king Krishna
Krishna
Varman II, overpowered his overlord in c. 540 and took control of the Kadamba Kingdom (Kamath 2001, p. 35) ^ Jayasimha (Pulakesi I's grandfather) is known from the Kaira inscription of 472–473 CE. Both Jayasimha and Ranaranga (Pulakesi I's father) are known from Mahakuta
Mahakuta
inscription of 599 CE and Aihole
Aihole
record of 634 CE (Ramesh 1984, pp. 26–27, p. 30) ^ From the Badami
Badami
Cliff inscription of Pulakesi I and from the Hyderabad record of Pulakesi II which states their family ancestry (Kamath 2001, pp. 56–58) ^ Sastri (1955), p. 154 ^ Chopra (2003), p. 73, part 1 ^ Kamath (2001), p. 56 ^ Moraes (1931). pp. 10–11 ^ Ramesh (1984), p. 19 ^ Bilhana, in his Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Vikramanakadevacharitam claims the Early Chalukya
Chalukya
family were born from the feet of Hindu God Brahma, implying they were Shudras by caste, while other sources claim they were born in the arms of Brahma, and hence were Kshatriyas (Ramesh 1984, p. 15) ^ a b Sircar D.C. (1965), p. 48, Indian Epigraphy, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, ISBN 81-208-1166-6 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p. 57 ^ Houben (1996), p. 215 ^ Professor N.L. Rao has pointed out that some of their family records in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
have also named the princes with "arasa", such as Kattiyarasa (Kirtivarman I), Bittarasa (Kubja Vishnuvardhana) and Mangalarasa (Mangalesha, Kamath 2001, pp. 57–60) ^ Historians Shafaat Ahmad Khan and S. Krishnasvami Aiyangar clarify that Arasa is Kannada
Kannada
word, equivalent to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word Raja – Journal of Indian History p. 102, Published by Department of Modern Indian History, University of Allahabad ^ Dr. Hoernle suggests a non- Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin of the dynastic name. Dr. S.C. Nandinath feels the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were of agricultural background and of Kannada
Kannada
origin who later took up a martial career. He feels the word Chalki found in some of their records must have originated from salki, an agricultural implement (Kamath 2001, p. 57) ^ The word Chalukya
Chalukya
is derived from a Dravidian root (Kittel in Karmarkar 1947, p. 26) ^ Kamath (2001), p. 6, p. 10, p. 57, p. 59, p. 67 ^ Ramesh (1984), p. 76, p. 159, pp. 161–162 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p. 59 ^ Azmathulla Shariff. " Badami
Badami
Chalukyans' magical transformation". Deccan Herald, Spectrum, July 26, 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-02-10. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Bolon, Carol Radcliffe (1 January 1979). "The Mahākuṭa Pillar and Its Temples". 41 (2/3): 253–268. doi:10.2307/3249519. JSTOR 3249519.  ^ Thapar, (2003), p. 326 ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 12, 57, 67 ^ Pulakesi II's Maharashtra
Maharashtra
extended from Nerbudda
Nerbudda
(Narmada river) in the north to Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
in the south (Vaidya 1924, p. 171) ^ Kamath (2001), p. 60 ^ From the notes of Arab traveller Tabari (Kamath 2001, p. 60) ^ a b c d Chopra (2003), p. 75, part 1 ^ The Buddhist Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion, Pia Brancaccio, BRILL, 2010 p.82 ^ Ramesh (1984), p. 14 ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 28. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ S.R. Bakshi; S.G (2005). Early Aryans to Swaraj. p. 325. ISBN 978-81-7625-537-0. It has been reported that the story of agnikula is mot mentioned at all in the original version of the Raso preserved in the Fort Library at Bikaner.  ^ Kamath 2001, pp. 56 ^ Quote:"Another unhistorical trend met with in the epigraphical records of the 11th and subsequent centuries is the attempt, on the part of the court poets, no doubt, again, with the consent of their masters, to invent mythical genealogies which seek to carry back the antiquity of the royal families not merely to the periods of the epics and the Vedas but to the very moment of their creation in the heavens. As far as the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vatapi are concerned, the blame of engineering such travesties attaches, once again, to the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani and their Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
contemporaries. The Eastern Chalukyas, for instance, have concocted the following long list of fifty-two names commencing with no less a personage than the divine preserver"(Ramesh 1984, p. 16) ^ Dr. Lewis's theory has not found acceptance because the Pallavas were in constant conflict with the Kadambas, prior to the rise of Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Kamath 2001, p. 57) ^ a b Thapar (2003), p. 326 ^ Popular theories regarding the name are: Puli – "tiger" in Kannada
Kannada
and Kesin – "haried" in Sanskrit; Pole – "lustrous" in Kannada, from his earliest Badami
Badami
cliff inscription that literally spells Polekesi; Pole – from Tamil word Punai (to tie a knot; Ramesh 1984, pp. 31–32) ^ The name probably meant "the great lion" (Sastri 1955, p. 134) ^ The name probably meant "One endowed with the strength of a great lion" (Chopra 2003, p. 73, part 1) ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 58–59 ^ Ramesh (1984), p. 76 ^ Chopra 2003, p. 74, part 1 ^ Quote:"His fame spread far and wide even beyond India" (Chopra 2003, p. 75 part 1) ^ Quote:"One of the great kings of India". He successfully defied the expansion of king Harshavardhana of Northern India
India
into the deccan. The Aihole
Aihole
inscription by Ravikirti describes how King Harsha
Harsha
lost his Harsha
Harsha
or cheerful disposition after his defeat. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang also confirms Pulakesi II's victory over King Harsha in his travelogue. Pulakesi II took titles such as Prithvivallabha and Dakshinapatha Prithviswamy (Kamath 2001, pp. 58–60) ^ Quote:"Thus began one of the most colourful careers in Indian History" (Ramesh 1984, p. 76) ^ Vikramaditya I, who later revived the Chalukya
Chalukya
fortunes was born to Pulakesi II and the daughter of Western Ganga monarch Durvinita (Chopra 2003, p. 74, part 1) ^ His other queen, an Alupa princess called Kadamba was the daughter of Aluka Maharaja
Maharaja
(G.S. Gai in Kamath 2001, p. 94) ^ Quote:"The Aihole
Aihole
record gives an impressive list of his military conquests and other achievements. According to the record, he conquered the Kadambas, the Western Gangas, the north Konkan
Konkan
by naval victory, Harsha
Harsha
of Thanesar, the Latas, the Malwas, the Gurjaras (thereby obtaining sovereignty over the Maharashtras), Berar, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Kuntala (with their nine and ninety thousand villages), the Kalingas and the Kosalas, Pishtapura (Pishtapuram in eastern Andhra) and Kanchipuram, whose king had opposed the rise of his power" (Chopra 2003, p. 74 part 1) ^ Ramesh (1984), pp. 79–80, pp. 86–87 ^ According to Dr. R. C. Majumdar, some principalities may have submitted to Pulakesi II out of fear of Harsha
Harsha
of Kanauj (Kamath 2001, p. 59) ^ Sastri (1955), pp. 135–136 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 136 ^ This is attested to by an inscription behind the Mallikarjuna temple in Badami
Badami
(Sastri 1955, p. 136) ^ Chopra (2003), pp. 75–76, part 1 ^ From the Gadval plates dated c. 674 of Vikramaditya I (Chopra 2003, p. 76, part 1) ^ a b Chopra (2003), p. 76, part 1 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 138 ^ a b From the Kannada
Kannada
inscription at the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram (Sastri 1955, p. 140) ^ Kamath (2001), p. 63 ^ Thapar (2003), p. 331 ^ Ramesh (1984), pp. 159–160 ^ Dikshit, Durga
Durga
Prasad (1980), p. 166–167, Political History of the Chālukyas of Badami, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, OCLC
OCLC
831387906 ^ Ramesh (1984), p. 159 ^ Ramesh (1984), pp. 173–174 ^ Poet Bilhanas 12th century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Vikramadeva Charitam and Ranna's Kannada
Kannada
work Gadayuddha (982) and inscriptions from Nilagunda, Yevvur, Kauthem and Miraj claim Tailapa II was son of Vikramaditya IV, seventh in descent from Bhima, brother of Badami Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikramaditya II (Kamath 2001, p. 100) ^ Kings of the Chalukya
Chalukya
line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
family line used the title "Malla" which is often used by the Western Chalukyas. Names such as "Satyashraya" which were used by the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
are also name of a Western Chalukya
Chalukya
king, (Gopal B.R. in Kamath 2001, p. 100) ^ Unlike the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
did not claim to be Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra in lineage. The use of titles like Tribhuvanamalla marked them of as a distinct line (Fleet, Bhandarkar and Altekar in Kamath 2001, p. 100) ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna
Krishna
who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them (Sastri 1955, p. 162) ^ From his c. 957 and c.965 records (Kamath 2001, p. 101 ^ Vijnyaneshavara, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar in his court, eulogised him as "a king like none other" (Kamath 2001, p. 106) ^ The writing Vikramankadevacharita by Bilhana is a eulogy of the achievements of the king in 18 cantos (Sastri, 1955 p. 315) ^ Cousens 1926, p. 11 ^ Vikrama– Chalukya
Chalukya
era of 1075 CE (Thapar 2003, p. 469) ^ Chopra (2003), p. 139, part 1 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 175 ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 114–115 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp. 18–20 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 192 ^ Pulakesi II made Vishnuvardhana the Yuvaraja or crown prince. Later Vishnuvardhana become the founder of the Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
empire (Sastri 1955, pp. 134–136, p. 312) ^ a b Chopra (2003), p. 132, part 1 ^ Kamath (2001), p. 8 ^ Kamath 2001, p. 60 ^ a b c Chopra (2003), p. 133 ^ Sastri (1955), pp. 164–165 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 165 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p. 68 ^ The Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions show a gradual shift towards Telugu with the appearance of Telugu stanzas from the time of king Gunaga Vijayaditya (Vijayaditya III) in the middle of the 9th century, Dr. K.S.S. Seshan, University of Hyderabad. "APOnline-History of Andhra Pradesh-ancient period-Eastern Chalukyas". Revenue Department (Gazetteers), Government of Andhra Pradesh. Tata Consultancy Services. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2006.  ^ The first work of Telugu literature
Telugu literature
is a translation of Mahabharata by Nannaya during the rule of Eastern Chalukya
Chalukya
king Rajaraja Narendra (1019–1061; Sastri 1955, p. 367) ^ a b by Tartakov, Gary Michael (1997), The Durga
Durga
Temple at Aihole: A Historiographical Study, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563372-6 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 5 ^ Quote"The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
had introduced a glorious chapter, alike in heroism in battle and cultural magnificence in peace, in the western Deccan" (K.V. Sounder Rajan in Kamath 2001, p. 68) ^ Kamath 2001, p. 68 ^ Tarr, Gary (1970), p.156, Chronology and Development of the Chāḷukya Cave Temples, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 8, pp. 155–184 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 65 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p. 66 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 406 ^ Quote:"The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
cut rock like titans but finished like jewellers"(Sheshadri in Kamath 2001, pp. 68–69) ^ Percy Brown in Kamath (2001), p. 68 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 407 ^ a b c Hardy (1995), p. 67 ^ Foekema (2003), p. 11 ^ Sastri (1955), pp. 407–408 ^ Carol Radcliffe Bolon, (1980) pp. 303–326, The Pārvatī Temple, Sandur and Early Images of Agastya, Artibus Asiae Vol. 42, No. 4 ^ Hardy (1995), p.342, p.278 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 408 ^ Kamath (2001), p. 69 ^ Quote:"Their creations have the pride of place in Indian art tradition" (Kamath 2001, p. 115) ^ Sastri (1955), p. 427 ^ Cousens (1926, p 17 ^ Foekema (1996), p. 14 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 156 ^ Hardy (1995), pp. 6–7 ^ Cousens (1926), pp. 100–102 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 333 ^ Cousens (1926), pp. 79–82 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p. 336 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 323 ^ The Mahadeva Temple at Itagi has been called the finest in Kannada country after the Hoysaleswara temple
Hoysaleswara temple
at Halebidu (Cousens in Kamath 2001, p 117) ^ Cousens (1926), pp. 114–115 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 326 ^ Cousens (1926), pp. 85–87 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 330 ^ Foekema (2003), p. 52 ^ Hardy (1995), p. 321 ^ The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
influenced the art of the rulers of Vengi and those of Gujarat
Gujarat
(Kamath 2001, pp. 68, 69) ^ Quote:"He deemed himself the peer of Bharavi and Kalidasa". An earlier inscription in Mahakuta, in prose is comparable to the works of Bana (Sastri, 1955, p. 312) ^ a b Sastri, 1955, p. 312 ^ The writing is on various topics including traditional medicine, music, precious stones, dance etc. (Kamath 2001, p. 106) ^ a b Sen (1999), p. 366 ^ Thapar (2003), p. 345 ^ Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1717 ^ a b Chidananda Murthy in Kamath (2001), p. 67 ^ Such as Indranandi's Srutavatara, Devachandra's Rajavalikathe (Narasimhacharya, 1934, pp. 4–5); Bhattakalanka's Sabdanusasana of 1604 (Sastri 1955, p. 355) ^ Sastri (1955), p. 355 ^ Mugali (1975), p. 13 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p. 4 ^ Sastri 1955, p. 356 ^ a b Chopra (2003), p. 196, part 1 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 367 ^ Chopra (2003), p. 77, part1 ^ Kamath (2001), p. 64 ^ Kamath 2001, pp. 57, 65 ^ The breakup of land into mandalas, vishaya existed in the Kadamba administrative machinery (Kamath 2001, pp. 36, 65, 66) ^ a b Kamath (2001), p. 65 ^ a b However, they issued gold coins that weighed 120 grams, in imitation of the Gupta dynasty (A.V. Narasimha
Narasimha
Murthy in Kamath 2001, p. 65) ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S (November 1, 2001). "The Southern India: Coinage of the Chalukyas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage. Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2008-08-06.  ^ Chopra (2003), p. 191, part 1 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 391 ^ a b Kamath 2001, p. 66 ^ Chopra (2003), p. 78, part 1 ^ Vinopoti, a concubine of King Vijayaditya is mentioned with due respect in an inscription (Kamath 2001, p. 67) ^ One record mentions an artist called Achala who was well versed in Natyashastra (Kamath 2001, p. 67) ^ From the Shiggaon plates of c. 707 and Gudigeri inscription dated 1076 (Ramesh 1984, pp. 142, 144) ^ Cousens (1926), p. 59 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 309 ^ Sastri (1955), p. 324 ^ a b Staff correspondent. " Chalukya
Chalukya
Utsava: Depiction of grandeur and glory". New India
India
Press, Sunday February 26, 2006. New India
India
Press. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2006. 

References[edit] Books

Bolon, Carol Radcliffe (1 January 1979). "The Mahākuṭa Pillar and Its Temples". 41 (2/3): 253–268. doi:10.2307/3249519. JSTOR 3249519.  Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India
India
(Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7.  Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.  Foekema, Gerard (1996). Complete Guide to Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0.  Foekema, Gerard (2003) [2003]. Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 1000–1300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-215-1089-9.  Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-312-4.  Houben, Jan E.M. (1996) [1996]. Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10613-8.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Karmarkar, A.P. (1947) [1947]. Cultural history of Karnataka: ancient and medieval. Dharwad: Karnataka
Karnataka
Vidyavardhaka Sangha. OCLC 8221605.  Keay, John (2000) [2000]. India: A History. New York: Grove Publications. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.  Michell, George (2002) [2002]. Pattadakal – Monumental Legacy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-566057-9.  Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0595-0.  Mugali, R.S. (1975) [1975]. History of Kannada
Kannada
literature. Sahitya Akademi. OCLC 2492406.  Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.  Ramesh, K.V. (1984). Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Vatapi. Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan. OCLC 567370037. 3987-10333.  Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3.  Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4.  Vaidya, C.V. History of Mediaeval Hindu India
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(Being a History of India
India
from 600 to 1200 A.D.). Poona: Oriental Book Supply Agency. OCLC 6814734.  Various (1988) [1988]. Encyclopaedia of Indian literature – vol 2. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1194-7. 

Web

"APOnline – History of Andhra Pradesh-ancient period-Eastern Chalukyas
Chalukyas
by Tata Consultancy Services". Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2006.  "Architecture of Indian Subcontinent, Takeyo Kamiya, 20 September 1996, Published by Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India". Retrieved 2006-11-12.  " Badami
Badami
Chalukyans' magical transformation, an article by Azmathulla Shariff in Deccan Herald, Spectrum, 26 July 2005". Archived from the original on 2007-02-10. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty.

"Chalukyan Art by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat, Kamat's Potpourri, 4 November 2006". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  "History of the Kannada
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Temples, Photographs by Michael D. Gunther, 2002". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  " Badami
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Temples, Photographs by Michael D. Gunther, 2002". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Chalukyas
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of Kalyana (973–1198 CE) by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat "Coins of Alupas". Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved

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