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Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, or simply Chaldean, is a Northeastern Neo-Aramaic language[3] spoken throughout a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the Nineveh plains, in northern Iraq, together with parts of southeastern Turkey. Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
is closely related to Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, where it is at times considered a dialect of that language. Most Assyrian Christians in Iraq, Iran
Iran
and the Khabour River Valley in Syria
Syria
speak either the Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
or Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
variety, two varieties of Christian Neo-Aramaic or Sureth. Despite the two terms seeming to indicate a separate religious or even ethnic identity, both languages and their native speakers originate from and are indigenous to the same Upper Mesopotamian region (what was Assyria
Assyria
between the 9th century BC and 7th century BC).[4][5][6]

Contents

1 History 2 Dialects 3 Phonology

3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels

4 Script 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 See also 9 External links

History[edit] Imperial Aramaic
Imperial Aramaic
was adopted as the second language of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
by Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
in the 8th century BCE in account of the mostly Aramaic population in areas conquered west of the Euphrates. On the Western periphery of Assyria
Assyria
there had been widespread Aramean-Akkadian bilingualism at least since the mid-9th century BCE. Aramaic would supplant Akkadian throughout the entire empire.[7] Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
is one of a number of modern Northeastern Aramaic languages spoken by Syriac Christians
Syriac Christians
native to the northern region of Iraq
Iraq
from Kirkuk
Kirkuk
through the Nineveh plains, Irbil
Irbil
and Mosul
Mosul
to Dohuk, Urmia
Urmia
in northwestern Iran, northeastern Syria
Syria
(particularly the Al Hasakah region) and in southeast Turkey, particularly Hakkari, Bohtan, Harran, Tur Abdin, Mardin
Mardin
and Diyarbakir. The Assyrian Christian[disambiguation needed] dialects have been heavily influenced by Classical Syriac, the literary language of the Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church
Chaldean Catholic Church
in antiquity. Therefore, Christian Neo-Aramaic has a dual heritage: literary Syriac and colloquial Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Eastern Aramaic. The closely related dialects are often collectively called Soureth, or Syriac in Iraqi Arabic. Jews, Mandeans
Mandeans
and Syriac- Aramean
Aramean
Christians speak different dialects of Aramaic that are often mutually unintelligible. Dialects[edit]

Sample of the standard Chaldean dialect. The frequent usage of /ħ/ and /ʕ/ makes it similar sounding to the Western Aramaic languages (voice by Bishop Amel Shamon Nona).

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
originate in the Nineveh Plains and Upper Mesopotamia, a region which was an integral part of ancient Assyria
Assyria
between the 9th century BC and 7th century BC. Chaldean (Assyrian) Neo-Aramaic bears a resemblance to the Assyrian tribal dialects of Tyari
Tyari
and Barwar in the Hakkari
Hakkari
Province, although the Assyrian dialects do not use the pharyngeals /ħ/ and /ʕ/. Loanwords of Arabic, Persian and Kurdish origin exist in the language, as with Assyrian. Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit]

Table of Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
consonant phonemes

Labial Dental/ Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal

plain emphatic

Nasal

m

n

Plosive

b

k ɡ q

ʔ

Fricative sibilant

s z sˤ

ʃ

non-sibilant f

θ ð

x ɣ

ħ ʕ h

Approximant

w

l

j

Rhotic

r

The Chaldean dialects are generally characterised by the presence of the fricatives /θ/ (th) and /ð/ (dh) which correspond to /t/ and /d/, respectively, in other Assyrian dialects (excluding the Tyari dialect). However, the standard or educational form of Chaldean would realize the consonants /θ/ and /ð/ as /tˤ/. Most Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
varieties would use the phoneme of /f/, which corresponds to /p/ in most of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
dialects (excluding the Tyari
Tyari
dialect). In some Chaldean dialects /r/ is realized as [ɹ]. In others, it is either a tap [ɾ] or a trill [r]. Unlike in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, the guttural sounds of [ʕ] and [ħ] are used predominantly in Chaldean varieties; this is a feature also seen in other Northeastern Neo-Aramaic languages.[8]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back

Close i

Mid ɛ ə ɔ

Open

a ɑ

Script[edit] Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
is written in the Madenhaya version of the Syriac alphabet, which is also used for classical Syriac. The School of Alqosh produced religious poetry in the colloquial Neo-Aramaic rather than classical Syriac in the 17th century prior to the founding of the Chaldean Catholic Church
Chaldean Catholic Church
and the naming of the dialect as Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, and the Dominican Press in Mosul
Mosul
has produced a number of books in the language. Alternatively, the Syriac Latin alphabet
Syriac Latin alphabet
may also be used to transliterate the Syriac script into Latin. See also[edit]

Aramaic language Eastern Aramaic languages Syriac language Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Chaldean Catholic Church Syriac Orthodox Church Syriac Christianity Syriac alphabet Terms for Syriac Christians Name of Syria List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Chaldea Babylonia

Notes[edit]

^ Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chaldean Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Maclean, Arthur John (1895). Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews
Jews
of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Cambridge University Press, London. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. ^ Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List ^ Khan 2008, pp. 6 ^ [1] ^ *Beyer, Klaus (1986). The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-53573-2.

References[edit]

Heinrichs, Wolfhart (ed.) (1990). Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. ISBN 1-55540-430-8. Maclean, Arthur John (1895). Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews
Jews
of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Cambridge University Press, London.

See also[edit]

Dani Khalil - a Chaldean homicide detective in Low Winter Sun

External links[edit]

Eastern Syriac script for Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
at Omniglot Semitisches Tonarchiv: Dokumentgruppe "Aramäisch/Neuostaramäisch (christl.)" (text in German).

v t e

Modern Aramaic languages

Christian

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Bohtan
Bohtan
Neo-Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Hértevin Koy Sanjaq Surat Mlahsô Senaya Turoyo

Jewish

Lishanid Noshan Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic Hulaulá Lishana Deni Lishán Didán Betanure Jewish Neo-Aramaic

Mandaean

Neo-Mandaic

Other

W

.